prafull chandr rai

Kolkata ke bidla audyogik evam praudyogikeeya sangrahaalaya mein prafullachandr rai ki pratima

daaktar prafullachandr rai Bhaarat ke mahaan rasaayanajnya, udyami tatha mahaan shikshak the. aachaarya rai keval aadhunik rasaayan shaastr ke pratham bhaarateeya pravakta (professor) hi naheen the balki unhonne hi is desh mein rasaayan udyog ki neenv bhi daali thi. 'saada jeevan uchch vichaar' vaale unke bahuaayaami vyaktitv se prabhaavit hokar mahaatma Gandhi ne kaha tha, "shuddh bhaarateeya paridhaan mein aaveshtit is saral vyakti ko dekhkar vishvaas hi naheen hota ki vah ek mahaan vaigyaanik ho sakta hai." aachaarya rai ki pratibha itni vilkshan thi ki unki aatmakatha "life end eksapeeriyeinses of bangaali kemist" (ek bangaali rasaayanajnya ka jeevan evam anubhav) ke prakaashit hone par atipratishthit antararaashtreeya vigyaan patrika "nechar" ne unhein shraddhaasuman arpit karte hue likha tha ki "lipibddh karne ke liye sambhavat: prafull chandra rai se adhik vishisht jeevan charitra kisi aur ka ho hi naheen sakta."

aachaarya prafull chandra rai Bhaarat mein keval rasaayan shaastr hi naheen, aadhunik vigyaan ke bhi prastota the. ve bhaaratavaasiyon ke liye sadaiv vandaneeya raheinge.

anukram

jeevan parichay

daaktar prafullachandr rai ka janm Bengal ke khulana jile ke rarooli katipra naamak gram mein 2 August 1861 E. ko hua tha. inke pita, shreeharishchandr rai, madhyavrutti ke sampann gruhasth tatha faarasi ke vidvaan the. angreji shiksha ki or inka aakarshan tha, isaliye inhonne apne gaaainv mein ek "model" school sthaapit kiya tha, jismein prafullachandr ne praathamik shiksha pai. taduparaant inka parivaar Calcutta chala aaya, jahaaain ye us samay ke suprasiddh heyar school mein pratham, tatha baad mein ailbart school mein bharati hue. san 1879 mein entreins pareeksha paas karke inhonne kaalej ki padhaai metraupaalitn instityoot mein aarambh ki, par vigyaan ke vishyon ka adhyayan karne ke liye inhein presideinsi kaalej jaana padta tha. yahaaain inhonne bhautiki aur rasaayan ke suprasiddh vidvaan sar John iliyt aur sar ailekjaindar pedalar se shiksha pai, jinke sampark se inke vijnyaaanaprem mein vruddhi hui.

san 1882 mein gilkraaist chhaatravrutti pratiyogita ki pareeksha mein safal hone ke kaaran videsh jaakar padhne ki aapki ichha poori hui. isi varsh aap edinbara vishvavidyaalaya mein daakhil hue, jahaaain apne chhah varsh tak adhyayan kiya. inke sahapaathiyon mein rasaayan ke suprasiddh vidvaan professor James vaakar ef. aar. S., ailekjaindar smith tatha haf maarshal aadi the, jinke sampark se rasaayanashaastr ki or aapka vishesh jhukaav hua. is vishvavidyaalaya ki kemikl society ke ye upasabhaapati bhi chune gaye. san 1887 mein aap di. S.si. ki pareeksha mein sammaanapoorvak utteern hue. tatpashchaat aapne Indian edukeshanal service mein sthaan paane ki cheshta ki, par angrejon ki tatkaaleen rangabhed ki neeti ke kaaran inhein safalta na mili. Bhaarat vaapas aane ke pashchaat praanteeya shiksha vibhaag mein bhi naukri paane ke liye inhein ek varsh tak prateeksha karni padi. antat: presideinsi kaalej mein aap asisteint praafesar ke saamaanya pad par niyukt kiye gaye, jabki inse kam yogyata ke angrej ooainche padon aur kaheen adhik vetanon par usi kaalej mein niyukt the. aapne jab is anyaaya ka shiksha vibhaag ke tatkaaleen angrej-director se virodh kiya, to usane vyang kiya ki "yadi aap itne yogya kaimist hain to koi vyavasaaya kyon naheen chalaate?" in teekhe shabdon ka hi prabhaav tha ki rai mahodaya ne aage chalakar san 1892 mein 800 roopae ki alp pooainji se, apne rahane ke kamre mein hi, vilaayati dhang ki oshadhiyaaain taiyaar karne ke liye Bengal kaimikl aind faarmaasyutikl vakrs ka kaarya aarambh kiya, jo pragati kar aaj karodon roopayon ke moolya ka kaarkhaana ho gaya hai aur jisse desh mein is prakaar ke anya udyogon ka sootrapaat hua hai.

