praacheen yoonaani chikitsaavijnyaaan

hippokretas : paashchaatya jagat mein ise chikitsaavijnyaaan ka janak maana jaata hai.

yoonaani chikitsaavijnyaaan ka sabse mahatvapoorn vyakti hippokretas tha jise paashchaatya jagat 'chikitsaavijnyaaan ka janak' kehta hai. hippokraitas aur anya logon ki krutiyon ka islaami chikitsaavijnyaaan aur madhyakaal ke Europeeya chikitsaavijnyaaan par gahari chhaap padi aur antat: 14veen shati ke baad ye siddhaant kaalaateet (obsolete) ho gaye.

anukram

parichay

'yoonaani' shabd sanskrut 'yavanaani' ka roopaantar maatr hai, jo swayam 'yavan' shabd se vyutpann hai. paanini ke samay mein �ayavanaanee�ashabd yavan ki stri ke liye prayukt haata tha. peechhe yeh shabd yavanon ki lipi aur yavanon ki bhaasha ke liye bhi prayukt hone laga. praacheen kaal mein grees desh ko yoonaan kehte the aur vahaaain ke tatha Syria ke rahanevaalon ko yoonaani. sanskrut granthon se pata lagta hai ki praacheen kaal mein videshiyon aur vidhrmiyon ko yavan kehte the. yeh shabd us samay se prachalit hai, jab islaam dharm aur musalmaanon ka sansaar mein kaheen naamonishaan bhi naheen tha. aaj yoonaani chikitsaapaddhati musalmaanon ke haath mein hai. iske granth arabi, faarasi aur ab urdoo mein bhi milte hain. praacheen yoonaani granth greek aur laitin bhaashaaon mein the. unheen ka anuvaad arabon ne apni bhaasha mein kiya tha. arabon ko chikitsa ka gyaan yoonaan se hi praapt hua tha aur usaki pratishtha, praacheenata evam praamaanikta soochit karne ke liye unhonne chikitsaapaddhati ke saath yoonaani shabd jod diya tha. arab vaale is paddhati ko hi aaj apni paddhati maanate hain. yoonaani paddhati ka aavirbhaav yoonaan mein hua tha, jiski vruddhi mein anek yoonaani daarshanikon ka, jaise askaleepyoos (Ascelepus), vukaraat (Hippocrates) pithaigorais (pythhagoras), aflaatoon (Plato), arastu (Aristotle) aur peechhe iskandariya ke irofils (Herophhilus), eraasistraatas (Erasistratus) aur ant mein jaaleenoos (Galenus) ka sahayog praapt hua tha.

kaalaantar mein yoonaani vidya ka hraas hona shuroo hua. yoonaani vidya ko romanavaalon ne grahan kar liya, par ve usaka vikaas kuchh naheen kar sake. is beech islaam dharm ka praadurbhaav hua. musalmaan shaasakon ne yoonaan ke jnyaaanakosh ko arabi dhaaainche mein dhaal liya aur usaki anya deshon ke gyaan vigyaan evam vidyaaon se tulana ki. isse anek deshaan ke jnyaaanabhandaar ka arabi bhaasha mein sangrah ho gaya.

ab arabi vidvaan pratilipi evam anuvaad kaarya se virt hone ke uparaant, gyaan vigyaan ke poorn adhikaari ban gaye tatha unke paas ek jnyaaanakosh sanchit ho gaya. tab aadhikaarik ban gaye tatha unke paas ek jnyaaanakosh sanchit ho gaya. tab aadhikaarik roop se inhonne in praacheen siddhaanton evam samasyaaon ka parisheelan, vivechan, meemaansa aur anveshan aarambh kiya aur unke pratyek angopaang mein vikaas kiya. doosare shabdon mein yoonaani vaidyak, arabi vaidyak ka paridhaan dhaaran karne laga. arabi vikaas mool jnyaaanakosh ke saath aisa hil mil gaya ki use pruthak karna dushkar evam durooh ho gaya.

arabon ke shaasan ke shaantikaal mein jo vaidyak granth praneet kiye gaye, ve itne uchch koti ke siddh hue ki sabhi paashchaatya aur poorv deshon ke vidvaanon ne aise granthon ko paathay granth ke roop mein sveekrut kar liya.

