praant

praant ek praadeshik ikaai hai, jo ki lagbhag hamesha hi ek desh ya raajya ke antargat ek prashaasakeeya khand hota hai.

anukram

shabd vyutpatti

angreji shabd "praant" lagbhag 1330 se saakshyaankit hai aur iski vyutpatti terahaveen shataabdi ke praacheen French shabd "provins" se hui jo ki swayam laatin shabd "provinsiya" se liya gaya hai, jiska abhipraaya, vishesh roop se, kisi videshi pradesh mein ek magistrate ke adhikaar kshetr se hai. ek sambhaavit laatin vyutpatti "pro (Pro-)" ("ki or se") aur "vinsiyr (vincere)" ("vijay ke liye" athva "niyantran lena") ho sakti hai. is prakaar ek "praant" ek kshetr ya aisa prakaarya hota tha jise apni sarkaar ki or se ek roman magistrate apne niyantran mein le leta tha. yeh haalaanki, roman kaanoon ke antargat adhikaar kshetr ke liye prayukt kiye jaane vaale is laatin shabd ke praarambhik prayog se mel naheen khaata.

bhoovijnyaaan

bhoovijnyaaan mein shabd "praant" ka prayog aise bhautik-bhaugoleeya kshetr ke liye kiya jaata hai jo vartamaan jal-stareeya athva aitihaasik jal-stareeya (jo ab talachhat star se oopar ho) roop mein apne aas-paas ke kshetron athva "praanton" se spasht roop se alag ho. yeh shabd aam taur se kisi kretan ke khandon ya kshetron, jo kisi kaal vishesh ki streteegraafi se pahachaani jaaye, se sambandh rakhata hai, udaaharan ke liye, jise kisi pramukh bhoogarbheeya kaal khand se pahachaana ja sake.

itihaas aur sanskruti

France mein abhi bhi "N provins " ukti ka arth abatak "peris kshetr ke baahar" se hi nikaala jaata hai. samatulya uktiyaan istemaal ki jaati hain, peroo mein ("ऍn prauvinsiys " "leema shahar se baahar"), Mexico mein ("la provinsiya, " "Mexico shahar se baahar ki bhoomi"), romaaniya mein ("in provinsi " "bukaarest kshetr se baahar"), Poland mein ("prowincjonalny " "praanteeya") tatha bulgaariya mein ("в пaaрaaоaaвaaиaaнaaцaaиaaяaaтaaа, " "v provintsiyata " "пaaрaaоaaвaaиaaнaaцaaиaaаaaлaaеaaн, " "provintsialen, " "praanton mein"). fraanseesi kraanti se pehle France kai shaasan kshetron mein banta hua tha (udaaharan ke liye kepsheeyan ki shaahi sanpada ke chaaron or bana aail-di-France), iname se anek ko "praant" maana jaata tha, haalaanki is shabd ka prayog bol-chaal ki bhaasha mein aise kshetron ke liye bhi kiya jaata tha jo maatr kisi jameendaari (châaatellenie) jitne hi hote the. haalaanki saadhaaranataya "praant" dvaara saanketik kshetr grainds gavarnameints ki jaateen theen jo aam taur par madhyakaaleen saamanton ki riyaasatein athva bhoomi sankalan hote the. aajkal "praant " shabd ke sthaan par kai baar N reejan (en réagion), shabd ka prayog hone laga hai, "reejan " (réagion) shabd ka prayog ab shaasan ke dviteeya star par aadhikaarik roop se kiya jaane laga hai. Italy mein "in provinsiya " (in provincia) ka arth saadhaaranataya (rom, Milan, nepals aadi jaise) "bade rajdhani kshetron se baahar ke kshetr" se hota hai. aitihaasik Europeeya praant - jo kai chhote kshetron se mil kar bante the, unhein fraanseesiyon dvaara pace (pays) aur Swiss logon dvaara kainataans (cantons) kaha jaata tha aur jinmein se harek ki sthaaneeya saanskrutik pehchaan aur keindreeya baajaar ka ksba hota tha - inhein poorv audyogik, poorv aadhunik Europe mein frnaand braudel dvaara uchit aakar ki raajaneetik ikaai ke roop mein vyakt kiya jaata tha. vah poochhate the "kya yeh praant iske vaasiyon ki sachchi janmabhoomi thi?"[1] yahaan tak ki keindreeya roop se sangathit France, jo ek praarambhik raashtra raajya tha, dabaav mein svaayatt praanteeya tukadon mein toot sakta tha, jaisa ki anvarat fraanseesi dharm-yuddh (1562-98) mein hua. 19veen aur 20veen sadi ke itihaasakaaron ki drushti mein, Europe mein kendreeya shaasan aadhunikta aur raajaneetik paripkvata ke chinh the. 20veen shataabdi ke ant mein, jab Europeeya sangh ne raashtron-raajyon ko saath le liya to, abhikendreeya shaktiyon ke kaaran deshon ke liye adhik sthaaneeya aur samast Europeeya sangh ke vibhinn ghatakon ko samaahit karne vaale praanteeya roop se shaasit ikaai ki adhik lacheeli pranaaliyon ko apanaana aavashyak ho gaya. Francisco fraanko ke pashchaat Spain "svaayattata ka raajya" ban gaya, jo aupachaarik roop se to ek ikaai ke roop mein hai parantu vaastav mein vah svaayatt sanpradaayi raajyon ke sangh ke roop mein kaarya karta hai, jisme se pratyek, apne bhinn adhikaaron ka prayog karte hain. (dekhein: Spain ki raajaneeti) jahaan Serbia, jo ki bhootapoorv yugoslaaviya ka hissa tha, ne kosovo praant mein alagaavavaadiyon se yuddh kiya, vaheen United Kingdom ne "shakti hastaantaran" ke raajaneetik siddhaant ke antargat skautlaind, vels aur uttari Ireland mein sthaaneeya sansadon ki vyavastha karavaai. Britain ke kaurnavaal, France ke britni, leingyudauk evam korsika, Spain ke kataaloniya evam baask desh, Italy ke lombaardi, Belgium ke fleindars tatha poorvi Europe ke abkhaajiya, chechanya evam kurdistaan mein sashakt sthaaneeya raashtravaad ubhar aaya athva viksit ho gaya.