durbal aur ksheenakaaya hote hue bhi, sanyamit tatha karmanya jeevan ke kaaran, aapne 83 varsh ki deergh aayu pai. 19 June 1944, ko aapki mrutyu hui.

baalyakaal se medhaavi

"honahaar birvaan ke hot cheekane paat", yeh kahaavat aachaarya rai par poori tarah khari utarati hai. baarah varsh ki aayu mein, jab bachche pariyon ki kahaani ka aanand lete hain, unhein gaileeliyo aur sar aaijak nyootan jaise vaigyaaniko ki jeevaniyaan padhne ka shauk tha. vigyaan se isi lagaav ke kaaran ef.A. ke paathyakram mein bhi unka poora dhyaan rayaasan shaastr ke adhyayan par hi rahata tha, jiske gahan adhyayan ke liye ve preseedeinsi kaalej mein bhi rasaayan ke vyaakhyaan sunane ke liye jaate rahate the. apni mehnat aur adhyavasaaya ke bal par unhonne ef.A. ke saath hi inglaind ke edinbara vishvavidyaalaya ki "gilkrast skaalaraship" pareeksha bhi paas ki aur 1882 mein ve bi.S.si. ke chhaatr bankar edinbara gaye. ullekhaneeya hai ki unke saath keval ek anya bhaarateeya hi ismein safal ho saka tha. yeh ek sukhad sanyog hi tha ki inglaind pahunchane par unka svaagat bhavishya ke mahaan vaigyaanik jagadeesh chandra Basu ne kiya aur edinbara vishvavidyaalaya mein pravesh lene se pehle kuchh samay tak aachaarya unke mehmaan rahe.

shikshak dharm ka poorn anupaalan

isi vishvavidyaalaya mein rasaayan shaastr ka adhyayan karte hue unhonne 1887 mein daaktar of science ki upaadhi praapt ki. iske baad bhi "hope prize skaalaraship" paakar ve vaheen par ek varsh tak shodh karte rahe. 1888 mein jab ve Bhaarat laute to yahaan rasaayan ka uchch adhyayan praarambh ho raha tha. ek varsh ke antaraal ke baad unki niyukti preseedeinsi kaalej ke rasaayan vibhaag mein sahaayak pravakta (asisteint professor) ke pad par ho gayi. yahaan ve nirntar shodh karte rahe aur pravakta (professor) evam vibhaagaadhyaksh banane ke baad 1916 mein sevaanivrutt hue. iske uparaant bhi unhonne rasaayan ka kshetr chhoda naheen aur Kolkata vishvavidyaalaya ke science kaalej mein professor ke pad par kaarya karte rahe. ve pehle bhaarateeya the jinhein kisi vishvavidyaalaya mein "professor" banane ka sammaan praapt hua tha. yahaan ve 1936 tak sakriya rahe aur baad mein bhi 1944 mein antim saans lene tak "emerits professor" ka pad sushobhit karte rahe.