yoonaan mein vaidyak gyaan ka prasaar misr aur feenishiya dvaara hua. aayurved ka bahut sa gyaan Bhaarat se bauddh bhikshuon dvaara, athva Syria aur baibiloniya haakar, misr gaya, misr se yunaan gaya, athva Iran hokar yoonaan gaya aur vahaan se arab aur anya pashchaatya deshon mein faila. aadhunik paashchaatya vaidyak vigyaan ka aadhaar bhaarateeya aayurved hi hai aur ailopaithi ka mool mantra Bhaarat se hi gaya. vastut: aadhunik ailopaithi mein yoonaani aur aayurvedeeya chikitsaapaddhati donon hi mile hue hain. Bhaarat ki chikitsaapaddhati praacheen kal mein adhik samruddh aur unnat thi. cheeni chikitsa paddhati par bhi iska spasht prabhaav pada dekha jaata hai.

yoonaani vaidyak ke aadhaarbhoot siddhaant, arakaan arabaaa aur arabalaat arabaaa aadi, aaryavaidyak mein bahut pehle se sthir ho chuke the aur inhein chaturmahaabhoot, ya panchamahaabhoot aur chaturdosh, ya tridosh aadi naamon se jaante the. ukt kaal mein hi bukaraat, daaiosakaurideej (Dioscorides) aur jaaleenoos aadi ke granthon mein anek bhaarateeya dravyon tatha siddhaanton ka grahan ho chuka tha. muvashshir ivanafaatik ne mukhtaarool hukm mein likha hai �ajab sikandar ne daara par vijay pai, to usane iraaniyon ke samast granth nasht kar diye, keval jyotish, darshan aur vaidyak ke granth chhod diye, jinka uske aadesh se yoonaaneeya bhaashaantar kiya gaya.�asanbhavat: Bhaarat se bhi isi prakaar vaidyak vidya ke kosh yoonaaniyon ke haath aae hon.

sikandar ke aakraman ne yoonaaniyon tatha bhaarateeyon ke beech sambandh paida kar diya tha. is melajol ka avashyambhaavi parinaam yeh hua ki yoonaaniyon ne bhaarateeyon se vidhi gyaan vigyaan seekhe. baad mein bhi yeh sambandh Iran, Syria aur iskandariya se bana raha. dau॰ haurnle (Hornle) tatha dau॰ nyoobarg (Neuberg) ne likha hai ki teejiais (Ctesias) aur megaastheeneej (Megasthenes) naamak do yoonaani hakeem isavi san se 4 shati poorv gyaan ki khoj mein Bhaarat aae the. yeh kaaran hai ki uttarakaaleen yoonaani granthon mein branapooran ki bhaarateeya vidhiyon ka ullekh milta hai. yoonaaniyon se yoonaani bhaasha ke granthein dvaara Europe, Asia aur Africa ki anek jaatiyon ne is vidya ko seekha aur usaka prachalan har sthaan par ho gaya tha.

yoonaani-roosi-sanskruti ke haas ke pashchaat gyaan aur vidya ke saath vaidyak ki dharohar bhi musalmaanon ke haath mein I jinhonne ise balakh, bokhaara, turkistaan, cheen aur Bhaarat se lekar andalus (Spain) tak failaaya. islaam ke praarambhik kaal mein, yadyapi iske abhibhaavak musalmaan avashya the, tathaapi yeh anya jaatiyon ke haath mein rahi. lagbhag dedh sau varsho tak yoonaani chikitsa paddhati ko isaai, yahoodi, taaraapoojak, Irani, kuldaani (Kelts), misri aur surayaani aadi vibhinn bhaashaabhaashi jaatiyaaain jaananevaali theen. jab in granthon ka arabi mein anuvaad ho gaya tab musalmaanon ne is vidya ko seekhana praarambh kiya, tab anek vishvavikhyaat, hakeemon jaise raaji aur shekh, ka praadurbhaav hua.

aadhaarbhoot siddhaant

yoonaani chikitsa ke aadhaarbhoot siddhaant nimnalikhit hai:

ilmetib (vaidyak) shaastr hai jisse maanavashareer ki svasth tatha asvasth avasthaaon ka gyaan hota hai aur yeh shaastr bataata hai ki svaasthya ki raksha kaise ki ja sati hai tatha rogaavastha mein rog ka nivaaran kaise ho sakta hai. manushya ka svaasthya un tatvon ki praakrutik aur apraakrutik sthiti par nirbhar karta hai jinse maanav shareer bana hai. in tatvon ko yoonaani chikitsak umoor mukabvema, ya ajjaai mukavvema, kehte hain. manushya ka astitv inaheen tatvon par nirbhar hai. jab tak ye tatv apni praakrutik avastha mein rahate hain, tab tak maanav shareer apna kaarya niyamit roop se karta hai. isi ka naam svaasthya hai. in mool tatvon par hi maanav prakruti ki utpatti nirbhar karti hai, di in tatvon mein ek bhi na rahe, to maanav shareer ki sthiti asambhav ho jaayagi.

