praacheen misr

geeja ke piraamid, praacheen misr ki sabhyata ke sabse zyaada pahachaane jaane vaale prateekon mein se ek hain.
praacheen misr ka maanachitr, pramukh shaharon aur raajavansheeya avadhi ke sthalon ko darshaata hua. (kareeb 3150 isa poorv se 30 E.poo.)

praacheen misr, neel nadi ke nichle hisse ke kinaare kendrit poorv uttari Africa ki ek praacheen sabhyata thi, jo ab aadhunik desh misr hai. yeh sabhyata 3150 E.poo.[1] ke aas-paas, pratham fairo ke shaasan ke tahat oopari aur nichle misr ke raajaneetik ekeekaran ke saath samaahit hui aur agali teen sadiyon mein viksit hoti rahi.[2] iska itihaas sthir raajyon ki ek shrrunkhala se nirmit hai, jo sambandhit asthirta ke kaal dvaara vibhaajit hai, jise madhyavarti kaal ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. praacheen misr navin saamraajya ke dauraan apne choti par pahuainchi, jiske baad isne mand patan ki avadhi mein pravesh kiya. is uttaraardh kaal ke dauraan misr par kai videshi shaktiyon ne vijay praapt ki aur fairo ka shaasan aadhikaarik taur par 31 E.poo. mein tab samaapt ho gaya, jab praarambhik roman saamraajya ne misr par vijay praapt ki aur ise apna ek praant bana liya.[3]

praacheen misr ki sabhyata ki safalta, neel nadi ghaati ki paristhitiyon ke anukool dhalane ki kshamata se aanshik roop se prabhaavit thi. is upajaaoo ghaati mein, ummeed ke mutaabik baadh aur niyantrit sinchaai ke kaaran aavashyakta se adhik fasal hoti thi, jisne saamaajik vikaas aur sanskruti ko badhaava diya. sansaadhanon ki adhikta ke kaaran, prashaasan ne ghaati aur aas-paas ke registaani kshetron mein khanij dohan, ek svatantr lekhan pranaali ke praarambhik vikaas, saamoohik nirmaan aur krushi pariyojanaaon ka sangathan, aas-paas ke kshetron ke saath vyaapaar aur videshi dushmanon ko haraane aur misr ke prabhutv ko majboot karne ka iraada rakhane waali sena ko praayojit kiya. in gatividhiyon ko prerit aur aayojit karna sanbhraant lekhakon, dhaarmik netaaon aur prashaasakon ki naukarashaahi thi, jo ek fairo ke shaasan ke adheen the, jisne dhaarmik vishvaason ki ek vistrut pranaali ke sandarbh mein misr ke logon ki ekta aur sahayog ko sunishchit kiya.[4][5]

praacheen misr ke logon ki kai upalabdhiyon mein shaamil hai utkhanan, sarvekshan aur nirmaan ki takaneek jisne vishaalakaaya piraamid, mandir aur obilisk ke nirmaan mein madad ki; ganit ki ek pranaali, ek vyaavahaarik aur kaaragar chikitsa pranaali, sinchaai vyavastha aur krushi utpaadan takaneek, pratham gyaat pot,[6] misr ke mitti ke bartan aur kaanch praudyogiki, saahitya ke nae roop aur gyaat, sabse praarambhik shaanti sandhi.[7] misr ne ek sthaayi viraasat chhodi. iski kala aur sthaapatya ko vyaapak roop se apnaaya gaya aur iski praacheen vastuon ko duniya ke doosare kone tak le jaaya gaya. iske vishaal khandaharon ne yaatriyon aur lekhakon ki kalpana ko sadiyon tak prerit kiya. praarambhik aadhunik kaal ke dauraan praacheen vastuon aur khudaai ke prati ek nae sammaan ne misr aur duniya ke liye misr sabhyata ki vaigyaanik padtaal aur usaki saanskrutik viraasat ki apekshaakrut adhik prashansa ko prerit kiya.[8]

anukram

itihaas

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Egypt
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
Old Kingdom
First Intermediate Period
Middle Kingdom
Second Intermediate Period
New Kingdom
Third Intermediate Period
First Persian Period
Late Period
Second Persian Period
Ptolemaic Dynasty

