prachaalan tantr

prachaalan tantr (angreji:operating system) saaftaveyar ka samooh hai jo ki aankadon evam nirdesh ke sancharan ko niyantrit karta hai. yeh haardaveyar evam saaftaveyar ke beech setu ka kaarya karta hai aur computer ka software ghatak hota hai. isi ki sahaayata se hi computer mein sthaapit program chalte hain. operating system computer ka merudand hota hai, jo iske software va haardaveyar ko niyantran mein rakhata hai. yeh anadhikrut vyakti ko computer ke galat prayog karne se rokata hai.[1] vah ismein bhi vibhed kar sakta hain ki kaun sa nivedan poora karna hai aur kaun sa naheen, iske saath hi inki vareeyata bhi dhyaan rakhi jaati hai. iski madad se ek se jyaada seepeeyoo mein bhi progaam chalaae ja sakte hain. iske alaava sanganak sanchika ko pun: naam dena, daayarektari ki vishay soochi badalna, daayarektari badalna aadi kaarya bhi prachaalan tantr ke dvaara kiye jaate hai.[2] daus (DOS), yooniks, vindoj operating system (3.1, 95, 98, 2000, ex pi, vista, vindoj 7) aur links aadi kuchh pramukh prachaalan tantr hain.[2]

vibhinn prachaalan tantron mein se kuchh hain:links, maik oes ex, daus, aaibeeem oes/2 (IBM OS/2), yooniks, vindoj seei, vindoj 3.x, vindoj 95, vindoj 98, vindoj mileniym, vindoj enati, vindoj 2000, vindoj ex pi, vindoj vista, vindoj 7.

ubantu

prachaalan tantr computer se jude kai maulik kaaryon ko sanbhaalata hai, jaise ki-board se input lena, disple screen ko aautaput bhejana, daairektari aur sanganak sanchika ko disk mein trek karna, ityaadi. bade computeron mein iska kaam aur adhik hota hai.[1] vah inmein lagaataar yeh jaanch karta hai ki ek hi samay par computer mein chalne vaale progaamon, faailon aur ek hi samay par khulne waali saaiton mein doharaav na ho. aaranbhik daur mein yeh menafrem computeron par bade kaamon ke liye hi hua karta tha. baad mein dheere-dheere maaikrokampyootars mein bhi milne laga, lekin us samay ismein ek samay par keval ek hi progaam run kara sakte the. menafrem computer mein 1960 mein pehli baar bahukaaryik (malteetaasking) system aaya tha. isse ek samay mein ek se jyaada upayokta kaam kar sakte the. 1970 links ne pehli baar peedeepi-7 mein prachaalan tantr nikaala, jo mukhyataya malteetaasking, smruti prabandhan (memori management), smruti sanrakshan (memori protection) jaise kaarya karta tha.

anukram

visheshataaeain

  • smruti prabandhan (memori management)
  • bahu kaaryakalaapan (malti prograaming)
  • malti processing
  • malti taasking
  • malti threding
  • real time

prakaar

upayogakarta ke aadhaar par prakaar

  • ekal upayogakarta: is mein samay me keval ek upayogakarta kaam kar sakta hai.
  • bahul upayogakarta: is mein ek se adhik upayogakarta ek hi samay me kaam kar sakte kar sakte hai.
  • vaastavik samay prachaalan tantr

vaastavik samay prachaalan tantr ek bahukaryik prachaalan tantr hai jo vaastavik samay anuprayogo ko kriynvit karta hai. vaastavik samay operating system aksar vishesh samayabaddhan elgoridm ka upayog karta hai ki ve vyavahaar ke ek niytaatmak prakruti ko praapt kar sake. vaastavik samay operating system ka mukhya lakshaya kisi bhi ghatna (event) ka turant aur ummeed ke mutaabik pratikriya karna. vaastavik samay prachaalan tantr me event drivn (event-driven) ya samay saajha(time-sharing) ya dono ka milaap ho sakta hai. ek event drivn operating system ghatanaao ko unaki prathamiktao ya baahya ghatanaao ke aadhaar par karta hai jabki samay saaksha operating system ghatanaao ko ek nishchit aabantit samay me pura karne ki koshish karta hai, agar koi ghatna ek nishchit samay me pura nahi ho pata hai to operating system dusare ghatan ko karta hai aur pehli ghatna ka deri ka kaaran khojata hai, is avastha ko samay seema ki samapti(deadline overrun) kehte hai.

bahukaaryik evam^ ekalakaaryik prachaalan tantr (multitasking and single tasking): jab koi prachaalan tantr (operating system) ek samay me ek hi program ko chalaane ki anumati deta hai, use ekalakaaryik prachaalan tantr kehte hai. aur jab prachaalan tantr ek se jyaada program ko chalaane ki anumati deta hai to use bahukaaryik prachaalan tantr kehte hai. bahukaaryik prachaalan tantr mukhyat: do prakaar ke hote hai sahakaari (co-operative) aur rikteepurv (pre-emptive).

sanalagn operating system : jab koi operating system kisi ek chhote yantr ke liye chhote star par kaam kar ta hai to use sanalagn operating system (embedded operating system) kehte hai. ye sanalagn operating system ghadi, vashiङag mashin tatha anya gharelu saamaano me hote hai.

kaam karne ke aadhaar par prakaar

  • kairektar user intarafes: is mein upayogakarta system ke saath kairektar ke dvaara soochana deta hai. udaaharan: daus,yooniks
  • graafikl user intarafes: is mein upayogakarta computer se chitro ke dvaara soochana ka aadaan pradaan karta hai. udaaharan: vindoj, laainkas

parde par prachaalan tantr ki chhaviyaaain

inhein bhi dekhein

  • sakaal prachaalan tantr (reeyal-time operating system)

sandarbh

  1. a aa operating system. Hindustan live.(hindi). pramod pant.25 October, 2009
  2. a aa ye software kya hota hai ?. takaneek.com.2 July, 2008.(hindi). kamal

baahari kadiyaaain