praakrut saahitya

madhyayugeen praakruton ka gadya-padyaatmak saahitya vishaal maatra mein upalabdh hai. sabse praacheen vah ardhamaagadhi saahitya hai jismein jain dhaarmik granth rache gaye hain tatha jinhein samashti roop se jainaagam ya jainashrutaang kaha jaata hai. is saahitya ki praacheen parampara yeh hai ki antim jain teerthankar mahaaveer ka videh pradesh mein janm lagbhag 600 E. poorv hua. unhonne 30 varsh ki avastha mein muni deeksha le li aur 12 varsh tap aur dhyaan karke kaivalyajnyaaan praapt kiya. tatpashchaat unhone apna dharmopadesh sarvapratham raajagruh mein aur fir anya naana sthaanon mein dekar jain dharm ka prachaar kiya. unke upadeshon ko unke jeevanakaal mein hi unke shishyon ne 12 angon mein sankalit kiya. unke naam hain-

(1) aachaaraang, (2) sootrakrutaang, (3) sthaanaang, (4) samayaang, (5) bhagavati vyaakhya prajnyaapti, (6) nyaayadharm katha (naayaadhammahaao),
(7) upaasakaadasha, (8) antakrudasha, (9) anutteropapaatik (10) prashn vyaakaran, (11) vipaak sootr aur (12) drushtivaad.

in angon ki bhaasha vahi ardhamaagadhi praakrut hai jismein mahaaveer ne apne upadesh diye. sambhavat: yeh aagam us samay lipibddh naheen kiya gaya evam guru-shishya parampara se maukhik roop mein prachalit raha aur yahi uske shrutaang kahalaane ki saarthakata hai.

mahaaveer ka nirvaan 72 varsh ki avastha mein E. poo. 527 mein hua aur uske pashchaat sheegra hi ukt angon ki parampara mein vipratipttiyaaain utpann hone lageen. jainadharm ke diganbar sanpradaaya ki maanyata hai ki shrutaangon ka kramash: hraas hote-hote unka khandash: gyaan kuchh aachaaryo ko raha or uske aadhaar se unhonne nae roop mein saiddhaantik granth likhe, jinke praacheenatam udaaharan karmapraakrut (shathkhandaagam) va kashaayapraakrut (kasaayapaahud) naamak sootr hain. kintu shvetaanbar sanpradaaya ki maanyata hai ki ukt aagam granthon ko utpann hoti hui vikrutiyon se bachaane ke liye samay-samay par muniyon ne unki vaachanaaeain keen aur unhein surakshit rakhane ka prayatn kiya. pratham vaachana mahaaveer nirvaan se 160 varsho pashchaat paataliputr mein sthoolabhadraachaarya ki adhyakshata mein hui jismein 11 angon ka sankalan kiya gaya. 12vein ang ka upasthit muniyon mein se kisi ko bhi vyavasthit gyaan na hone se usaka uddhaar naheen kiya ja saka. jain muniyon ki aparigrah vrutti tatha varshaakaal ko chhod nirantar paribhraman evam us kaal ki kathinaaiyon ke kaaran yeh angajnyaaan pun: chhinn-bhinn hone laga. aarya skandit ne Mathura mein munisangh ka sammelan kiya aur unheen 11 angon ko ek baar pun: vyavasthit karne ka prayatn kiya. devardhigni kshamaashraman ne valabhi nagar mein munismmelan karaaya aur jain aagam ko vah roop diya jismein vah aaj upalabdh hai. is vaachana mein uparyukt 11 angon ke atirikt anya anek granthon ko suvyavasthit karne ka prayatn kiya gaya jo is kaalaavadhi tak rache ja chuke the. ye the - 12 upaang, 6 chhedasootr, 4 moolasootr, 10 prakeernak aur do choolikaaeain. is prakaar valabhi vaachana ke falasvaroop ardhamaagadhi jainaagam ke 45 granth vyavasthit ho gaye jo aaj bhi upalabdh hain, tatha jinka sankshep mein parichay nimn prakaar hai :

anukram

gyaarah ang

1. aachaarang - is shrutagranth mein muniyon ke paalne yogya sadaachaar ka vivran diya gaya hai. yeh do shrutaskandhon mein vibhaajit hai. pratham shrutaskandh mein 9 adhyayan aur unke antargat 44 uddeshyak hain. granth ka yeh bhaag mool evam bhaasha, shaili aur vishay ki drushti se praacheenatam hai. dvi. shrutaskandh iski choolika ke roop mein hai aur vah teen choolikaaon evam 16 adhyayanon mein vibhaajit hai. pratham shrutaskandh ke navamein upadhaan naamak adhyayan mein mahaaveer ki ugr tapasya evam laadh vajrabhoomi, shubhrabhoomi aadi sthaano mein vihaar karte hue ghor upasargo ke sahane ka maarmik varnan hai.

