praacheen yoonaani bhaasha

praacheen yoonaani bhaasha (athva praacheen greek, angreji : Ancient Greek, yoonaani : helleniki) praacheen kaal ke yoonaan desh aur uske aas-paas ke kshetron ki mukhya bhaasha thi. ise sanskrut ki bahin bhaasha maana ja sakta hai. ye hind-Europeeya bhaasha-parivaar ki yoonaani shaakha mein aati hai. ise ek shaastreeya bhaasha maana jaata hai, jismein kaafi zyaada aur uchk koti ka saahitya racha gaya tha, jismein sabse khaas homar ke do mahaakaavya iliyaad aur odessi hain. iska vyaakaran, shabdaavali, dhvani-tantr aur sangeetamaya boli ise sanskrut ke kaafi kareeb rakh deti hai. iski bolabhaal ki boli koinai greek mein hi baaibal ka lagbhag saara naya niyam likha gaya tha.

lipi

ye bhaasha yoonaani lipi mein likhi jaati thi, jiske akshar aaj bhi ganit mein prayukt hote hain. praacheen yoonaani lipi pehle baayein se daayein likhi jaati thi, fir agali pankti mein daayein se baayein. yahi naheen, agali pankti me sabhi aksharon ke aaine vaale pratibimb likhne hote the ! lagabhaag doosari sadi isaapoorv se yoonaaniyon ne likhaavat hamesha baayein se daayein likhna shuru kar diya. akshar kuchh praanteeya bhinnata bhi rakhate the.

dhvani-tantr

sanskrut ko chhod praacheen yoonaani shaayad akeli aisi bhaasha hai (hind-Europeeya parivaar mein), jismein shuddh mahaapraan dhvaniyaaain mil sakti hain : f, th aur kh.

shabd roop

sanskrut ki hi tarah praacheen yoonaani bhi bahirmukhi shlisht-yogaatmak bhaasha thi. matlab ki usamein bhi shabdon ke ant mein pratyaya lagaakar sanjnyaa aur kriya ke roop aur vibhktiyaaain banaayi jaati theen. sanskrut ko chhodkar praacheen yoonaani hi aisi bhaasha hai jismein sanjnyaa aur kriya mein "dvivchan" hota hai.