rasaayan ke liye samarpit jeevan

aachaarya rai ek samarpit karmayogi the. unke man mein vivaah ka vichaar bhi naheen aaya aur samast jeevan unhonne preseedeinsi kaalej ke ek naamamaatr ke furniture vaale kamre mein kaat diya. preseedeinsi kaalej mein kaarya karte hue unhein tatkaaleen mahaan fraanseesi rasaayanajnya barthelo ki pustak "the greek elkemi" padhne ko mili. turant unhonne barthelo ko patra likha ki Bhaarat mein bhi ati praacheenakaal se rasaayan ki parampara rahi hai. barthelaat ke aagrah par aachaarya ne mukhyat: naagaarjun ki pustak "rasendr saar sangrah" par aadhaarit praacheen hindu rasaayan ke vishay mein ek lamba parichyaatmak lekh likhkar unhein bheja. barthelaat ne iski ek atyant vidvattaapoorn sameeksha "journal de saavant" mein prakaashit ki, jismein aachaarya rai ke kaarya ki bhoori-bhoori prashansa ki gayi thi. isse utsaahit hokar aachaarya ne antat: apni prasiddh pustak "history of hindu kemistri" ka pranayan kiya jo vishvavikhyaat hui aur jinke maadhyam se praacheen Bhaarat ke vishaal rasaayan gyaan se samast sansaar pehli baar parichit hokar chamatkrut hua. swayam barthelaat ne is par sameeksha likhi jo "journal de saavant" ke 15 prushthon mein prakaashit hui.

1912 mein inglaind ke apne doosare pravaas ke dauraan daraham vishvavidyaalaya ke kulapati ne unhein apne vishvavidyaalaya ki maanad di.S.si. upaadhi pradaan ki. rasaayan ke kshetr mein aachaarya ne 120 shodh-patra prakaashit kiye. marakyooras naaitret evam amoniym naaitraait naamak yaugikon ke pratham virchan se unhein antararaashtreeya khyaati praapt hui.

anusandhaan

daaktar rai ne apna anusandhaan kaarya paarad ke yaugikon se praarambh kiya tatha paarad naaitraait naamak yaugik, sansaar mein sarvapratham san 1896 mein, aapne hi taiyaar kiya, jisse aapki antararaashtreeya prasiddhi praarambh hui. baad mein aapne is yaugik ki sahaayata se 80 nae yaugik taiyaar kiye aur kai mahatvapoorn evam jatil samasyaaon ko sulajhaaya. aapne aimoniym, jink, kaidamiym, kailsiym, straanshiym, vairiym, maigneeshiym ityaadi ke naaitraaiton ke sambandh mein bhi mahatvapoorn gaveshanaaeain keen tatha aimaain naaitraaiton ko vishuddh roop mein taiyaar kar, unke bhautik aur raasaayanik gunon ka poora vivran diya. aapne orgenometaalik (organo-metallic) yaugikon ka bhi vishesh roop se adhyayan kar kai upayogi tathyon ka pata lagaaya tatha paarad, gandhak aur aayodeen ka ek naveen yaugik, (I2Hg2S2), taiyaar kiya tatha dikhaaya ki prakaash mein rakhane par iske kristalon ka varn badal jaata hai aur aaindhere mein rakhane par pun: mool rang vaapas aa jaata hai. san 1904 mein Bengal sarkaar ne aapko Europe ki vibhinn rasaayanashaalaaon ke nireekshan ke liye bheja. is avsar par videsh ke viddhaanon tatha vaigyaanik sansthaaon ne sammaanapoorvak aapka svaagat kiya.

anya kaarya

vigyaan ke kshetr mein jo sabse bada kaarya daaktar rai ne kiya, vah rasaayan ke saikadon utkrusht vidvaan taiyaar karna tha, jinhonne apne anusandhaanon se khyaati praapt ki tatha desh ko laabh pahuainchaaya. sachche bhaarateeya aachaarya ki bhaaainti dau॰ rai apne shishyon ko putravat samajhte the. ve jeevan bhar avivaahit rahe aur apni aay ka atyalp bhaag apne oopar kharch karne ke pashchaat shesh apne shishyon tatha anya upayukt manushyon mein baaaint dete the. aachaarya rai ki rahan sahan, veshabhoosha ityaadi atyant saadi thi aur unka samast jeevan tyaag tatha desh aur janaseva se poorn tha.

san 1920 mein aap Indian saayans Congress ke sabhaapati nirvaachit kiye gaye the. san 1924 mein aapne Indian kemikl society ki sthaapana ki tatha dhan se bhi usaki sahaayata ki. san 1911 mein hi angrej sarkaar ne aapko si. I. E. ki upaadhi di thi tatha kuchh varsh baad "night" banaakar "sar" ka khitaab diya. is tarah videshi sarkaar ne apni poorv upeksha ka praayashchit kiya. anek deshi tatha videshi vishvavidyaalayon tatha vaigyaanik sansthaaon ne upaadhiyon tatha anya sammaanon se aapko alankrut kiya tha.

