praatishaakhya

praatishaakhya shabd ka arth hai : 'prati' arthaat‌ tattat‌ 'shaakha' se sambandh rakhanevaala shaastr athva adhyayan. yahaaain 'shaakha' se abhipraaya vedon ki shaakhaaon se hai. vaidik shaakhaaon se sambaddh vishay anek ho sakte the. udaaharanaarth, pratyek vaidik shaakha se sambaddh karmakaand, aachaar aadi ki apni apni parampara thi. un sab vishyon se praatishaakhyon ka sambandh na hokar keval vaidik mantron ke shuddh uchchaaran, vaidik sanhitaaon aur unke padapaathon aadi ke sadhiprayukt varnaparivrtan athva svaraparivrtan ke paarasparik sambandh aur kabhi kabhi chhandovichaar jaise vishyon se tha.

yahaaain vaidik shaakhaaon ke praarambh, svaroop aur pravrutti ko sankshep mein samajh lena aavashyak hai.

bhaarateeya vaidik sanskruti ke itihaas mein ek samay aisa aaya jabki aarya jaati ke maneeshiyon ne paranparaapraapt vaidik mantron ko vaidik sanhitaaon ke roop mein sangruheet kiya. us samay adhyayanaadhyaapan ka aadhaar keval maukhik tha. guru shishya ki shravan parampara dvaara hi vaidik sanhitaaon ki raksha ho sakti thi. deshabhed aur kaalabhed se vaidik sanhitaaon ki kramash: vibhinn shaakhaaeain ho gain.

vaidik mantron aur unki sanhitaaon ko praarambh se hi aarya jaati ki pavitratam nidhi samjha jaata raha hai. unki suraksha aur adhyayan ki or aarya maneeshiyon ka sada se dhyaan raha hai. isi drushti ne Bhaarat mein ved ke shadangon (shiksha, kalp, vyaakaran, nirukt, chhand, jyotish) ko janm diya tha.

vaidik sanhitaaon ki suraksha aur arthajnyaaan ki drushti se hi vaidik vidvaanon ne tattat‌ sanhitaaon ke padapaath ka nirmaan kiya. kuchh kaal ke anantar kramash: kramapaath aadi paathon ka bhi praarambh hua.

ved ke shadangon ke vikaas ke saath saath pratyek shaakha ka yeh prayatn raha ki vah apni apni parampara mein vaidik sanhitaaon ke shuddh uchchaaran ki suraksha kare aur padapaath evam yathaasanbhav kramapaath ki sahaayata se ved ke pratyek pad ke svaroop ka aur sanhita mein hone vaale un padon ke varnaparivrtanon aur svaraparivrtanon ka yathaarthat: adhyayan kare. moolat: praatishaakhyon ka vishay yahi tha. kabhi kabhi chhandovishyak adhyayan bhi praatishaakhya ki paridhi mein aa jaata tha.

vaidik shaakhaaon ke adhyetruvarg 'charan' kahalaate the. in charanon ki vidvatsabhaaon ya vidyaasabhaaon ko 'parishd' (ya 'parshad') kaha jaata tha. pratishaakhyon ki rachana bahut karke sootr shaili mein ki jaati thi iseeliye praatishaakhyon ke liye praayen 'paarshadasootr' ka bhi vyavahaar praacheen granthon mein milta hai.

yaaskaachaarya ke nirukt mein kaha gaya hai :

'padaprakruti: sanhita. padaprakrutini sarv charanaanaan paarshadaani.' (ni. 1/17)

arthaat‌, padon ke aadhaar par sanhita rahati hai aur sab shaakhaaon ke pratishaakhyon ki pravrutti padon ko hi sanhita ka aadhaar maankar hui hai.

isse yeh dhvani niklati hai ki praacheen kaal mein sab vaidik shaakhaaon ke apne-apne praatishaakhya rahe honge. sambhavat: vaidik shaakhaaon samaan, unke praatishaakhya bhi lupt ho gaye. vartamaan upalabdh vishisht praatishaakhya neeche diye jaate hain.

anukram

upalabdh praatishaakhya

shaunakaachaaryakrut rigved praatishaakhya

spashtat: iska sambandh rigved ki sanhita se hai. par parampara ke anusaar isko rigvedeeya shaakal shaakha ki avaantar shaishireeya shaakha se sabanddh batalaaya jaata hai. praatishaakhyon mein yeh sabse bada praatishaakhya hai aur kai drushtiyon se apna vishesh mahatva rakhata hai. ismein chhah-chhah patalon ke teen adhyaaya hain. yahaaain aur praatishaakhya sootr shaili mein hain, vahaaain yeh padyon mein nirmit hai. par vyakhyaakaaron ne padyon ko tukadon mein vibhkt kar sootraroop mein hi unki vyaakhya ki hai.