umoor tabeeiyya ko hi aayurved mein dosh-dhaatumal-vigyaan aur ailopaithi mein fijiyauloji kehte hain. umoor tabeeiyya mein saat tatvon ka samaavesh hai:

  • 1. arakaan (chaturmahaabhoot);
  • 2. mijaaj, ya gun prakruti;
  • 3. akhalaat, ya chaturdosh (maanav shareer ke samast drav upaadaan);
  • 4. aaja, ya dhaatu tatha ang pratyang evam srot;
  • 5. aravaah, ya oj evam vaayu;
  • 6. kuva, ya bal aur
  • 7. afaal (shareer kriya ya karm).

ye hi shareer ke kool ghatak, ya upaadaan hai jinse manushya bana hai. ilm manaafedal aaja (kriya shareer granthon) mein inheen padaartho ka niroopan hua karta hai.

yoonaaniyon ne shareer ke sanghatanakaari samast padaartho ko do pradhaan bhaagon, dravyabhoot aur adravyabhoot, mein baaainta hai adravyabhoot ghatak dravya naheen hai. yeh dravyabhoot ghatakon ke aashray se rahanevaala unka gunadharm hai. inahein chhod dene par dravyabhoot ghatak keval chaar thaharate hain, jinmein arakaan dravyeebhoot ghatakon ke bhi nirmaayak moolabhoot tatv hain. ise chhod dene par keval teen dravyabhoot ghatak, akhalaat, aaja aur aravaah rah jaate hai.

yoonaaniyon ne shareer ke samast sanghatanakaari tatvon ko svaroop ki ddashti se teen vargo mein baaainta hai:

  • 1. vaayu roop samast ghatak aravaah;
  • 2. drav roop samast ghatak, akhlaat aur
  • 3. thos roop samast ghatak, aaja.

shaikhurrais ne yoonaani vaidyak ke samast pratipaadya vishyon aur unke ang pratyangon ka apne suprasidv granth, al kaanoon ke praarabhik adhyaayon mein vishd vivran diya hain. is granth mein yeh bhi bataayaya gaya hain ki hakeem ko kin kin bishyon ko kitna jaanana aavashyak hain tatha kin bishyon mein pratyaksh, anubhav evam pareekshan apekshit hain. shekh mahodaya kulliyaat kaanoon ki doosari fasal maujaaat tib (chikitsa ke pratipaadya) mein farmaatein hain :

'chookin yoonaani vaidyak shaastr svaasthya aur asvaasthya (sehat evam javaale sehat) ki ddashti se maanav shareer ka niroopan karta hain aur pratyek vastu ka gyaan usi samay purnataya praapt kar liya jaaya, basharte ki us vastu ke kaaran ka hon, iske liye yeh aavashyak hain ki yoonaani vaidyak shaastr mein svaasthya aur asvaasthya (rog) ke hetu, unke kaaran gyaat kiye jaae. chooainki svaasthya tatha unke nidaan kaaran kabhi vyakti evam prakat hote hain aur kabhi avyakt evam aprakat, jo jnyaaanedriyon se gyaat naheen kiye ja sakte pratyoot unke gyaan ke liye upadrav evam lakshan ke pathapradarshan ki apeksha hua karti hain, isaliye yeh bhi anivaarya ho gaya ki yoonaani vaidyak shaastr mein svaasthyaavastha evam asvaasthyaavastha (rogavastha) mein hone vaale un upadravon evam lakshanon ka ullekh kiya jaaya jinse ham svaasthya evam asvaasthya arthaat rog ke pahachaanane mein samarth ho jaatein hain. �auloom hakeekiya (jaati tatha dharm nirpeksh) mein aisa kaha hain ki kisi vastu ka gyaan uske nidaan kaaranon se praapt hota hain. yadi uske nidaan kaaran na ho, to uske niji lakshanon ke gyaan se kuchh seema tak usaka pata lag jaata hain.

yoonaani grantho mein asbaag (haituki) ke chaar bhed bataae gaye hain. ye hain : asbaab maaddiya, asbaab faaeliya, asbaab sooriya aur asbaab tamaamiya, ya gaiya. basbaab maaddiya (samavaayikaaran) se svaasthya evam rog adhishthit hote hain. iske bhi do upabhed hai: 1. sannikrusht (maujooa kareeb) aur viprakrusht (maujaa badai). sannikrusht nidaan ang pratyang, oj evam vaayu hein aur viprakrusht nidaan chaturdosh (akhalaat) aur chaturmahaabhoot (arakaan) hain. asabaab faaeliya ve kaaran hain, jo maanav shareer ke bheetar parirvatan karte hein, ya unki raksha karatein hain. asbaab sooriya ke teen upabhed hai: 1. prakruti (majaajaat), 2. bal (kuva) aur 3. sangathan (taraakeeb). prakruti, bal aur sangathan ke yathaavat rahane se baahya svaasthya paaya jaata hain. in teenon mein se kisi ek ke vikrut hone se rog hota hein. asbaab tamaamiya shareer kriyaaeain (afakaal) hain.