2. sootrakrutaang - iske bhi do shrutaskandh hain jinmein kramash: 16 tatha 7 adhyayan hain1 pratham shrutaang praaya: madyamaya hai aur doosare mein gadya padya donon ka prayog hua hai. ismein praacheen kaal ke daarshanik vaadon jaise kriyaavaad, akriyaavaad, niytivaad, ajnyaaanavaad aadi ka praroopan tatha niraakaran kiya gaya hai tatha shraman, braahman, bhikshu, nigrranth aadi ke svaroop ki vyaakhya ki gayi hai. antim adhyayan naaladeeya mein mahaaveer ke shishya Gautam tatha paashrvanaath ki parampara ke udak pedhaalaputr ke beech vaartaalaap aur chaaturyaam dharm ke sambandh mein vichaar jainadharm ki mahaaveer se poorvaparanpara par prakaash daalata hai.

3. sthaanaang - ismein 10 adhyayan hain jinmein kramash: ek se lekar 10 tak ki sankhyaavaale padaartho ka niroopan kiya gaya hai, jaise ek darshan, ekachaaritr, ek samay, ityaadi; do kriyaaeain jeev aur ajeev; vruksh teen prakaar kehru patropet, falopet aur pushpopet, teen ved rik, yaju aur saam ityaadi. is paddhati se is granth mein anek vishyon ka bahumukhi varnan aaya hai jo apne dhang ka ek vishvakosh hi hai. usaki yeh shaili paali tripitk ke angutatar nikaaya se samata rakhati hai.

4. samavaayaang - yeh bhi sthaanaang ke sadrush ekottar kram se vastuon ka niroopan karanevaala vishvakosh hai. visheshata iski yeh hai ki ismein sankhyaakram kramash: badhta hua shaton, sahasron, shatasahastron tatha kotiyon tak pahuainchaaya gaya hai. yathaasthaan ismein jain aagam tatha teerthakar, chakravarti aadi trirsath shalaakaapurushon ka parichay naamavali paddhati se varnit hai.

5. bhagavati vyaakhya prajnyaaapti - yeh rachana aakaar aur vishay ki drushti jainaagam mein sabse adhik vishaal aur mahatvapoorn hai. ismein 41 shatak hain aur pratyek shatak anek uddeshak mein vibhaajit hai. shaili prashnottaraatmak hai. prashnakarta hain Gautam ganadhar aur uttaradaata swayam mahaaveer. teekaakaaron ke anusaar ismein 36 sahasr prashnottaron ka samaavesh hai. darshan, aachaar, itihaas, bhoogol aadi samast vishyon par kisi na kisi prasang se prakaash daala gaya hai. mahaaveerakaal ki raajaneetik paristhiti aur us samay ke ghor yuddh aadi ka varnan jaisa is granth mein aaya hai vaisa anyatr kaheen nahi paaya jaata.

6. nyaaya dharmakatha - is ang ka praakrut naam nyaayadhammakahaao hai aur usaka sanskrut roopaantar jnyaaatru ya jnyaaataadharmakatha bhi kiya jaata hai jiska arth hota hai jnyaaatru arthaat jnyaaatruputr mahaaveer ka dharmopadesh. vishay ko dekhte hue iska pratham naam hi adhik saarthak prateet hota hai kyonki ismein kathaaon dvaara kinheen nyaayon arthaat neetivaakyon ka spashteekaran kiya gaya hai.

7. upaasakadasha - naamaanusaar ismein bhi upaasak, kaamadev, chulaneepriya aadi das aise upaasakon ke charitra varnit hain jinhonne kathinaaiyon ke beech dharmapaalan kiya.

8. antakrudadsha - naamaanusaar ismein bhi upaasak dasha ke samaan das adhyayan hi rahe honge. kintu vartamaan mein yahaaain aath varg hain aur pratyek varg anek adhyayanon mein vibhaajit hain. ismein aise saadhuon ke charitra varnit kiye gaye hain, jinhonne tapasya dvaara sansaar ka ant kar nirvaan praapt kiya.

9. anuttaropapaatik dasha - ismein aise muniyon ke charitra varnit hain jinhein apni tapasya ke beech ghor upasarg sahan karne pade aur unhonne marakar un anuttar naamak svargo mein janm liya jahaaain se keval ek baar pun: manushya janm dhaaran kar nirvaan praapt kiya jaata hai.