deshbhakti sarvopari

aachaarya prafull chandra rai ek janmajaat deshbhakt the. unki aatmakatha mein iske pramaan sthaan-sthaan par prakat hue hain. edinbara mein aadhunik rasaayan shaastr ki shiksha grahan karte samay ve baraabar is baat ki chinta karte rahate the ki vigyaan ke kshetr mein Bhaarat yogadaan kyon naheen kar raha hai. yahaan 1885 mein unhonne ek nibandh pratiyogita mein bhaag liya jiska vishay tha- "Bhaarat-gadar ke pehle aur baad". unhonne apne lekh mein angreji raaj ki katu aalochna ki. pratiyogita ke pashchaat unhonne yeh lekh Bhaarat ke mitr samajhe jaane vaale british saansad John braait ko bhej diya. braait ne lekh ki bahut prashansa ki. baad mein aachaarya ne ise ek laghu pustika ke roop mein prakaashit karva diya. preseedeinsi kaalej mein vidyaarthiyon ko rasaayan ki kaksha mein vyaakhyaan dete samay bhi aachaarya prafull chandr rai yeh kehna naheen bhoolate the ki "science kain vet vat Swaraj kain naat" arthaat‌ vigyaan prateeksha kar sakta hai parantu Swaraj naheen. 1892 mein unhonne is desh ki pratham raasaayanik udyog company "Bengal chemicals end faarmaasyutikls varks" ki sthaapana ki jo aaj bhi Bengal chemicals ke naam se kaaryarat hai. unhein bhaarateeya samaaj se bhi atyadhik prem tha. 1922 ke Bengal ke bheeshan akaal mein aachaarya rai apne sabhi kaaryon ko chhodkar peediton ki sahaayata ke liye nikal pade. vyaktigat prayaason se unhonne teen lakh Ru. ki sahaayata raashi ekatrit ki. unke aahvaan par bangaali lalanaaon ne mahange reshami vastr aur aabhooshan aadi sabhi kuchh unki jholi mein daal diye. unke athak prayaason ko dekhkar kisi ne sach hi kaha tha ki yadi mahaatma Gandhi do prafull chandra aur utpann kar sakte to Bhaarat ko Swaraj sheegra hi mil jaata.

maatrubhaasha se prem

aachaarya rai ko maatrubhaasha se bhi atyadhik pyaar tha. ve vigyaan sahit sabhi vishyon ke adhyaapan ke liye maadhyam ke roop mein maatrubhaasha ka hi samarthan karte the. ve jeevan paryant bangala bhaasha aur saahitya ke unnayan ke liye kaarya karte rahe. unke lekh niyamit roop se basumati aur bangabaani mein chhapate rahate the. is bangala prem ke kaaran janta ne unhein 1931-34 ke liye vangeeya saahitya parishd ke adhyaksh pad par aaseen kiya. vigyaan ke chhaatron ke liye unhonne do puraskaar bhi praarambh kiye-rasaayan shaastr mein naagaarjun puraskaar tatha vanaspati evam jantu shaastr mein aasutosh mukharji puraskaar.

itihaas se prem

dau॰ rai ko rasaayan ke sivaaya itihaas se bada prem tha. falasvaroop, inhonne 10-12 varsho tak gahra adhyayan kar hindu rasaayan ka itihaas naamak mahatvapoorn granth likha, jisse aapki badi prasiddhi hui. is pustak dvaara praacheen Bhaarat ke agyaat, vishisht rasaayan vigyaan ka bodh desh aur videsh ke vaigyaaniko ko hua, jinhonne dau॰ rai ki bahut prashansa ki. Europe ki kai bhaashaaon mein is pustak ke anuvaad prakaashit hue hain tatha isi pustak ke upalakshya mein daraham vishvavidyaalaya ne aapko di. S-si. ki sammaanit upaadhi pradaan ki.

granthaavali

  • India Before and After the Sepoy Mutiny (sipaahi bidroh ke pehle evam baad ka Bhaarat)
  • saral praaneebijnyaaan, baaङagaali mastishk O taar apabyabahaar
  • hindu rasaayani bidya
  • mot gabeshanaapatrer sankhya 145

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