is praatishaakhya ke pratham 1-15 adhyaayon mein shiksha aur vyaakaran se sambandhit vishyon (varnavivechan, varnochchaaran ke dosh, sanhitaagat varnasandhiyaaain, kramapaath aadi) ka pratipaadan hai aur ant ke teen (16-18) adhyaayon mein chhandon ki charcha hai. chhandon ke vishay ka pratipaadan, yeh dhyaan mein rakhane ki baat hai, kisi anya praatishaakhya mein naheen hai. kramapaath ka vistrut pratipaadan (adhyaaya 10 aur 11 mein) bhi is praatishaakhya ka ek ullekhaneeya vaishishtya hai. is praatishaakhya par praacheen uvatakrut bhaashya prasiddh hai. iska professor M.A. reinie (M.A, Regnier) dvaara kiya gaya French bhaasha mein (1857-1859) tatha pro॰ maiksamyoolar dvaara kiya gaya jarman bhaasha mein (1856-1869) anuvaad upalabdh hain.

kaatyaayanaachaarya krut vaajasaneyi pratishaakhya

iska sambandh shukl yajurved se hai. yeh sootrashaili mein nirmit hai. ismein aath adhyaaya hain. praatishaakhyeeya vishay ke saath ismein padon ke svar ka vidhaan (adhyaaya 2 tatha 6) aur padapaath mein avagrah ke niyam (adhyaaya 5) vishesh roop se diye gaye hain. is praatishaakhya ka ek vaishishtya yeh bhi hai ki ismein paanini ki ghu, gh jaisi sanjnyaaaon ke samaan 'sim‌' (usamaanaaksh), 'jit‌' (k, kh, ch, chh aadi) aadi anek krutrim sanjnyaaaeain di hui hain. iske 'tasminniti nirdishte poorvasya' (1/134) aadi anek sootr paanini ke sootron se abhinn hain. anya anek praacheen aachaaryon ke saath saath inmein shaunak aachaarya ka bhi ullekh hai. ispar bhi anya teekaaon ke saath saath uvat ki praacheen vyaakhya prasiddh hai. iska professor A. vevar (A. Waber) ka jarman bhaasha mein anuvaar (1858) upalabdh hai.

taittireeya praatishaakhya

iska sambandh Krishna yajurved ki taittireeya shaakha se hai. yeh bhi sootrashaili mein nirmit hai. ismein 24 adhyaaya hain. saamaanya praatishaakhyeeya vishay ke saath saath ismein (adhyaaya teen aur chaar mein) padapaath ki vishesh charcha ki gayi hai. iski ek visheshata yeh hai ki ismein 20 praacheen aachaaryon ka ullekh hai. iski kai praacheen vyaakhyaaeain, tribhaashyaratn prasiddh hain. iska professor hvitni (W.D. Whitney) krut angreji anuvaad (1871) upalabdh hain.

atharvaved praatishaakhya athva shaunakeeya chaturaadhyaayika

iska aalochanaatmak sanskaran, angreji anuvaad ke sahit, pro॰ hvitni (W.D. Whitney) ne 1862 mein prakaashit kiya tha. iska sambandh atharvaved ki shaunak shaakha se hai. yeh bhi sootrashaili mein aur chaar adhyaayon mein hai.

inke atirikt riktantr naam se ek saam praatishaakhya tatha teen prapaathakon mein ek doosra atharv praatishaakhya bhi prakaashit ho chuke hain.

praatishaakhyon ka samay

praatishaakhyon ki rachana paanini aachaarya se poorvakaal ki hai. unki saari drushti paanini vyaakaran se poorv ki deekhati hai. ho sakta hai, unke upalabdh granthon par kaheen-kaheen paanini vyaakaran ka prabhaav ho, par yeh bahut hi kam maatra mein hai. yeh smaran rakhane ki baat hai ki mahaabhaashya mein paanineeya vyaakaran ko sarv-ved-paarishd shaastr kaha hai.

praatishaakhyon ka mahatva

shiksha, vyaakaran (aur chhand) ke aitihaasik vikaas ke adhyayan ki drushti se aur tattad vaidik sanhitaaon ke paranparaapraapt paath ki suraksha ke liye bhi praatishaakhyon ka atyant mahatva hai.

praatishaakhyon ki parampara mein hraas

yadyapi praatishaakhyon ke aalochanaatmak adhyayan aur prakaashan mein idhar vidvaanon ne, visheshat: paashchaatya vidvaanon ne, vishesh ruchi dikhlaai hai, shataabdiyon se in granthon ke adhyayanaadhyaapan ki parampara mein hraas aur shaithilya baraabar badhta hua prateet hota hai. yahi kaaran hai ki praatishaakhyon mein aur unki vyakhyaaon mein bhi anek paath ashuddh ya aspasht hain. yahi kaaran hai ki rigved sanhita ke saayan bhaashya jaise mahaan‌ granth mein kadaachit‌ ek baar bhi rigvedapraatishaakhya ka ullekh naheen hai aur kai sthaanon par anek padon ki sandhi balaat‌ paaninisootr se siddh karne ka yatn kiya gaya hai.

aavashyakta hai ki praatishaakhyon ke prakaash mein vaidik sanhitaaon ka adhyayan kiya jaae.

inhein bhi dekhein