praagitihaas

aaj se lagbhag 27,000 saal pehle fraans ki ek gufa mein ek praagaitihaasik maanav ne apne haath ke irdagird kaalakh lagaakar yeh chhaap chhodi

praagitihaas (Prehistory) itihaas ke us kaal ko kaha jaata hai jab maanav to astitv mein the lekin jab likhaai ka aavishkaar na hone se us kaal ka koi likhit varnan naheen hai.[1] is kaal mein maanav-itihaas ki kai mahatvapoorn ghatanaaeain hui jinmein himyug, maanavon ka afreeka se nikalkar anya sthaanon mein vistaar, aag par svaamitv paana, krushi ka aavishkaar, kutton va anya jaanvaron ka paalatoo banana ityaadi shaamil hain. aisi cheejon ke keval chinh hi milte hain, jaise ki pattharon ke praacheen aujaar, puraane maanav padaavon ka avashesh aur gufaaon ki kala.

itihaasakaar praagaitihaas ko kai shreniyon mein baantate hain. ek aisi vibhaajan pranaali mein teen yug bataae jaate hain:

praagaitihaasik kaal mein maanavon ka vaataavaran bahut bhinn tha. aksar maanav chhote kbeelon mein rahate the aur unhein jangali jaanvaron se joohjte hue shikaari-framar jeevan vyateet karna padta tha. vishv ki adhiktar jagahein apni praakrutik sthiti mein theen.[2] aise kai jaanavar the jo aadhunik duniya mein naheen milte, jaise ki maimath aur baaladaar gainda.[3] vishv ke kuchh hisson mein aadhunik maanavon se alag bhi kuchh maanav jaatiyaaain theen jo ab vilupt ho chuki hain, jaise ki Europe aur madhya Asia mein rahane vaale niandarathal maanav. anuvaanshiki anusandhaan se pata chala hai ki bhaarateeyon-samet sabhi gair-afreeki maanav kuchh had tak inhi niandarathalon ki santaan hain, yaani aadhunik maanavon aur niandarathalon ne aapas mein bachche paida kiye the.[4]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Prehistory: A Very Short Introduction, Chris Gosden, pp. 25, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-19-280343-6, ... Obviously no spoken or written records survive from this period (in the absence of our hypothetical time-travellers) and this is the definition of prehistory. It is the time before words. Prehistory is the sense we make of our physical evidence ...
  2. Landscapes in History: Design and Planning in the Eastern and Western Traditions, Philip Pregill, Nancy Volkman, pp. 11, John Wiley & Sons, 1999, ISBN 978-0-471-29328-6, ... Prehistory: Migration. and. Adaptation. The imprint of human culture on the landscape is a recent phenomenon, of short duration ...
  3. Social Zooarchaeology: Humans and Animals in Prehistory, Nerissa Russell, pp. 194, Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-521-76737-8, ... Humans clearly did hunt at least some of the extinct species, notably mammoth, as attested by occasional kill sites ...
  4. Human Genetics and Society, Ronnee K. Yashon, Michael R. Cummings, pp. 351, Cengage Learning, 2011, ISBN 978-0-538-73321-2, ... Scientists found Neanderthal genes in modern humans from Europe, Asia, and New Guinea, but none in modern humans from Africa ... Researchers concluded that interbreeding between the two species took place after prehistoric humans migrated out of Africa ...