saaaincha:Main.History of ancient Egypt

peliyolithik kaal ke uttaraardh tak, uttari afreeka ki shushk jalavaayu teji se garm aur shushk ho gayi, jisne is kshetr ki aabaadi ko neel nadi ghaati ke kinaare-kinaare basane par majaboor kar diya aur kareeb 120 hajaar saal pehle madhya pleestoseen ke ant se khaanaabadosh aadhunik maanav shikaariyon ne is kshetr mein rahana shuroo kiya, tab se neel nadi misr ki jeevan rekha rahi hai.[9] neel nadi ke upajaaoo baadh maidaan ne logon ko ek basi hui krushi arthavyavastha aur adhik parishkrut, kendreekrut samaaj ke vikaas ka mauka diya, jo maanav sabhyata ke itihaas mein ek aadhaar bana.[10]

poorv-raajavansheeya avadhi

poorv-raajavansheeya aur aaranbhik raajavansheeya samay, misr ki jalavaayu aaj ki apeksha bahut kam shushk thi. misr ke vishaal kshetr savaana vrukshon se bhare hue the aur vahaaain charane vaale angulet ke jhundon ka vichran hua karta tha. parn aur jeev sabhi paripradesh mein adhik urvar the aur neel nadi kshetr ne jalapakshi ki badi aabaadi ki madad ki. mishr ke logon ke beech shikaar aam raha hoga aur shaayad isi samay kai pashuon ko paalatoo banaaya gaya hoga.[11]

gjls se susajjit ek vishisht naakaada II martabaan. (poorv-raajavansheeya kaal)

5500 E.poo. tak, neel nadi ghaati mein rahane waali chhoti janajaatiyaaain sanskrutiyon ki ek shrrunkhala mein viksit huin, jo unke krushi aur pashupaalan par niyantran se pata chalta hai aur unke mitti ke paatr aur vyaktigat vastuen jaise kanghi, kangan aur motiyon se unhein pahachaana ja sakta hai. oopari misr ki in aaranbhik sanskrutiyon mein sabse vishaal, badaari ko iski uchch gunavatta vaale cheeni mitti ki vastuon, patthar ke upakaran aur taanbe ke unke upayog ke liye jaana jaata hai.[12]

uttari misr mein badaari ke baad amareshan aur garjiyn sanskrutiyaan[13] I jinhonne kai behtar takaneekon ko pradarshit kiya. garjiyn samay mein, praarambhik saboot kanaan aur biblos tat ke saath sampark hone ko siddh karte hain.[14]

dakshini misr mein, badaari ke samaan hi naakaada sanskruti ka, 4000 E.poo. ke aas-paas neel nadi ke kinaare vistaar shuroo hua. nakaada I avadhi ke samay se hi poorv-raajavansheeya misr, ithiyopiya se obseediyn ka aayaat karta tha, jiska prayog chingaari se blade aur anya vastuon ko aakaar dene mein kiya jaata tha.[15] lagbhag 1000 varsh ki avadhi ke dauraan, naakaada sanskruti, chand chhote krushak samudaaya se viksit hokar ek shaktishaali sabhyata mein tabdeel ho gayi jiske netaaon ka janta aur neel nadi ghaati ke sansaadhanon par poora niyantran tha.[16] satta ke kendra ki sthaapana pehle heeraakonapolis aur fir baad mein abidos mein karte hue, naakaada III ke shaasakon ne misr ke apne niyantran ko neel nadi ke uttar ki or vistaar kiya.[17] unhonne dakshin mein noobiya ke saath bhi kaarobaar kiya, pashchim mein pashchimi registaan ke oases se aur poorv mein poorvi bhoomadhya saagar ki sanskrutiyon ke saath.[17]

naakaada sanskruti ne bhautik vastuon ka vividhta ke saath utpaadan kiya, jo kuleen varg ki badhti taakat aur sampatti ko pratibinbit karta hai, jismein shaamil the chitrit mitti ke bartan, uchch gunavatta vaale patthar ke sajaavati guladaste, cosmetic pattiyaan aur sone ke gahane, laapees aur haathi-daant. unhonne ek seraamik glej bhi viksit kiya jise faaens ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jiska roman kaal mein cup, taabeej aur moortiyon ko sajaane mein kaafi istemaal hota tha.[18] poorv-raajavansheeya kaal ke antim charan ke dauraan, naakaada sanskruti ne likhit prateekon ka upayog karna shuroo kiya jo antat: praacheen misr ki bhaasha likhne ke liye heeeroglifs ki ek poori pranaali mein viksit ho gaya.[19]

praarambhik raajavansheeya kaal

narmer rangapattika, do bhoomiyon ke ekeekaran ko darshaati hai.[20]