kaanooni pahaloo

kai raajya-sanghon evam maha-sanghon mein praant athva raajya spasht roop se raashtreeya ya kendreeya sarkaaron ke adheen naheen hote hain. daraasal apne kuchh vishisht samvaidhaanik kaaryon mein praanton ko hi pramukh maana gaya hai. samvidhaan mein keindreeya evam praanteeya sarkaaron ke kaarya athva adhikaar kshetr spasht roop se pahachaane jaate hain. ve kaarya jo spasht roop se naheen pahachaane jaate hain, "avashisht shaktiyaan athva adhikaar" kahe jaate hain. ek vikendreekrut sangheeya pranaali (udaaharan ke liye sanyukt raajya America evam Australia) mein in avashisht shaktiyon par praant athva raajya ka adhikaar hota hai, par keindreekrut sangheeya pranaali mein (udaaharan ke liye Canada) ve kendra shaasan mein rahati hain. iname se kuchh vishesh adhikaar vaastav mein mahatvapoorn ho sakte hain. udaaharan ke liye, Canada ke praant kuchh mahatvapoorn maamalon, jaise sampatti, naagrik adhikaar, shiksha, saamaajik janakalyaan evam chikitsa sevaaon mein prabhusatta rakhate hain. sanghon ke vikaas ne keindreeya prabhutv evam "raajyon" ke adhikaaron ke beech ek aparihaarya rassa-kashi praarambh kar di hai. sangheeya sanvidhaanon mein uttaradaayitvon ka aitihaasik vibhaajan anivaarya roop se anakon ativyaapanon par nirbhar karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, jab keindreeya sarkaarein, jo ki videshi maamalon ke liye jimmedaar hoti hain, aise kshetron mein antarraashtreeya anubandh karti hain jo raajyon athva praanton ke adhikaar kshetr mein aate hain, jaise ki paryaavaran ya chikitsa maanak, tab raashtreeya star par kiye gaye aise anubandh adhikaar-kshetr ki ativyaapti evam virodhaabhaasi kaanoonon ka kaaran bante hain. yeh ativyaapti aantarik vivaadon ki sambhaavana banaati hai tatha aise samvaidhaanik sanshodhanon tatha nyaayik nirnayon ka kaaran banti hai jinse shakti-santulan mein parivartan aata hai. haalaanki videsh neeti se samabandhit maamale saadhaaranataya praant athva raajya ki kshamata se baahar hote hain, fir bhi kuchh raajya samvaidhaanik vishishtaadhikaar evam aadhaarbhoot hiton ke maamalon mein antarraashtreeya sambandh sthaapit karne ki kaanooni roop se aajnyaa dete hain. up-raashtreeya sattaaon ki roochi param-kootaneeti mein badhti ja rahi hai, fir chaahe vah kisi kaanooni roop-rekha mein ki jaane waali ho athva keindreeya shaasan dvaara anaupachaarik roop se sveekaar kiye jaane se. France evam cheen jaise ekal raajyon mein praant raashtreeya evam keindreeya sarkaaron ke adheen hain. siddhaant roop mein, kendra sarkaar ko apne adheen praanton ko banaane athva samaapt karne ka adhikaar hai.