10. prashnavyaakaran - granth ke naam se tatha sthaanaang evam samavaayaang se praapt is shrutaang ke vishyaparichya se gyaat hota hai ki ismein moolat: prashnottar ke roop mein naana siddhaanton ki vyaakhya ki gayi thi. kintu vartamaan mein aisa na hokar iske pratham khand mein hinsaadi paaainch paapon ka aur doosare khand mein ahinsaadi vraton ka praroopan paaya jaata hai.

11. vipaakasootr - ismein do shrutaskandh hain aur pratyek mein das das-adhyayan hain. ismein jeev ke achhe aur bure karmo se falit honevaale sukh du:khon ka bada vaichitrya hai jismein jeevan ki sabhi dashaaon ka varnan aa gaya hai. jainadharm ke karmasiddhaantanusaar jeevan ke samast anubhav sukarm evam dushkarmo ke parinaam hi hain. iska is shrutaang mein vistaar se praroopan paaya jaata hai.

baarah upaang

(1) aupapaatik mein naana saadhanaaon dvaara punarjanm ke svaroop ka naana udaaharanon sahit vyaakhyaan kiya gaya hai. iski yeh bhi ek visheshata hai ki jin nagar, raaja, chaitya aadik ka anyatr sanket maatr paaya jaata hai, usaka yahaaain poora varnan milta hai.

(2) raayapasenijjan - iska sanskrut roopaantar raajaprashneeya kiya jaata hai, kintu sambhavat: usaka sambandh koshalanaresh prasenajit se raha hai jo pehle bhautikvaadi tha, kintu pashchaat keshi muni ke upadesh se samyagadrushti ban gaya. yeh granth paali "milind panyaho" se tulaneeya hai.

(3) jeevaajeevaabhigm - mein naamaanusaar prashnottar ke roop mein jeev aur ajeev ke bhedaprabhedon ka varnan kiya gaya hai.

(4) prajnyaaapana mein jain darshan ki naana vyavasthaaon ka vivran hua hai, jisse yeh granth bhagavati ke samaan jain siddhaant ka jnyaaanakosh hi kaha ja sakta hai.

(5) vein, (6) the aur (7) vein upaangon ke naam kramash: sooryaprajnyaapti, janbudveepaprajnyaapti aur chandraprajnyaaapti hain jinmein un lokon ka jain maanyataanusaar varnan kiya gaya hai.

(8) kalpika va (9) kalpaavatansika mein magadharaaj shrenik, uske putr ajaatashatru evam uske potron ke charitra varnit hain jinhonne apne apne karmaanusaar narak tatha svargagatiyaaain praapt keen.

(10) pushpika evam (11) pushpachoola mein anek stri purushon ki dhaarmik saadhana, svargasukhon aur mahaaveer ki vandana ke liye aagaman ka varnan hai.

(12) vrushnidsha mein dvaaraavati ke raaja krushnavaasudev evam teerthakar neminaath ke charitra ka varnan hai.

chhah chhedasootr

(1) nisheeth, (2) mahaanisheeth, (3) vyavahaar, (4) aachaaradasha, (5) kalpasootr aur (6) panchakalp.

inmein muniyon ki saadhanaaon evam vraton ka bhang hone par praayashchitt ka vichaar kiya gaya hai. in sabamein kalpasootr ka sabse adhik prachaar hai. muni aachaar ke atirikt ismein mahaaveer tatha rishabhadev, neminaath aur pashrvanaath ke charitra bhi varnit hain.

chaar moolasootr

(1) uttaraadhyayan, (2) dashvaikaalik, (3) aavashyak aur (4) pindaniryukti

in sabhi mein mukhyataya muni aachaar ka varnan hai. inmein uttaraadhyayan ki badi pratishtha hai.

das prakeernak

(1) chatu:sharan (2) aatur pratyaakhyaan, (3) mahaapratyaakhyaan (4) bhakt parijnyaa, (5) tandulavaichaarik,
(6) sanstaarak (7) gachhaachar, (8) ganividya, (9) devandrastav aur (10) maranasamaadhi.

ye sabhi praaya: padyaatmak hain aur inmein muniyon ke paalne yogya neeti ka upadesh diya gaya hai.

do choolika sootr

(1) nandi aur (2) anuyogadvaar.

nandi mein gyaan ke bhedon va shrutaangon ka vistaar se varnan hai tatha anuyogadvaar mein prashnottaron ke roop mein naana vishyon ka parichay karaaya gaya hai jismein rason va sangeet aadi ka bhi samaavesh hai.

uparokt hi 45 jainadhaarmik granth hai jo upalabdh ardhamaagadhi saahitya kaha ja sakta hai. in granthon par niryukti, choorn, teeka, bhaashya, vrutti aadi vyaakhyaatmak vishaal saahitya praakrut aur sanskrut bhaashaaon mein padya aur padyaatmak hai. samast niryuktiyaaain bhadrabaahukrut va choorniyaaain jindaasagani mahattar krut maani jaati hain. inke bheetar jain siddhaant ke vivechan ke atirikt aakhyaanaatmak rachanaaon ka bada vaipulya hai jo saahitya aur itihaas ki drushti se mahatvapoorn hai.

diganbar sanpradaaya mein in 45 aagam granthon ki maanyata aur prachaar naheen hai. us parampara mein lupt hue dvaadashaang shrut ke aadhaar se shauraseni praakrut mein svatantr saahitya ka nirmaan hua jiski sarvapraacheen rachanaaeain pushpadant aur bhootabalikrut karmapraabhrut naamak granth hain. inmein jain karmasiddhaant ka badi vyavastha tatha sookshmata se praroopan kiya gaya hai. inka rachanaakaal mahaaveer nirvaan ke 683 varsh ke sheegra hi pashchaat hua siddh hota hai. inapar samay-samay par anek teekaaeain praakrut tatha sanskrut mein likhi gain, jinmein se vartamaan mein suprasiddh dhaval aur jayadhaval naamak teekaaeain hain jinke karta veerasen aur jinsen raashtrakoot naresh amoghavarsh (9veen shati) ke praaya: samakaaleen the. praacheenata mein karmapraabhrut aur kashaayapraabhrut ke pashchaat kundakundaachaaryakrut 12-13 shauraseni padyaatmak rachanaaeain hain jinmein pradhaan hain - pravachanasaar, samayasaar, panchaastikaaya aur niymasaar. in sabhi mein jain siddhaant, aachaarashaastr, tatha sthaadvaadaatmak nyaaya ka niroopan kiya gaya hai. samayasaar, panchaastika aur niymaasaar. in sabhi mein jain siddhaant, aachaarashaastr, tatha sthaadvaadaatmak nyaaya ka niroopan kiya gaya hai. samayasaar mein jaisa aadhyaamik vivechan kiya gaya hai vaisa anyatr naheen paaya jaata.

jain parampara ka kathaatmak saahitya

dhaarmik saahitya ke atirikt jain parampara ka bahut sa kathaatmak saahitya bhi praakrut mein paaya jaata hai. is prakaar ki sabse praacheen rachana vimlasoorikrut paumachariyan (padmacharitm) hai jismein karta ne apne granth ki samaapti ka samay dushama kaal ke 530 (veer nirvaan 534) varsh pashchaat arthaat E. san 7 soochit kiya hai. kintu vidvaanon ko iski vaastavikta mein sandeh hota hai aur vah mukhyat: is aadhaar par ki granth mein praakrut bhaasha ka jo svaroop milta hai vah madhyayug ke doosare star ka hai, jiska vikaasakaal E. san ki doosari teesari shati se poorv naheen maana ja sakta. yahaaain hamein bhaasha ki ve sab pravruttiyaaain pusht roop se dikhaai deti hain aur jinhein praaya: mahaaraashtri praakrut ke lakshan maana jaata hai. paumachariyan mein saat adhikaar hain jo 118 uddeshyon mein vibhaajit hain. samast rachana padyaatmak hai. chhand gaatha hai kintu sthaan-sthaan par chhandavaichitrya bhi paaya jaata hai. shaili saras aur saral hai tatha usamein kathaatmakata hi pradhaan hai. mool katha vaalmeeki krut raamaayan ke sadrush hai, kintu avaantar baaton mein usase bahut bhinnata bhi hai, jaise seeta ka ek bhaai bhaamandal bhi tha; Ram ne barbar jaatiyon ke mithila par aakraman hone par janak ki sahaayata ki thi aur isi ke upalaksh mein janak ne seeta ko unhein arpit karne ka sankalp kiya tha. sugreev, hanumaan aadi vaanar naheen the, unka dhvajachihn vaanar hone se ve vaanaravanshi kahalaate the. raavan ke dashamukh naheen the, kintu uske praakrutik ek mukh ke atirikt navaratnamaya haar mein mukh ke nav pratibinb dikhaai dene se vah dashaanan kahalaane laga tha. usaki mrutyu Ram ke haath se naheen, kintu Lakshman ke haath se hui. Lakshman Narayan the aur Ram baladev, ityaadi.

