praani vigyaan

Torben B Larsen, entomologist.jpg

praani vigyaan ya jantu vigyaan (en:Zoology) (jeev vigyaan ki shaakha hai jo jaanvaron aur unke jeevan, shareer, vikaas aur vargeekaran (classification) se sambandhit hoti hai.

anukram

praani ki paribhaasha

praani ki paribhaasha kai prakaar se ki gayi hai. kuchh log praani aise jeev ko kehte hain jo carbohydrate, proteen aur vasa ka srujan to naheen karta, par jeevanayaapan ke liye in par nirbhar karta hai. in padaarthon ko praani baahya strot se hi praapt karta hai. inke srujan karne vaale paadap jaati ke jeev hote hain, jo akaarbanik stroton se praapt padaarthon se inka srujan karte hain.


ye donon hi paribhaashaaeain sab praaniyon par laagoo naheen hoteen. paadap jaati ke kuchh kavak aur jeevaanu aise hain, jo apna bhojan baahya stroton se praapt karte hain. kuchh aise praani bhi hain, jo staarch ka srujan swayam karte hain. at: praani aur paadap mein vibhed karna kuchh dashaaon mein bada kathin ho jaata hai. yahi kaaran hai ki praanivijnyaaan aur paadapavijnyaaan ka adhyayan ek samay vigyaan ki ek hi shaakha mein saath saath kiya jaata tha aur usaka naam jaiviki ya jeev vigyaan (Biology) diya gaya hai. par aaj ye donon shaakhaaeain itni viksit ho gayi hain ki inka samyak adhyayan ek saath karna sambhav naheen hai. at: aajkal praanivijnyaaan evam paadapavijnyaaan ka adhyayan alag alag hi kiya jaata hai.

praanivijnyaaan ka mahatva

praanivijnyaaan ka adhyayan manushya ke liye bade mahatva ka hai. manushya ke chaaron or naana prakaar ke jantu rahate hain. vah unhein dekhta hai aur use unase baraabar kaam padta hai. kuchh jantu manushya ke liye bade upayogi siddh hue hain. anek jantu manushya ke aahaar hote hain. jantuon se hamein doodh praapt hota hai. kuchh jantu oon pradaan karte hain, jinse bahumoolya ooni vastr taiyaar hote hain. jantuon se hi resham, madhu, lakh aadi badi upayogi vastueain praapt hoti hain. jantuon se hi adhikaansh kheton ki jutaai hoti hai. bail, ghode, khachchar tatha gadahe ityaadi parivhan ka kaam karte hain. kuchh jantu manushya ke shatru bhi hain aur ye manushya ko kasht pahuainchaate, fasal nasht karte, peeda dete aur kabhi kabhi maar bhi daalte hain. at: praanivijnyaaan ka adhyayan hamaare liye mahatva rakhata hai.

bauddhik vikaas ke kaaran manushya anya praaniyon se bhinn hota hai, par shaareerik banaavat aur shaareerik pranaali mein anya kuchh praaniyon se badi samaanata rakhata hai. in kuchh praaniyon ki idriyaaain aur kaaryapranaali manushya ki indriyaaain aur kaaryapranaali se bahut milti julati hai. isse anek nai oshadhiyon ke prabhaav ka adhyayan karne mein in praaniyon se laabh uthaaya gaya hai aur anek nai nai oshadhiyon ke aavishkaar mein sahaayata mili hai.

itihaas

praaniyon ka adhyayan bahut praacheen kaal se hota aa raha hai. iska pramaan ve praacheen gufaaeain hain jinki patthar ki deevaaron par pashuon ki aakrutiyaaain aaj bhi pai jaati hain. yoonaani daarshanik arastoo ne isa ke 300 varsh poorv jantuon par ek pustak likhi thi. gailena (Galena) ek doosare roman vaidya the, jinhonne doosari shataabdi mein pashuon ki anek visheshataaon ka badi spashtata se varnan kiya hai. yoonaan aur rom ke anya kai granthakaaron ne prakrutivijnyaaan par pustakein likheen hain, jinmein jantuon ka ullekh hai. baad mein lagbhag hajaar varsh tak praanivijnyaaan bhula diya gaya tha. 16veen sadi mein logon ka dhyaan fir is vigyaan ki or aakarshit hua. us samay chikitsa vidyaalayon ke adhyaapakon ka dhyaan is or vishesh roop se gaya aur ve iske adhyayan mein pravrutt hue. 17veen tatha 18veen shataabdi mein is vigyaan ki vishesh pragati hui. sookshmadarshi ke aavishkaar ke baad iska adhyayan bahut vyaapak ho gaya. aadhunik praanivijnyaaan ki praaya: isi samay neenv padi aur jantuon ke naamakaran aur aakaariki ki or vishesh roop se dhyaan diya gaya. liniys ne "di system ov nechar" (1735 E.) naamak pustak mein pehle pahal jantuon ke naamakaran ka varnan kiya hai. us samay tak gyaat jantuon ki sankhya bahut adhik ho gayi thi aur unka vargeekaran aavashyak ho gaya tha.

shaakhaaeain

praanivijnyaaan ka vistaar aaj bahut badh gaya hai. samyak adhyayan ke liye ise kai shaakhaaon mein vibhaajit karna aavashyak ho gaya hai. aise antarvibhaagon mein :

  • aakaariki (Morphology),
  • sookshmaootakavijnyaaan (Histology),
  • koshikaavijnyaaan (Cystology),
  • bhroonavijnyaaan (Embryology),
  • jeevaashmavijnyaaan (Palaeontology),
  • vikrutivijnyaaan (Pathology),
  • vargeekaranavijnyaaan (Taxology),
  • aanuvaanshikvijnyaaan (Genetics),
  • jeevavikaas (Evolution),
  • paaristhitiki (Ecology) tatha
  • pachhi vigyaan (ornitholoji)
  • manovijnyaaan (Psychology)

adhik mahatva ke hain. inka vistrut vivran praanivijnyaaan ki shaakhaaeain ke antargat ekhiye.

praaniyon ka vargeekaran

vistrut jaankaari ke liye praaniyon ka vargeekaran dekhiye.

baahari kadiyaaain