vartamaan praant

sabhi doosare star ki raajaneetik ikaaiyon ko "praant" naheen kaha jaata hai. arab deshon mein doosare star ki sarkaar ko muhaafjaah kaha jaata hai jiska abhipraaya raajyapaal dvaara shaasit kshetr athva "gavarnaret" hota hai. Poland mein, "praant" ke samakaksh roop ko "wojewóaadztwo ", jise angreji mein "vaaivodeship (voivodeship)" uchcharit karte hain. peroo mein praant sarkaar ki kshetreeya ikaaiyaan hote hain, desh pachchees kshetron mein banta hai jo ki 194 praanton mein pravibhaajit hain. chili mein bhi isse milta julata svarup apnaaya gaya hai, yeh 15 kshetron mein vibhaajit aur 53 praanton mein pravibhaajit hai jisme se har ek raashtrapati dvaara niyukt raajyapaal dvaara shaasit hai. aitihaasik drushti se, New Zealand bhi praanton mein vibhaajit tha jinme se har ek ka apna adheekshak evam praanteeya parishad theen aur unke dvaara mahatvapoorn jimmedaariyaan nirvaahit ki jaati theen. haalaanki, jab yeh ek upanivesh ke roop mein tha tab yeh kabhi raajya-sangh ke roop mein viksit naheen ho paaya; iske vipreet, 1876 mein praanton ki samaapti kar di gayi. puraani praanteeya seemaaon ka prayog abhi bhi kuchh saarvajanik avakaashon ka nirdhaaran karne mein kiya jaata hai. in varshon mein, jab bhi keindreeya sarkaar ne up-raashtreeya star par vishesh uddeshya ke liye agencyon ko banaaya hai, iske liye aksar puraani praanteeya seemaaon ka hi prayog kiya jaata hai. vartamaan udaaharan mein ve 16 kshetr shaamil hain jinmein nyoojeelaind vibhaajit hai aur saath hi 21 jila svaasthya board bhi hain. kai baar praant shabd ka prayog sammilit roop se un graameen aur aanchalik bhaagon ke liye kiya jaata hai jo "mukhya kendron" - okalaind, velingatan, kraaistacharch, haimiltan tatha dunedin - se baahar hain.

aadhunik praant

kai deshon mein, ek praant apekshaakrut chhote, asamvaidhaanik star ke ke up raashtreeya star ki sarkaar vaale sthaan hote hain, jinka aakaar United Kingdom ki County se lekar sanyukt raajya amareeka ke raajya – [2 ] tak ho sakta hai, inmein ek svaayatt sarkaar tatha raajya-sangh athva maha-sangh ke mool tatv hote hain, aksar inka aakaar bada hota hai. cheen mein, ek praant ekaatmak raajya ke bheetar ek up raashtreeya kshetr hai, iska matlab hai ki ek praant kendra sarkaar dvaara banaaya ya samaapt kiya ja sakta hai. fileepeens, Belgium, Spain evam Italy mein "praant" sarkaar ki ek spasht ikaai hai aur Canada, kaango aur Argentina mein ek bada svaayatt kshetreeya ghatak hai. Italy aur chili mein, praant kisi kshetr ka ek prashaasanik up-mandal hai, jo raajya ka pratham stareeya prashaasanik up-sanbhaag hota hai. itaalavi praant mein kamyooni (kamyuns) naamak kai prashaasanik up-mandal shaamil hote hain. chili mein unako kaumyoonas (comunas) kaha jaata hai. paanch kanaadiyn praant – ontaariyo, kyubek, new braaunashvik, nova skotiya aur prince Edward aailaind – ke prashaasanik up-mandalon ke roop mein "County" hain. kanaadiyn praant british Columbia ke paas "kshetreeya jile" hain jo poorvokt ke samakaksh ke roop mein kaarya karte hain. Ireland 4 aitihaasik praanton (Ireland ke praant dekhein) mein vibhaajit hai jinmein se pratyek kaauntiyon mein prativibhaajit hain. ye praant hain kaunaakt (pashchim mein), liyenstar (poorv mein), munstar (dakshin mein) aur shaayad sabse prasiddh (museebaton ke kaaran), ulstar (uttar mein). aajkal in praanton mein prashaasanik kaarya kam hain, athva naheen hai, haalaanki inka mahatva khel ke kaaran hai. british saamraajya ke kuchh videshi bhaagon ko "praant" (roman arth ke saath) ka aupaniveshik naam mila tha, udaaharan ke liye Canada ka praant ya dakshini Australia ka praant (ise Australia mein anyatr dandaatmak "kaaloni" se alag samjha jaaye). isi tarah, mojaambik purtagaali upanivesh ke roop mein ek "praant" tha.

roos

kabhi-kabhi shabd "praant" ka prayog roos ke aitihaasik gavarnaret (raajyapaal dvaara shaasit kshetr) (guberniyaas) ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai. is maamale mein bhi is shabd ko praanton (пaaрaaоaaвaaиaaнaaцaaиaaи) ko sandarbhit karne ke liye kiya gaya hai, jo guberaniyaas ke upakhandon ke roop mein laaye gaye the aur 1719 se 1775 tak astitv mein the. aadhunik upayog mein shabd "praant" ka prayog roos ke oblaasts (oblasts) tatha kres (krais) ke liye kiya jaata hai.

sabse bada

duniya ka sarvaadhik aabaadi wala praant cheen ka henaan hai jiski aabaadi 93000911 hai. duniya ke sabse bade kshetrafal wala praant kyoobek, Canada hai (1500000 kimee²).

raajyatantr dvaara "praant" ka anuvaad

desh sthaaneeya naam bhaasha ikaaiyon ki sankhya
Afghanistan ke praant vilaaya arabi se 34
Algeria ke praant vilaaya arabi 48
angola ke praant provinsiya purtagaali 18
Argentina ke praant provinsiya spainish 23
Armenia ke praant maarj armeniyn 11
Belarus ke praant voblaast belaaroosi 7
Belgium ke praant (flemish kshetr) provinsi dach 5
Belgium ke praant (vailoon kshetr) provins freinch 5
boleeviya ke praant provinseeya spainish 100
bulgaariya ke praant oblaast balgaariyaai 28
burkina faaso ke praant provins freinch 45
burundi ke praant provins freinch 17
kanbodiya ke praant khait 20
Canada ke praant provins angreji, freinch 10
chili ke praant provinseeya spainish 53
cheen ke praant sheing (省) maindaarin chaaineej 22 + 1[2]
kosta rika ke praant provinseeya spainish 7
Columbia ke praant provinseeya spainish
kyooba ke praant provinseeya spainish 15
kaango ke lokataantrik ganaraajya ke praant provins freinch 26
dominikn ganaraajya ke praant provinsiya spainish 33
ikvaador ke praant provinsiya spainish 24
ikvetoriyl gini ke praant provinsiya spainish 7
fiji ke praant yasaana fijeeyan 14
Finland ke praant läaaäaanit ya läan finish, sveedish 6
gaibaun ke praant provins freinch 9
grees ke praant εaaπaaαaaρaaχaaίaaα (epaarchiya) yoonaani 73
Indonesia ke praant provinsi (propinsi) bahaasa Indonesia 33
Iran ke praant osatan faarasi 30
Ireland ke praant cúaaige gelik 4
Italy ke praant provinsiya itaaliyn 110
kajkhastaan ke praant oblaisi kajaakh 14
kenya ke praant provins angreji 8
kirgistaan ke praant oblaisti kirgijiyn 7
laaos ke praant khoeng laao 16
medaagaaskar ke praant fairitaini 6
mangoliya ke praant aimaag ya aymaag (Аaaйaaмaaаaaг) mangoliyn 6
mojaambik ke praant provinsiya purtagaali 10
Netherland ke praant provinsi dach 12
uttar Korea ke praant karte hain ya karne ke liye (도) Koreai 10
omaan ke praant vilaaya arabi anuchit roop se 60
Pakistan ke praant sooba ; bahuvachan: soobaai urdoo 5
panaama ke praant provinsiya spainish 9
paapuaa new gini ke praant provins angreji 19
peroo ke praant provinsiya spainish 195
fileepeens ke praant laalaavign ya probinsya filipino 80
ravaanda ke praant intaara freinch 5
saao tom aur prinsipe ke praant provinsiya purtagaali 2
Saudi arab ke praant mintaakaah arabi 13
siyera Leon ke praant provins angreji 3
soloman dweep ke praant 9
dakshin Africa ke praant provins angreji 9
dakshin Korea ke praant karte athva karne ke liye (도/道) Koreai 10
Spain ke praant provinsiya spainish 50
Sri Lanka ke praant 9
taajikistaan ke praant arabi vilaaya se veloyaati taajik 3
Thailand ke praant changavat (จaaัaaงaaหaaวaaัaaด) thai 76
Turkey ke praant il tarkish 81
Turkmenistan ke praant vilaaya se velaayat (bahuvachan: velaayatalar) turkameni 5
Ukraine ke praant oblaast yookreni 24
Uzbekistan ke praant viloyat (bahuvachan: viloyatalar) arabi se vilaaya 12
vaanuatu ke praant 6
viytanaam ke praant tin viytanaami 58
jaambiya ke praant provins angreji 9
Zimbabwe ke praant provins angreji 8

aitihaasik praant

praacheen, madhyayugeen aur saamanti

  • khaleefa aur baad mein saltanat: ameeraat dekhein
  • khaanait, ka arth praant ke saath saath svatantr raajya bhi ho sakta hai, kyoonki donon hi ek Khan ke dvaara shaasit ho sakte hain.
  • beejaantin saamraajya dekhein: ekjrkhat, thema
  • fraao-shaasit misr: dekhein nom (misr)
  • frankish (kaarolingiyn) 'pun: sthaapit' pavitra roman saamraajya: County aur gaoo dekhein
  • haibasbarg kshetron mein, paaramparik praant ko aanshik roop se 19veen sadi ke ostriya-Hungary laindar se vyakt kiya jaata tha.
  • mugl saamraajya: subah
  • ottomain saamraajya mein kai prakaar ke raajyapaal hote the (aamtaur se paasha), parantu adhikaansh waali kahalaate the, iseeliye ek mukhya shabd vilaayat prayog mein aaya, jo aksar ek Governor-general ke adheen banta hota tha (adhikaanshat: beyaliks athva sanjaks), ya kabhi-kabhi juda bhi hota tha (jise beyalarabeya kehte the).
  • akemenid faaras (aur isse pehle shaayad media mein, fir se alekjeindar mahaan dvaara vijay aur vistaar ke baad aur apekshaakrut bade helenistik uttaraadhikaari raajyon mein: dekhein satraapi. *roman saamraajya praanton mein banta tha provinsiye .
  • kaajaan ke tartar khanaate mein: paanch dishaayein (daruğaaa)

aupaniveshik aur poorv aadhunik

  • spainish saamraajya kai staron par:
    • vaaisaraaya ke shaasan ka kshetr vaaisarauyalti
    • inteindensiya (intendencia)
  • british upanivesh:
  • poorv mein Brazil ke praant
  • poorv mein fraans ke praant
  • poorv mein Ireland ke praant
  • poorv mein Japan ke praant
  • prusiya ke praant, poorv jarman raajashaahi/ganatantr ka bhaag
  • poorv mein sveeden ke praant
  • poorv mein ganaraajya ke saat sanyukt praant (Netherland)
  • poorv mein madhya America ke sanyukt praant
  • poorv mein rio di la plaata ke sanyukt praant

inhein bhi dekhein

  • raajyapaal
  • kshetr
  • praanteeyata
  • kshetravaad (raajaneeti)

tippaniyaan

  1. the parsapekativ of the world, 1984, prushth. 284.
  2. peepals ripblik of China (PRC) ka daava hai uske 23 praantein hain, jinmein se taaivaan ek hai, jo peeaarasi (PRC) ke niyantran mein naheen hai. ripblik of China (jise aksar taaivaan ullikhit karte hain) fyujiyn praant ke saare taaivaan praant aur kai chhote dveepon ko niyantran karta hai.

sandarbh

baahari links