teesari shataabdi isa poorv ke misr ke pujaari manetho ne menes ke fairoon ki lambi kataar ko apne samay mein 30 raajavanshon mein samoohit kiya, ek aisi pranaali jiska istemaal aaj bhi ho raha hai.[21] usane "meni" (ya greek mein menes) naam ke raaja ke saath apna aadhikaarik itihaas shuroo karna pasand kiya, jisne maanyataanusaar oopari aur nichli mishr ke do saamraajyon ko ekajut kiya (kareeb 3200 E.poo.).[22] ek ekeekrut raajya ke roop mein parivartan, vaastav mein praacheen misr ke lekhak jitna hamein vishvaas dilaate hain usase kaheen zyaada kramik roop se hua aur menes ka koi samakaaleen record maujood naheen hai. tathaapi, kuchh vidvaanon ka ab maanana hai ki mithkeeya menes vaastav mein fairo naarmar ho sakta hai, jise vaidhik naarmar rangapattika par ekeekaran ki ek prateekaatmak kriya ke roop mein shaahi raajachihn pahane hue dikhaaya gaya hai.[23]

3150 E.poo. ke aaspaas, praarambhik raajavansheeya avadhi mein, pratham raajavansheeya fairoon ne memfis mein rajdhani ki sthaapana karte hue nichle misr par apne niyantran ko majboot kiya, jahaaain se ve shram shakti aur urvar delta kshetr ki krushi ke saath-saath levaant ke laabhadaayak aur mahatvapoorn vyaapaar maarg par niyantran rakh sakte the. praarambhik raajavansheeya kaal ke dauraan fairoon ki badhti taakat aur sampatti ki jhalak abidos mein unke vistrut mastaba kabron aur murdaagharon se dikhti hai, jiska prayog mrutyu ke baad fairo ke devatv praapti ka jashn manaane ke liye kiya jaata tha.[24] fairoon dvaara viksit shaasan ki majaboot sanstha ne bhoomi, shram aur un sansaadhanon par raajya ke niyantran ko vaidh thaharaane ka kaam kiya, jo misr ki praacheen sabhyata ke astitv aur vikaas ke liye aavashyak thi.[25]

praacheen saamraajya

Boston myoosiam of faain Arts mein menakaura ki sangamaramari pratima

praacheen saamraajya ke dauraan vaastushilp, kala aur praudyogiki mein aashcharyajanak vikaas kiye gaye, jise poorn viksit kendreeya prashaasan dvaara sambhav, vardhit krushi utpaadakata ne gati di.[26] vijeer ke disha-nirdesh ke antargat, raajya ke adhikaariyon ne kar ekatr kiya, fasal ki paidaavaar mein sudhaar karne ke liye sinchaai pariyojanaaon ko samanvit kiya, nirmaan pariyojanaaon par kaam karne ke liye kisaanon ko bharti kiya aur shaanti aur vyavastha banaae rakhane ke liye ek nyaaya pranaali ki sthaapana ki.[27] ek utpaadak aur sthir arthavyavastha dvaara upalabdh karaae gaye atirikt sansaadhanon dvaara, yeh raajya vishaal smaarakon ke nirmaan ko praayojit karne aur shaahi kaaryashaalaaon mein kala ke asaadhaaran kaarya shuroo karne mein saksham hua. josar, khufu aur unke vanshaj dvaara nirmit piraamid, praacheen misr ki sabhyata aur use niyantrit karne vaale fairoon ki shakti ke sabse yaadagaar prateek hain.

ek kendreeya prashaasan ke badhte mahatva ke saath hi, shikshit lekhakon aur adhikaariyon ka ek naya varg paida hua jinhein unki sevaaon ke liye fairo dvaara sanpada pradaan ki gayi. fairoon ne apne murdaaghar sampradaaya aur sthaaneeya mandiron ko bhi yeh sunishchit karne ke liye jameenein pradaan keen ki in sansthaaon ke paas fairo ki mrutyu ke baad usaki pooja karne ke liye aavashyak sansaadhan maujood hon. praacheen saamraajya ke ant tak, in saamanti prathaaon ki paanch shataabdiyon ne dheere-dheere fairo ki aarthik shakti ka ksharan kiya, jo ab ek vishaal kendreekrut prashaasan ko banaae rakhane mein aksham tha.[28] jaise-jaise fairo ki shakti ksheen hoti gayi, nomaark kahalaane vaale kshetreeya gavarnaron ne fairo ke varchasv ko chunauti dena shuroo kiya. in haalaaton ke saath-saath 2200 aur 2150 E.poo.[29] ke beech padne vaale gambhir sookhe ne antat: desh ko ek 140 varsheeya akaal aur sangharsh ki avadhi mein dhakel diya, jise pratham madhyavarti kaal ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[30]