praakrut mein doosra jain puraan hai- chaupannamahaapurisriyan (chaupan mahaapurush charit), jo sheelaankaachaarya dvaara vi. san. 925 mein racha gaya tha. yeh praaya: gadyaatmak hai aur ismein 24 teerthankar, 12 chakravarti, 9 baladev aur 9 vaasudev - in 54 mahaapurushon ka charitra varnit hai. vahaaain raamakathaanak mein vaalmeekikrut raamaayan se kuchh aur baatein bhi li gayi hain, jo paumachariyan mein naheen hain. praakrut gadya mein rachit ek aur mahaapuraan bhadreshvarakrut kathaavali (12veen shati) hai, jismein uparyukt 54 mahaapurushon ke atirikt 9 prativaasudevon ke charitra sammilit hone se samast 63 shalaakaapurushon ke charitra bhi kaavya ki reeti se varnit paae jaate hain. inmein vardhamaanasoorikrut aavinaathacharit, somaprabhakrut sumatinaathacharit, devasoorikrut padmaprabhacharit, nemichandrakrut anantanaathacharit, devandraganikrut vardhamaan charit aadi anek vishaal rachanaaeain prakaash me aa chuki hain. ye rachanaaeain praaya: 12veen, 13veen shati E. ki hain, inki bhaasha vahi praakrut hai jiska praakrut vyaakaranon mein parichay paaya jaata hai aur jise paashchaatya vidvaanon ke "jain mahaaraashtron" ki sanjnyaa pradaan ki hai.

paadaliptasoorikrut tarangavateekatha ka ullekh anek praacheen granthon mein milta hai. yeh mool granth padya apraapya hai, kintu iske aadhaar se nirmit nemichandrakrut tarangaleela (15veen shati E.) naamakarachana upalabdh hai. iska kathaanak ek upanyaas hai, jismein paatron ke anek janmon ka vruttaant gutha hua hai aur vah baanakrut kaadanbari ka smaran karaata hai.

praakrut gadya saahitya mein haribhdrasoorikrut samaraadityakatha (8veen shati E.) ka vishesh sthaan hai. yeh dharmakatha hai jismein paraspar virodhi do purushon ke nau janmaantaron ka kramash: varnan kiya gaya hai. vidveshi purush pratyek janm mein apne vairi se irshyaabhaav ke kaaran uttarottar adhogati ko praapt hota hai aur chatrinaayak apne man tatha chaaritrya ko uttarottar shuddh banaata hua antim bhaav mein samaraaditya naam ka raaja hokar tapasya dvaara moksh praapt karta hai. nau hi bhavon ke kathaanak apne apne roop mein svatantr aur paripoorn hain tatha unamein maanaveeya bhaavanaaon tatha samaaj ke naana staron ka sudar chitran paaya jaata hai. haribhdr ki doosari ullekhaneeya praakrut rachana hai - dhoortaakhyaan. iske paaainch aakhyaanon mein paaainch dhoorton ne apne apne aise kathaanak sunaae hain jinse anek pauraanik atishyoktipoorn vruttaanton ki vyangyaatmak aalochna hoti hai. is prakaar yeh padyaatmak rachana praakrut mein hi naheen, kintu praacheen bhaarateeya saahitya mein vyangyakatha ka ek apoorv udaaharan hai.

isi prakaar ki ek katha udyotanasoorikrut kuvalayamaala (E. san 778) hai. ismein naayika tatha uske anya saathiyon ke teen-chaar janmaantaron ka varnan ati rochakata ke saath grathit kiya gaya hai.

dhaneshvarasoorikrut surasundareecharitr (11veen shati E.). gaathaatmak kathaanak hai jismein anek sanyog aur viyogaatmak premaakhyaan grathit hain. maheshvarasoorikrut jnyaaanapanchameekatha (11veen shati E.) mein dash dhaarmik kathaaon ka samaavesh hua hai. hemachandrakrut kumaarapaalacharit (12veen shati E.) aath sargo ka ek kaavya hai jismein karta ke samakaaleen Gujarat ke raaja kumaarapaal ke charitravarnan ke saath saath kavi ne apne praakrut vyaakaran ke niyamon ko usi kram se udaahrut kiya hai. is prakaar yeh sanskrut ke bhattikaavya ka smaran dilaata hai jismein paanineeya vyaakaran ke udaaharan upasthit kiye gaye hain, yadyapi yahaaain ve udaaharan us prakaar kramabaddh naheen hain jaise kumaarapaalacharitr mein. deveindrasoorikrut shreepaalacharit (14veen shati), devandraganikrut ratnachoodaaraayacharit, sumatisoorikrut jindattaakhyaan tatha jinharshaganikrut ratnashekhareekatha aadi anek praakrut kathaanak jain saahitya mein ulabdh hain tatha inke atirikt vratakathaaon ke roop mein bahut si laghu kathaaeain bhi praapt hain.

mahaaraashtri praakrut

dandi ne apne kaavyaadarsh naamak alankaar shaastr mein mahaaraashtri ko setubandhaadi kaavyon ki bhaasha kaha hai :

sahaaraashtraashrayaan bhaashaan prakrutashtan praakrutan vidu:.
saagar: sooktirtnaanaan setubandhaadi yanmayam.

isse praakrut bhaasha aur saahitya ke sambandh ki do mahatvapoorn baatein siddh hoti hain- ek to yeh ki dandi ke samay (chhathi saataveen shati) mein praakrut bhaasha ka jo svaroop viksit hokar kaavyarachana mein utarane laga tha, usi ka naam mahaaraashtri praakrut prasiddh hua aur doosari yeh ki isi praakrut mein setubandh aur usi ke sadrush anya bhi kuchh rachanaaeain us samay prasiddh ho chuki theen. saubhaagyat: dandi dvaara ullikhit setubandh kaavya ab bhi upalabdh hai aur praakrut ki ek utkrusht rachana maana jaata hai. iska ullekh vaanabhatt ne bhi harshacharit ko utthaanika mein is prakaar kiya hai :

keerti: pravarasenasya prayaata kumudojjavala.
saagarasya paran paaran kapisainaiv setuna.

isse siddh hota hai ki is setubandh ke karta ka naam pravarasen tha aur baan ke samay (saataveen shati ka madhya) tak iski keerti samudrapaar sambhavat: lanka tak pahuainch chuki thi. iska naam raavanavadh ya dashamukhavadh bhi paaya jaata hai. kaheen-kaheen iske karta kaalidaas bhi kahe gaye hain. is sambandh ke samast ullekhon ke vivechan se yeh baat pramaanit hoti hai ki is kaavya ke karta vaakaatakavanshi raaja rudrasen ke putr pravarasen hi hain. unke pita ki mrutyu unke baalyakaal mein hi ho gayi thi aur unki maata prabhaavati gupta raajya ka kaarya sainbhaalati theen. prabhaavati gupta samraat chandragupt vikramaaditya ki putri theen. iseeliye guptasamraat ne apni sabha ke mahaakavi kaalidaas ka kuchh kaal ke liye unke sahaayataarth bheja tha. anumaanat: usi beech yeh kaavyarachana hui aur kaalidaas ne usaka kuchh sanshodhan bhi kiya hoga. is baat ka kuchh aabhaas hamein kaavya ke aadi mein hi saataveen gaatha mein milta hai. in baaton se yeh rachana guptasamraat chandragupt dviteeya ke raajyakaal (E. san 380 se 413) ki siddh hoti hai. is kaavya mein 15 aashvaas hain aur pratyek aashvaas ke antim padya mein kavi ne apne ko anuraagaank ya anuraagachihn dvaara soochit kiya hai. kaavya ka kathaanak seeta apaharan ke pashchaat praarambh hota hai, jab Ram viyog ki vyatha mein hain. sugreev ki sahaayata se hunamaan dvaara lanka mein seeta ka pata lagaaya gaya aur fir Ram Lakshman vaanarasena sahit lanka par aakraman karne ke liye nikle, kintu samudratat par aakar ek badi samasya samudra paar karne ki upasthit hui. bade prayatn se us par setu banaaya gaya, sena paar hui; yuddh mein raavan maara gaya, tatha seeta ki agnipreeksha ke pashchaat unhein saath le Ram pushpak vimaan dvaara ayodhya ko laut aae. kathaanak vaalmeeki raamaayan ka hi anusaran karta hai, kintu prakruti tatha ghatnaaon ka varnan kavi ka apna hai. shaili samaas aur alankaaraprachur hai.

dandi ne mahaaraashtri ko jo setubandhaadi kaavyon ki bhaasha kaha hai, usase unka taatparya sambhavat: setubandh ke atirikt gaathaasaptashati se hai jiska ullekh baan ne harshacharit mein is prakaar kiya hai:

avinaashinmagraahyamakarotsaatavaahan:.
vishuddh jaatibhi: koshan ratnekhisubhaashitai:. (harshacharit 13)

iske anusaar saatavaahan ne sundar subhaashiton ka ek kosh nirmaan kiya tha. aadi mein yeh kosh subhaashitkosh ya gaathaakosh ke naam se hi prasiddh tha. peechhe kramash: saat sau gaathaaon ka samaavesh ho jaane par usaki saptashati naam se prasiddh hui. saatavaahan, shaalivaahan ya haal naresh bhaarateeya kathaasaahitya mein usi prakaar khyaatipraapt hain jaise vikramaaditya. vaatsyaayan tatha raajashekhar ne unhein kuntal ka raaja kaha hai aur somadevakrut kathaasaritsaagar ke anusaar ve naravaahanadat ke putr the tatha unki rajdhani pratishthaan (aadhunik paithan) thi. puraanon mein Andhra bhrutyon ki raajavanshaavali mein sarvapratham raaja ka naam saatavaahan tatha satrahavein naresh ka naam haal nirdisht kiya gaya hai. in sab pramaanon se haal ka samay E. ki pratham do, teen shatiyon ke beech siddh hota hai aur us samay gaatha saptashati ka kosh naamak mool sankalan kiya gaya hoga. raajashekhar ke anusaar saatavaahan ne apne ant:pur mein praakrut bhaasha ke hi prayog ka niyam bana diya tha. ek janashruti ke anusaar unheen ke samay mein gunaadhya dvaara paishaachi praakrut mein bruhatkatha rachi gayi, jiske ab keval sanskrut roopaantar bruhatkathaamanjari tatha kathaasaritsaagar milte hain. gaathaasaptashati ki pratyek gaatha apne roop mein paripoorn hai aur kisi maanaveeya bhaavana, vyavahaar ya praakrutik drushya ka atyant sarasata aur saundarya se chitran karti hai. shrrungaar ras ki pradhaanata hai, kintu haasya, kaarunya aadi rason ka bhi abhaav naheen hai. prakrutichitran mein vindhyaparvat or gola (godaavari) nadi ka naam pun:-pun: aata hai. gram, khet, upavan, jhaadi, nadi, kueain, taalaab aadi par purush striyon ke vilaasapoorn vyavahaar ev bhaavabhangiyon ka jaisa chitran yahaaain milta hai, vaisa anyatr durlabh hai. is sangrah ka pashchaatkaaleen saahitya par bada prabhaav pada hai. isi ke aadarsh par jain kavi jayavallabh ne "vajjaalaggan" naamak praakrut subhaashiton ka sangrah taiyaar kiya, jiski lagbhag 800 gaathaaon mein se koi 80 gaathaaeain isi kosh se uddhrut ki gayi hain. sanskrut mein govardhanaachaarya (11veen-12veen shati) ne isi ke anukaran par aaryaasaptashati ki rachana ki. hindi mein tulaseesatasai aur bihaari satasai sambhavat: isi rachana se prabhaavit hui hain.

praakrut mein jis prakaar setubandh ki khyaati kaavya ki drushti se rahi hai, usi prakaar leelaavati ki prasiddhi katha ki drushti se pai jaati hai. bhojadev, hemachandr, vaagbhatt aadi sanskrut ke alankaar shaastrakaaron ne gadyamayi katha ka udaaharan kaadambari aur padyamayi katha ka leelaavati ko diya hai. udyotanasoori ne apni kuvalayamaala naamak katha mein kautoohalakrut praakrut bhaasha rachit evam marahatth desheevachan nibddh shuddh sakalakatha ka ullekh kiya hai, jisse isi rachana ka abhipraaya siddh hota hai. usase iske karta ka naam kautoohal aur rachanaakaal 778 E. se poorv ka nishchaya ho jaata hai. yeh rachana kuchh varsh poorv hi prakaash mein I hai (bhaarateeya vidyaabhavan, Mumbai 1949) ismein koi parichhedaadi vibhaag naheen hain. lagaataar 13000 se kuchh adhik gaathaaon mein katha samaapt hui hai. 1330veen gaatha mein kavi ne swayam kaha hai ki unhonne iski rachana mahaaraashtri praakrut mein ki hai (raiyan marahatth desi bhaasaae). is katha ke naayak asmak desh ke pratishthaananagar ke raaja saatavaahan hain. ek maha ghatanaachakr ke pashchaat unka vivaah sinhal ke raaja shilaamegh ki Rajkumari leelaavati se hua. unke mantriyon ke naam yahaaain potsi aur kumaaril batalaae gaye hain. ye donon naam gaathaasaptashati va gaathaaon ke kartaaon mein bhi paae jaate hain. isse is baat ki bhi pushti hoti hai ki is katha ke karta saatavaahan, shaalivaahan ya haal hi hain ye teenon hi naam is katha mein yatr-tatr aae hain. katha badi saral aur saras shaili mein varnit hai.

mahaaraashtri praakrut ka ek utkrusht kaavya hai gaudavaho (gaudavadh) jiske karta vaakpatiraaj ne apne ko kaanyabuj naresh yashovarma ka samakaaleen kaha hai. unhonne bhaas, sanbandhu, harich evam bhavabhooti aadi kaviyon ka ullekh bhi kiya hai. in sab lekhon par se inka samay 8 veen shati E. anumaan kiya ja sakta. is kaavya mein bhi koi parichhed naheen hai. lagaataar 1200 se kuchh oopar gaathaaeain hain, jinmein raaja yashovarma ke prataap aur unki jayayaatra tatha gauddesh ke raaja ke vadh ka varnan kiya gaya hai.

praakrut kaavyarachana ki parampara 18veen shati tak bataai jaati hai. is shataabdi ke prasiddh praakrut kavi hain raamapaanivaad (E. 1707 se 1775) jinki do praakrut rachanaaeain suprasiddh hain. ek hai kansavaho (kansavadh) jiske chaar sargo mein uddhav ke dvaara Krishna aur balaraam ko dhanushayajnya ke bahaane gokul se Mathura le jaane aur unke dvaara kans ki mrutyu ka varnan Bhagwat ki katha ke aadhaar kiya gaya hai. shaili mein kaalidaas, bhaaravi tatha maagh ki rachanaaon ka prabhaav spasht dikhaai deta hai. raamapaanivaad ka doosra praakaavya hai ushaaniruddhan, jismein pradyumn ke putr aniruddh ka baanaaki putri usha se vivaah ka varnan chaar sargo mein kiya gaya hai. yeh kathaanak bhi bhaagavataadi puraanon par aashrit hai, kintu kavi ne apni kaavyapratibha se achha sajaaya hai. sudooravarti Kerala mein 18veen shati mein shuddh praakrut ki ye kaavyarachanaaeain is baat ka pramaan hain ki praakrut ke pathan-paathan tatha kaavyasrujan ka pravaah paristhiti ke anusaar teevr aur mand bhale hi pada ho, kintu vah sarvatha sookha naheen hai.

praakrut saahitya ka mahatva

is prakaar praakrut saahitya apne roop evam vishay ki drushti se bada mahatvapoorn hai tatha bhaarateeya sanskruti ke sarvaang parisheelan ke liye usaka sthaan adviteeya hai. usamein un lokabhaashaaon ka pratinidhitv kiya jaata hai jinhonne vaidik kaal evam sambhavat: usase bhi poorvakaal se lekar desh ke naana bhaagon ko ganga yamuna aadi mahaanadiyon ke anumaan plaavit kiya hai aur usaki saahityabhoomi ko urvara banaaya hain. E. poorv chhathi shati se lekar praaya: vartamaan tak praakrut bhaashaaon mein grantharachana hoti chali I hai, yadyapi shaastreeya drushti se un bhaashaaon ka vikaas E. san 1000 tak hi maana jaata hai, kyonki uske pashchaat hindi, gujaraati, maraathi, baingala, aadi aadhunik bhaashaaon ka yug praarambh hota hai. magadh se lekar darad pradesh (pashchimottar Bhaarat) tatha himaalaya se lekar sinhal dweep tak ki naanaavidh lokabhaashaaon ka svaroop praakrut mein surakshit hai. is saahitya ka bahu bhaag yadyapi jainadharm vishyak hai, tathaapi usamein tatkaaleen lokajeevan aisa pratibinbit hai jaisa anyatr durlabh hai. ismein naanaakaaleen evam naanaadesheeya aitihaasik, raajaneetik, aarthik, saamaajik aadi mahatvapoorn jhaaainkiyaaain dikhaai deti hai jinka bhaarateeya itihaas mein yathochit moolyaankan karna abhi shesh hai. bhaashaaon ke atirikt desh ke dhaarmik, daarshanik va naitik vikaas ki parampara aur usaki gutthiyon ko spashtata se samajhne mein is saahitya se bahumoolya sahaayata mil sakti hai. yeh mahatvapoorn saahitya abhi tak poornat: prakaashit naheen ho saka hai. jitna bhaag prakaashit hua hai usaka bhi samaalochanaatmak reeti se sanpaadan bahut kam hua hai vaigyaanik tatha tulanaatmak adhyayan bhi bahut shesh hai.

yeh bhi dekhiye