sutara yoonaani vaidyak mein nimn vishyon ka pratipaadan kiya jaata hai : mahaabhoot (arakaan) prakruti (mijaajaat), dosh (akhlaat), abhishraavayav (aajaae baseeta, mufarada), sanmishraavayav (aajaae murakkaba), praan aur oj (aravaah), bal (kuvaae tabaiyaya, haivaaniya va nafasaaviya, shareer kriya va karm (afaal), svaasthyaya evam asvaasthya aur tanmadhyavarti haalaat (haalaat saalasa), asvastha drusht, ya shareerik avastha mein aur adholikhit nidaan kaaran khaadya, peya, vaayu, jal, desh tatha sthaan, sansaadhan, stanbhan, vyavasaaya, svabhaav, kaayika evam maanasik kaarya, akaarya, vibhinn vaayu lingabhed, shareer par aane vaale anya bhraaa vishay (umoor gareeb), svaasthya sanrakshan, pratyek vyaadhi ke nivaaranaarth khaadh evam peya ki vidhi, cheshta acheshta (harakaat va sakanaat) ka anumaan, aushadhasevan, hastakarm evam shalyakarm se laabh uthaana. inmein kuchh to aise hain jinhein hakeem ko bina tark ke maan lena chaahiye aur kuchh aise hain jinhein tark aur yukti se sidv karna hota hain.

vaidyak shaastr mein kuchh vishay anya shaastron se grahan kiye gaye hain, aise vishyon ka svaroop tark evam yukti ke bina sveekaar kar lena vaidya ke liye anivaarya hain. ang pratyang aur unke karm (afaaal) to jnyaaaneindriyon aur shavachhanden evam shalyakarm (tashreeh) se gyaat kiye jaatein hain. shekh kehte hain, jin vishyon ka jaanana aur jinki vaidyak mein tark evam yukti se siddh karna aavashyak hein, ve rog, unke nidaan kaaran (asbaab juj iyaya) aur unke lakshan hai tatha yeh hai ki vyaadhi ka nivaaran kis prakaar kiya jaae evam svaasthya sanrakshan kis prakaar ho sakta hain. ye vishay aise hein ki unamein se jinka astiv spasht evam nishchit na ho, unako samay aur pramaan- varnaanaasah tark evam yukti - se vistaarapoorvak siddh karna aavashyak hain.

shekh ke vivran se hamein jahaaain yoonaani vaidyak ke samast pratipaadyon evam sidvaanto ka sankshep mein gyaan ho jaata hain, vahaaain is vishay ka bhi gyaan hota hain ki in praacheen vidvaanon ke paas pratyaksh jnyaaanaarth us praarambhik evam saral yug mein jo jo upakaran upalabdh the, unase apni shakti evam saamarthya bhar kaam lene mein in audyogikon (jafaakaashon) ne koi baat utha naheen rakhi hain.

kapitya sidvaanto ka badalna aur vibhinn anveshak ka vibhinn kaal mein vibhinn nishkarsh par pahuainchana, ek abaadh niyam hain. paashchaatya vaigyaanik vishyon ke sambandh mein bhi aisa sada hi hota aa raha hain. jo baat ek samay akaatya satya samajhi jaati thi, vah nae saadhanon, upakaranon aur khojon se anek baar asatya pramaanit hui hain. pratyaksh gyaan ke baad bhi bhooyodarshan karne vaalon se bhool hona sambhav hai, to is niyam se praacheen vidvaan bhi naheen bach sakte hain. apni saamarthya ke anusaar prakruti ke niyamon ka adhyayan evam nireekshan unhonein kiya. pratyaksh prayog ya anubhav ke baad kuchh nishkarsh sthir kiye, unamein se kuchh peechhe ke prayogon aur anubhavon se mithya siddh hue. isse ham un praacheen vidvaanon ko dosh naheen de sakatein. shaikhurais ke anusaar vyaadhi ka pratikaar hetuvyaadhivipreet (bijjid) dvaara hi kiya jaata hain. ise elaaj vijjid keetan hain. yahi moolabhoot siddhaant anya chikitsa pranaaliyon ke bhi hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain