pradooshan

kaarkhaanon dvaara dhueain ka utsarjan

pradooshan, paryaavaran mein dooshak padaarthon ke pravesh ke kaaran praakrutik santulan mein paida hone vaale dosh ko kehte hain. pradooshak paryaavaran ko aur jeev-jantuon ko nuksaan pahunchaate hain. pradooshan ka arth hai - 'hava, paani, mitti aadi ka avaanchhit dravyon se dooshit hona', jiska sajeevon par pratyaksh roop se vipreet prabhaav padta hai tatha paaristhitik tantr ko nuksaan dvaara anya apratyaksh prabhaav padte hain. vartamaan samay mein paryaavaraneeya avanayan ka yeh ek pramukh kaaran hai.

  • pruthvi ka vaataavaran stareeya hai. pruthvi ke najadeek lagbhag 50 km ooainchaai par stretosfeeyar hai jismein ojon star hota hai. yeh star sooryaprakaash ki paarabaingani (UV) kirnon ko shoshit kar use pruthvi tak pahuchane se rokata hai. aaj ojon star ka teji se vightan ho raha hai, vaataavaran mein sthit klorofloro kaarban (CFC) gas ke kaaran ojon star ka vightan ho raha hai.

yeh sarvapratham 1980 ke varsh mein not kiya gaya ki ojon star ka vightan sampoorn pruthvi ke chaaron or ho raha hai. dakshin dhruv vistaaron mein ojon star ka vightan 40%-50% hua hai. is vishaal ghatna ko ojon chhidr (ojon hol) kahatein hai. maanav aavaas vaale vistaaron mein bhi ojon chhidron ke failane ki sambhaavana ho sakti hai. parantu yeh is baat par aadhaar rakhata hai ki gaison ki jalavaayukeeya paristhiti aur vaataavaran mein tairati ashudhdiyon ke astitv par hai.
ojon star ke ghatne ke kaaran dhruveeya pradeshon par jama barf pighlane lagi hai tatha maanav ko anek prakaar ke charm rogon ka saamana karna pad raha hai. ye refrijretar aur eyarakandishnar mein se upayog mein hone vaale friyon aur klorofloro kaarban (CFC) gas ke kaaran utpann ho rahi samasya hai. aaj hamaara vaataavaran dooshit ho gaya hai. vaahanon tatha faiktreeyon se nikalne vaale gaison ke kaaran hava (vaayu) pradooshit hoti hai | meelon se nikalne vaale kachare ko nadiyon mein chhoda jaata hai, jisse jal pradooshan hota hai | longon dvaara kachara feinke jaane se bhoomi (jameen) pradooshan hota hai.

anukram

pradooshan ke prakaar

pradooshan ke kuchh mukhya prakaar nimnavat hain:

  • vaayu pradooshan:-vaataavaran mein rasaayan tatha anya sukshm kanon ke mishran ko vaayu pradushan kehte hain. saamaanyat: vaayu pradooshan kaarban monoaaksaaid, salfar daaiaaksaaid, kloroflorokaarban (seeefasi) aur udyog aur motor vaahanon se nikalne vaale naaitrojan aaksaaid jaise pradooshako se hota hai. dhuaaainsa vaayu pradushan ka parinaam hai. dhool aur mitti ke sookshm kan saans ke saath fefadon mein pahunchakar kai beemaariyaaain paida kar sakte hain.
  • jal pradooshan:- jal mein anupachaarit ghareloo seevej ke nirvahan aur kloreen jaise raasaayanik pradooshakon ke milne se jal pradooshan failata hai. jal pradooshan paudhon aur paani mein rahane vaale jeevon ke liye haanikaarak hota hai.
  • bhoomi pradooshan:- thos kachare ke failane aur raasaayanik padaarthon ke risaav ke kaaran bhoomi mein pradooshan failata hai.
  • prakaash pradooshan:- yeh atyadhik krutrim prakaash ke kaaran hota hai.
  • dhvani pradooshan:- atyadhik shor jisse hamaari dincharya baadhit ho aur sunane mein apriya lage, dhvani pradooshan kahalaata hai.
  • rediyodharmi pradooshan:- parmaanu urja utpaadan aur parmaanu hathiyaaron ke anusandhaan, nirmaan aur tainaati ke dauraan utpann hota hai.

vaayu pradooshan

vaayu pradooshan arthaat hava mein aise avaanchhit gaison, dhool ke kanon aadi ki upasthiti, jo logon tatha prakruti donon ke liye khatre ka kaaran ban jaae. doosare shabdon mein kahein to pradooshan arthaat dooshit hona ya ganda hona. vaayu ka avaanchhit roop se ganda hona arthaat vaayu pradooshan

vaayu pradooshan ke kaaran

vaayu pradooshan ke kuchh saamaanya kaaran hain:

  • vaahanon se nikalne wala dhuaaain.
  • audyogik ikaaiyon se nikalne wala dhuainaa tatha rasaayan.
  • aanavik sanyatron se nikalne waali gaisein tatha dhool-kan.
  • jangalon mein ped paudhein ke jalne se, koyale ke jalne se tatha tel shodhan kaarkhaanon aadi se nikalne wala dhooaaain.

vaayu pradooshan ka prabhaav

vaayu pradooshan hamaare vaataavaran tatha hamaare oopar anek prabhaav daalata hai. unamein se kuchh nimnalikhit hai :

  • hava mein avaanchhit gaison ki upasthiti se manushya, pashuon tatha pankshiyon ko gambhir samasyaaon ka saamana karna padta hai. isse dama, sardi-khaaainsi, aaindhaapan, shravan shakti ka kamjor hona, tvacha rog jaisi beemaariyaaain paida hoti hain. lambe samay ke baad isse jananik vikrutiyaaain utpann ho jaati hain aur apni charamaseema par yeh ghaatak bhi ho sakti hai.
  • vaayu pradooshan se sardiyon mein kohara chhaaya rahata hai, jiska kaaran dhooeain tatha mitti ke kanon ka kohare mein mila hona hai. isse praakrutik drushyata mein kami aati hai tatha aaainkhon mein jalan hoti hai aur saaains lene mein kathinaai hoti hai.
  • ojon parat, hamaari pruthvi ke chaaron or ek surakshaatmak gas ki parat hai. jo hamein soorya se aanevaali haanikaarak altraavaayalet kirnon se bachaati hai. vaayu pradooshan ke kaaran jeen aparivrtan, anuvaashankeeya tatha tvacha Cancer ke khatre badh jaate hain.
  • vaayu pradushan ke kaaran pruthvi ka taapamaan badhta hai, kyonki soorya se aane waali garmi ke kaaran paryaavaran mein kaarban daai aaksaaid, methane tatha naaitras aaksaaid ka prabhaav kam naheen hota hai, jo ki haanikaarak hain.
  • vaayu pradooshan se amleeya varsha ke khatre badhe hain, kyonki baarish ke paani mein salfar daai aaksaaid, naaitrojan aaksaaid aadi jaisi jahareeli gaison ke ghulane ki sambhaavana badhi hai. isse fasalon, pedon, bhavanon tatha aitihaasik imaaraton ko nuksaan pahuainch sakta hai.
  • dhvani ki adhikta ke kaaran bhi pradooshan hota hai, jise ham dhvani pradooshan ke roop mein jaante hain. dhvani pradooshan ka saadhaaran arth hai avaanchhit dhvani jisse ham chidchidaapan mahasoos karte hain. iska kaaran hai- rel engine, havaai jahaaj, generator, telephone, television, vaahan, laaudaspeekar aadi aadhunik masheenein. lambe samay tak dhvani pradooshan ke prabhaav se shravan shakti ka kamjor hona, sirdard, chidchidaapan, uchcharaktachaap athva snaayavik, manovaigyaanik dosh utpann hone lagte hain. lambe samay tak dhvani pradooshan ke prabhaav se svaabhaavik pareshaaniyaaain badh jaati hai.

jal pradooshan

jal pradooshan ka arth hai paani mein avaanchhit tatha ghaatak tatvon ki upathiti se paani ka dooshit ho jaana, jisse ki vah peene yogya naheen rahata.

jal pradooshan ke kaaran

jal pradooshan ke vibhinn kaaran nimnalikhit hai:

  • maanav mal ka nadiyon, naharon aadi mein visrjan.
  • safaai tatha seevar ka uchit prabandhn na hona.
  • vibhinn audyogik ikaaiyon dvaara apne kachare tatha gande paani ka nadiyon, naharon mein visrjan.
  • krushi kaaryon mein upayog hone vaale jahareele rasaayanon tatha khaadon ka paani mein ghulana.
  • nadiyon mein koode-kachare, maanav-shavon aur paaramparik prathaaon ka paalan karte hue upayog mein aane vaale pratyek ghareloo saamagri ka sameep ke jal srot mein visrjan.

jal pradooshan ke prabhaav

jal pradooshan ke nimnalikhit prabhaav hai:

  • isse manushya, pashu tatha pakshiyon ke svaasthya ko khatra utpann hota hai. isse taaifaaid, peeliya, haija, gaistrik aadi beemaariyaan paida hoti hain.
  • isse vibhinn jeev tatha vaanaspatik prajaatiyon ko nuksaan pahuainchata hai.
  • isse peene ke paani ki kami badhti hai, kyonki nadiyon, naharon yahaaain tak ki jameen ke bheetar ka paani bhi pradooshit ho jaata hai.

bhoomi pradooshan

bhoomi pradooshan se abhipraaya jameen par jahareele, avaanchhit aur anupayogi padaarthon ke bhoomi mein visrjit karne se hai, kyonki isse bhoomi ka nimneekaran hota hai tatha mitti ki gunavatta prabhaavit hoti hai. logon ki bhoomi ke prati badhti laaparavaahi ke kaaran bhoomi pradooshan teji se badh raha hai.

bhoomi pradooshan ke kaaran

bhoomi pradooshan ke mukhya kaaran hain :

  • krushi mein urvarakon, rasaayanon tatha keetanaashakon ka adhik prayog.
  • audyogik ikaaiyon, khaanon tatha khaadaanon dvaara nikle thos kachare ka visrjan.
  • bhavanon, sadkon aadi ke nirmaan mein thos kachare ka visrjan.
  • kaagaj tatha cheeni milon se nikalne vaale padaarthon ka niptaan, jo mitti dvaara avashoshit naheen ho paate.
  • plastic ki thailiyon ka adhik upayog, jo jameen mein dabakar naheen galati.
  • gharon, hotelon aur audyogik ikaaiyon dvaara nikalne vaale avashisht padaarthon ka niptaan, jismein plastic, kapde, lakdi, dhaatu, kaaainch, seraamik, cement aadi sammilit hain.

bhoomi pradooshan ka prabhaav

bhoomi pradooshan ke nimnalikhit haanikaarak prabhaav hai:

  • krushi yogya bhoomi ki kami
  • bhojya padaarthon ke sroton ko dooshit karne ke kaaran svaasthya ke liye haanikaarak
  • bhooskhalan se hone waali haaniyaaain
  • jal tatha vaayu pradooshan mein vruddhi

paryaavaran pradooshan mein vyavasaaya ki bhoomika

chaahe vaayu pradooshan ho, dhvani pradooshan ho, jal pradooshan ho ya bhoomi pradooshan, sabamein vyavasaaya ki bhaageedaari hoti hai. vyavasaaya nimnalikhit tareekon se paryaavaran pradooshan badhaata hai :

  • utpaadan ikaaiyon se nikalne waali gaison aur dhuen se,
  • masheenon, vaahanon aadi ke upayog se dhvani pradooshan ke roop mein,
  • audyogik ikaaiyon ko sthaapit karne ke liye vanon ki kataai se,
  • audyogikeekaran tatha shahareekaran ke vikaas se,
  • nadiyon tatha naharon mein kachare tatha haanikaarak padaarthon ke visrjan se,
  • thos kachare ko khuli hava mein feinkane se,
  • khanan tatha khadaan sambandhi gatividhiyon se,
  • parivhan ke badhte hue upayog se.

paryaavaran ko niyantrit karne mein vyavasaaya ki teen prakaar ki bhoomika ho sakti hai: nivaaranaatmak, upachaaraatmak tatha jaagrukta.

nivaaranaatmak bhoomika

iska arth hai ki vyaavasaayik ikaaiyaaain aisa koi bhi kadam na uthaae, jisse paryaavaran ko aur adhik haani ho. iske liye aavashyak hai ki vyavasaaya sarkaar dvaara laagoo kiye gaye pradooshan niyantran sambandhi sabhi niyamon ka paalan kare. manushyon dvaara kiye ja rahe paryaavaran pradooshan ke niyantran ke liye vyaavasaayik ikaaiyon ko aage aana chaahiye.

upachaaraatmak bhoomika

iska arth hai ki vyaavasaayik ikaaiyaaain paryaavaran ko pahuainchi haani ko sanshodhti karne ya sudharane mein sahaayata karein. saath hi yadi pradooshan ko niyantrit karna sambhav na ho to uske nivaaran ke liye upachaaraatmak kadam utha lene chaahiye. udaaharan ke liye vrukshaaropan ; vanaropan kaaryakramaddh se audyogik ikaaiyon ke aaspaas ke vaataavaran mein vaayu pradooshan ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. vyavasaaya ki prakruti tatha kshetr

jaagrukta sambandhi bhoomika

iska arth hai logon ko (karmachaariyon tatha janta donon ko) paryaavaran pradooshan ke kaaran tatha parinaamon ke sambandh mein jaagruk banaaeain, taaki ve paryaavaran ko nuksaan pahuainchaane ki bajaay aichhik roop se paryaavaran ki raksha kar sakein. udaaharan ke liye vyavasaaya jaagrukta kaaryakramon ka aayojan kare. aajkal kuchh vyaavasaayik ikaaiyaan shaharon mein paarkon ke vikaas tatha rakharakhaav ki jimmedaariyaaain utha rahi hain, jisse pata chalta hai ki ve paryaavaran ke prati jaagruk hain.

sandarbh


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