pratham madhyavarti kaal

praacheen raajavansh ke ant mein misr ki kendra sarkaar ke dhahane ke baad, prashaasan, desh ki arthavyavastha ko sthir karne ya sahaara dene mein asamarth tha. kshetreeya Governor sankat ke samay madad ke liye raaja par bharosa naheen kar sakte the aur bhaavi khaadyaann ki kami aur raajaneetik vivaadon ne akaal aur chhote paimaane par gruh-yuddh ka roop le liya. kathin samasyaaon ke baavajood, fairo ke prati bina sammaan ke sthaaneeya netaaon ne apni nai praapt svatantrata ka istemaal, praanton mein sampann sanskruti ki sthaapana ke liye kiya. ek baar apne sansaadhanon par khud ka niyantran praapt karne ke baad, ye praant aarthik roop se apekshaakrut samruddh ho gaye - ek tathya jo sabhi saamaajik vargon ke beech bade aur behtar antim sanskaar dvaara pradarshit tha.[31] rachanaatmakata ki dhaara mein, praanteeya kaareegaron ne saanskrutik roopaankanon ko apnaaya aur taraasha jo pehle praacheen saamraajya ke prabhutv mein pratibandhit the aur lekhakon ne aisi saahityik shailiyon ka vikaas kiya jismein us kaal ka aashaavaad aur maulikta parilkshit hoti hai.[32]

fairo ke prati apni vafaadaari se mukt sthaaneeya shaasakon ne kshetreeya niyantran aur raajaneetik satta ke liye ek doosare se hod leni shuroo ki. 2160 E.poo. tak, heraakliyopolis ke shaasakon ne nichle misr par niyantran rakha, jabki thebs aadhaarit ek pratidvandvi kabeele, intef parivaar ne oopari misr ka niyantran le liya. jaise-jaise intef ki shakti mein vruddhi hui aur usane apna niyantran uttar ki or badhaaya, to donon pratidvandvi raajavanshon ke beech sangharsh anivaarya ho gaya. lagbhag 2055 E.poo., nebhepetre mantoohotep II ke senaapatitv mein theban balon ne antat: heraakliyopolitn shaasakon ko hara diya aur donon pradeshon ko pun: ekeekrut karte hue aarthik aur saanskrutik punarjaagaran kaal ka shubhaarambh kiya, jise madhya saamraajya ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[33]

madhya saamraajya

amenemahat III, madhya saamraajya ka antim mahaan shaasak

madhya saamraajya ke fairoon ne desh ki samruddhi aur sthirta ko bahaal kiya aur is tarah kala, saahitya aur vishaal imaaraton ki pariyojanaaon ke punarutthaan ko prerit kiya.[34] mantoohotep II aur uske 11vein vanshaj ke uttaraadhikaariyon ne thebs se shaasan kiya, lekin 12vein raajavansh ki shurooaat mein 1985 E.poo. ke aas-paas vajeer amenemahat I ne satta sanbhaalate hue, desh ki rajdhani ko faiyum sthit ijtaavi shahar sthaanaantarit kar diya.[35] ijtaavi se, 12vein vansh ke fairoon ne kshetr mein krushi utpaadan badhaane ke liye dooradrushti ke saath bhoomi sudhaar aur sinchaai ki yojana banaai. iske alaava, sena ne khadaanon aur sone ki khaanon se samruddh noobiya ke kshetron ko fir se jeet liya, jabki videshi hamle ke khilaaf suraksha ke liye majadooron ne poorvi delta mein ek rakshaatmak sanrachana ka nirmaan kiya, jise "vauls-of-the-roolar" (shaasak ki deevaarein) kaha gaya.[36]

sainya aur raajaneetik suraksha aur vishaal krushi aur khanij sanpada bahaal karne ke baad, is desh ki aabaadi, kala aur dharm ka utkarsh hone laga. devataaon ke prati praacheen saamraajya ke sanbhraantavaadi najriye ke vipreet, madhya saamraajya mein vyaktigat dharmanishtha ke bhaav mein vruddhi ka anubhav kiya gaya aur jise punarjanm ka lokatantreekaran kaha ja sakta hai, jismein sabhi logon ke paas ek aatma hai aur mrutyu ke baad devataaon ke saannidhya mein unka svaagat kiya ja sakta hai.[37] madhya saamraajya ke saahitya mein parishkrut vishay aur paatr prastut hote hain jinhein vishvast aur bhaavapoorn shaili mein likha gaya hai,[32] aur us kaal ki nakkaashi aur moortikla ne sookshm, vyaktigat vivranon ko ukera jisne takaneeki poornata ki nai oonchaaiyon ko chhuaa.[38]

madhya saamraajya ka antim mahaan shaasak, amenemahat III ne delta kshetr mein Asiaee adhivaasiyon ko apne vishesh roop se sakriya khanan aur nirmaan abhiyaanon ke liye paryaapt shram shakti pradaan karne ki anumati di. nirmaan aur khanan ki in mahatvaakaankshi gatividhiyon ne, baharahaal, baad mein uske shaasanakaal mein aparyaapt neel nadi ki baadh ke saath milkar, arthavyavastha ko tanaavapoorn bana diya aur 13vein aur 14vein raajavanshon ke dauraan dheeme patan ke saath doosare madhyavarti kaal mein pravesh ko prerit kiya. is patan ke dauraan, Asiaee adhivaasi videshiyon ne delta kshetr ka niyantran hathiyaana shuroo kiya aur antat: misr mein hiksos ke roop mein satta mein aane lage.[39]

doosra madhyavarti kaal aur hiksos

lagbhag 1650 isa poorv ke aas-paas, jaise-jaise madhya saamraajya ke fairoon ki shakti ksheen hone lagi, poorvi delta ke avaaris shahar mein rahane vaale Asiaee aapravaasiyon ne kshetr ke niyantran par kabja kar liya aur kendra sarkaar ko thebs jaane par majaboor kar diya, jahaaain fairoon ko daason ke roop mein maana jaata tha aur unase shulk ada karne ki apeksha ki jaati thi.[40] hiksos ("videshi shaasak") ne misr ke prashaasan model ki nakl ki aur khud ko fairo ke roop mein prastut kiya aur is tarah unhonne apne madhya kaansya yugeen sanskruti mein misr ke tatvon ko samaahit kiya.[41]

apni vaapasi ke baad, thebs raajaaon ne khud ko uttar ki or hiksos aur dakshin ki or hiksos ke nubiyn sahayogi dal, kushaaon ke beech ghira hua paaya. lagbhag 100 varshon ki kamjor nishkriyta chalti rahi aur 1555 isa poorv ke kareeb thebs balon ne itni shakti ekatrit kar li ki unhonne hiksos ko sangharsh ki chunauti di jo 30 se adhik varshon tak chalta raha.[40] sikvenenar taao II aur kamos fairo ne antat: nubiyn ko hara diya, lekin vah kamos ka uttaraadhikaari, ahamos tha, jiske safalataapoorvak chhede gaye abhiyaanon ke parinaamasvaroop misr mein hiksos ka vajood sthaayi roop se samaapt kar diya. iske baad aane vaale naveen saamraajya mein misr ki seemaaon ka vistaar karne aur nikat poorv par, uske poorn prabhutv ko banaae rakhane ke liye fairoon ke liye sena, ek kendreeya praathamikta ban gayi.[42]

praacheen misr ki adhiktam kshetreeya seema (15veen shataabdi isa poorv)

naveen saamraajya

naveen saamraajya ke fairoon ne apni seemaaon ko surakshit aur apne padosiyon ke saath kootaneetik sambandhon ko majaboot banaate hue ek abhootapoorv samruddhi ke kaal ki sthaapana ki. thutamos pratham aur uske pote thutamos truteeya ke senaapatitv mein chhede gaye sainya abhiyaanon ne fairoon ke prabhaav ko Syria aur noobiya mein failaaya, jisne vafaadaari ko majboot kiya aur peetal aur lakdi jaise mahatvapoorn aayaaton tak unki pahuainch banaai.[43] naveen saamraajya ke fairoon ne amun devata ko badhaava dene ke liye, jinka badhta panth karnaak mein aadhaarit tha, bade paimaane par nirmaan abhiyaan ki shurooaat ki. unhonne apni asli aur kaalpanik, donon upalabdhiyon ke mahimaamandan mein bhi smaarakon ka nirmaan karaaya. mahila fairo hatshepasat ne aise prachaar ka istemaal, sinhaasan par apne daave ko tarkasangat thaharaane ke liye kiya.[44] usaka safal shaasan, pant ke vyaapaarik abhiyaanon, ek shaanadaar murdaaghar mandir, oblisk ki ek vishaal jodi aur karnaak mein ek praarthanaalaya se chihnit hai. usaki upalabdhiyon ke baavajood, hatshepasat ke sautele bhateeje thutamos truteeya ne usaki viraasat ko apne shaasanakaal ke ant mein mitaane ka prayaas kiya, sanbhavat: uske dvaara gaddi chheenane ke pratishodh mein.[45]

raameses dviteeya ki chaar vishaal moortiyaan, uske Abu simbal ke mandir dwaar ke donon or hain

kareeb 1350 E.poo. mein, naveen saamraajya ki sthirta ko tab khatra paida ho gaya, jab amenahotep IV sinhaasan par aaroodh hua aur usane kai ativaadi aur araajak sudhaaron ki shurooaat ki. apna naam akhenaaten mein badalate hue, usane poorv mein alp gyaat sooraj devata aten ko sarvochch devata ke roop mein ghoshit kiya aur anya devataaon ki pooja ko baadhit karte hue purohit sambandhi sthaapanaaon ki satta par hamla kiya.[46] rajdhani ko akhenaaten ke nae shahar mein sthaanaantarit karte hue (vartamaan amarna) akhenaaten ne videshi maamalon se munh fer liya aur khud ko apne nae dharm aur kalaatmak shaili mein duba liya. usaki mrutyu ke baad, aten panth ko jaldi hi chhod diya gaya aur uske uttaravarti fairo, tuthankhamun, I aur horemaheb ne akhenaaten ke vidhrm ke sabhi ullekhon ko mita diya, jise ab amarna kaal ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[47]

1279 E.poo. ke aas-paas, raameses dviteeya, jise raameses mahaan ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, sinhaasanaaroodh hua aur usane aur adhik mandiron, pratimaaon aur oblisk ka nirmaan jaari rakha aur itihaas mein kisi anya fairoon ki apeksha kaafi adhik santaan paida kiye.[48] ek saahasik sainya neta hote hue, raameses dviteeya ne kaadesh ka yuddh mein hitaaits ke khilaaf apni sena ka netrutv kiya aur ek gatirodh tak ladne ke baad, antat: 1258 E.poo. ke aaspaas pehli darj shaanti sandhi ke liye sahamat hua.[49] misr ki sanpada ne, haalaanki, aakraman ke liye ise ek aakarshak lakshya bana diya, vishesh roop se libiaai aur samudri logon ke beech. shuroo mein, sena ne in hamlon ko vifal kar diya, lekin misr ne antat: Syria aur filisteen ke niyantran ko kho diya. baahari khataron ka asar, bhrashtaachaar, kabr dakaiti aur naagrik ashaanti jaisi aantarik samasyaaon se aur bhi vikt ho gaya. thebs mein amun mandir ke uchch pujaariyon ne jameen aur akoot sampatti jama kar li aur unki badhti taakat ne teesare madhyavarti kaal ke dauraan desh ko vichhinn kar diya.[50]

730 E.poo. ke kareeb, pashchim ke Libya vaasiyon ne is desh ki raajaneetik ekta ko khandit kar diya.

teesara madhyavarti kaal

1078 isa poorv mein raameses XI ki mrutyu ke baad, smeindes ne tanis shahar se shaasan karte hue misr ke uttari bhaag par adhikaar kar liya. dakshini hisse par thebs ke amun ke uchch pujaariyon ka prabhaavi dhang se niyantran tha, jo smeindes ko keval naam se jaante the.[51] is avadhi mein, leebiyaai log pashchimi delta mein bas rahe the aur in basane vaalon ke saradaaron ne apni svaayattata ko badhaana shuroo kiya. leebiyaai saamanton ne shosheink I ke adheen 945 E.poo. mein delta ka niyantran apne haathon mein le liya aur tathaakathit leebiyaai ya bubastit vansh ki sthaapana ki jisne kareeb 200 saal tak shaasan kiya. shosheink ne apne parivaar ke sadasyon ko pujaariyon ke mahatvapoorn padon par rakhakar dakshini misr ka niyantran bhi praapt kiya. leebiyaai niyantran tab ksheen hone laga jab delta mein ek pratidvandvi raajavansh liontopolis mein ubhara aur dakshin ki or se kushaanon ne chunauti di. 727 E.poo. ke kareeb kushaan raaja piye ne uttar ki or aakraman kiya aur thebs par niyantran karte hue antat: delta par kabja kar liya.[52]

misr ki chahun or faili pratishtha mein teesare madhyavarti kaal ke ant tak kaafi giraavat I. iske videshi sahayogi aseeriyn prabhaav kshetr ke adheen aae aur 700 E.poo. tak donon raajyon ke beech yuddh anivaarya ban gaya. 671 aur 667 E.poo. ke beech aseeriya ne misr par hamla shuroo kiya. kushaan raaja taharaka aur uske uttaraadhikaari tanutaamun, donon ke shaasanakaal mein aseeriya ke saath lagaataar sangharsh chalta raha, jinke khilaaf nubiyn shaasakon ne kai vijay ka aanand liya tha.[53] antat:, aseeriya ne kushaanon ko vaapas noobiya mein dhakel diya, memfis par kabja kar liya aur thebs ke mandiron ko khaali kar diya.[54]

uttaraardh kaal

vijay ki koi sthaayi yojana ke bina, aseeriya ne misr ka niyantran kai saamanton ke haathon mein saunp diya, jinhein chhabbeesavein vansh ke saait raajaaon ke roop mein jaana gaya. 653 isa poorv tak, saait raaja saamtik I ne bhaade ke greek sainikon ki madad se, jinhein misr ki pehli nausena ke nirmaan ke liye bharti kiya gaya tha, aseeriyaaiyon ko bhagaane mein saksham hue. delta mein naukraatis shahar ke yoonaaniyon ka ghar ban jaane se yoonaani prabhaav teji se badha. saais ki nai rajdhani mein sthit saait raajaaon ne arthavyavastha aur sanskruti mein sankshipt lekin ek utsaahi punarutthaan dekha, lekin 525 E.poo. mein, kaimbisis II ke netrutv mein shaktishaali faarasiyon ne, misr ko jeetna shuroo kiya aur antat: pelusim ki ladaai mein fairo saamtik III ko pakadne mein safal rahe. kaimbisis II ne tab fairo ki aupachaarik padavi ko grahan kiya, lekin misr ko ek soobedaar ke niyantran mein chhodkar, soosa ke apne ghar se misr par shaasan kiya. 5veen shataabdi isa poorv ko faarasiyon ke khilaaf kuchh safal vidrohon ke liye jaana jaata hai, lekin misr, sthaayi roop se faarasiyon ko ukhaad feinkane mein kabhi saksham naheen hua.[55]

faaras dvaara samaamelan ke baad, misr bhi, saaipras aur fonisiya ke saath ekameneed faarasi saamraajya ke chhathe kshatrap mein shaamil ho gaya. misr mein faarasi shaasan ki is pehli avadhi ko, sattaaisavein raajavansh ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, jo 402 E.poo. mein samaapt ho gaya aur 380-343 isa poorv ke beech teesavein raajavansh ne raajavansheeya misr ke aakhiri ghareloo shaahi gharaane ke roop mein shaasan kiya, jo nektaanebo II ke shaasan ke saath samaapt ho gaya. faarasi shaasan ki ek sankshipt bahaali, jise kabhi-kabhi ikteesavein raajavansh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, 343 isa poorv mein shuroo hua, lekin iske sheegra hi baad, 332 E.poo. mein faarasi shaasak majaasis ne misr ko bina kisi ladaai ke sikandar mahaan ko saunp diya.[56]

tolemaaik raajavansh

332 E.poo. mein, sikandar mahaan ne faarasiyon ke ksheen pratirodh ke saath misr par vijay praapt kar liya aur mishr mein usaka svaagat ek sahaayak ke roop mein kiya gaya. sikandar ke uttaraadhikaariyon, tolemiyon, dvaara sthaapit prashaasan, misr ke model par aadhaarit tha aur aleksaandriya ke nae rajdhani shahar mein sthit tha. yeh shahar greek shaasan ki shakti aur pratishtha ko pradarshit karta tha aur yeh gyaan aur sanskruti ka ek kshetr ban gaya, jiska kendra prasiddh aleksaandriya pustakaalaya tha.[57] aleksaandriya ke prakaashastanbh ne is shahar se gujarane vaale kai vyaapaarik jahaajon ke maarg ko prakaashit kiya, choonki tolemiyon ne vaanijya aur raajasv janan ke udyamon ko apni sarvochch praathamikta di, jaise pepirs utpaadan.[58]

greek sanskruti ne misr ki deshi sanskruti ko pratisthaapit naheen kiya, kyonki tolemiyon ne janta ki vafaadaari praapt karne ke prayaas mein, samay ke saath chali aa rahi puraani paranparaaon ka sammaan kiya. unhonne misr shaili mein nae mandiron ka nirmaan kiya, paaramparik sampradaaya ka samarthan kiya aur khud ko fairoon ke roop mein prastut kiya. sanyukt devataaon ke roop mein greek aur misr ke devataaon ke samanvaya se kuchh paramparaaen ghul-mil gain, jaise seraapis aur moortikla ki shaastreeya misr shaili ne paaramparik misr roopaankanon ko prabhaavit kiya. misravaasiyon ko khush karne ke apne prayaason ke baavajood, tolemiyon ko deshi antarvirodh, teekshn paarivaarik pratidvandvita aur tolemi IV ki mrutyu ke baad gathit aleksaandriya ki shaktishaali bheed ki chunautiyon ka saamana karna pada.[59] iske atirikt, choonki rom anaaj ke aayaat ke liye misr par adhik nirbhar tha, romavaasiyon ne misr ki raajanitik haalaaton mein kaafi roochi li. nirantar chal rahe misr ke vidrohon, mahatvaakaankshi netaaon aur shaktishaali Syria ke virodhiyon ne is paristhiti ko asantulit kar diya jiske parinaamasvarup rom, is desh ko apne saamraajya ka ek praant banaane ke liye senaaen bhejane par vivsh ho gaya.[60]

roman prabhutv

faayoom mami ki tasveerein, misr aur roman sanskruti ke milan ki dyotak hain

akatiym ki ladaai mein okteviyn (baad mein samraat ogastas) ke dvaara mark Antony aur tolemik mahaaraani kliyopetra VII ki haar ke baad, misr 30 E.poo. mein roman saamraajya ka ek praant ban gaya. romanavaasi, misr se aane vaale anaaj par kaafi nirbhar the aur samraat dvaara niyukt ek adhikaari ke adheen roman sena ne vidrohiyon ka daman kiya, bhaari karon ki vasooli ko sakhti se laagoo kiya aur daakuon ke hamlon ko roka jo us dauraan ek kukhyaat samasya ban gayi thi.[61] videshi vilaasita vastuon ki rom mein kaafi maang ke kaaran, aleksaandriya, poorvi deshon ke saath hone vaale vyaapaarik maarg par teji se ek mahatvapoorn kendra ban gaya.[62]

haalaanki, misr ke prati rom ka najriya, yoonaaniyon ki apeksha adhik shatrutaapoorn tha, kuchh paramparaaen, jaise parirkshit shav prakriya aur paaramparik devataaon ki pooja chalti rahi.[63] mami chitraankan ki kala ka utkarsh hua aur kuchh roman samraaton ne khud ko fairoon ke roop mein dikhaaya, haalaanki us had tak naheen, jitna tolemiyon ne dikhaaya tha. ve misr ke baahar rahate the aur misr ki shaahi aupachaariktaaon ko naheen karte the. sthaaneeya prashaasan, roman shaili ka ban gaya aur deshi mishr ke liye band kar diya gaya.[63]

pratham shataabdi E. ke madhya se, isaaiyat ne aleksaandriya mein jadein jama li kyonki ise bhi ek sveekaarya panth ke roop mein dekha jaane laga. tathaapi, yeh ek virodhi dharm tha jiska rujhaan butaparasti mein dharmaantarit logon ko jeetne ki or tha aur isne lokapriya dhaarmik paranparaaon ko chunauti di. iske parinaamasvaroop isaai dharm mein dharmaantarit logon ka utpeedn shuroo ho gaya jo 303 E. mein daayokleetiyn ke mahaan maarjan mein parint hua, par antat: isaai dharm ko safalta praapt hui.[64] 391 E. mein isaai samraat thiyodosias ne ek vidheyak pesh kiya jisne moortipoojak sanskaaron ko pratibandhit aur mandiron ko band kar diya.[65] aleksaandriya, moortipoojan-virodhi mahaan dangon ka kendra ban gaya jahaaain saarvajanik aur niji dhaarmik prateekon ko nasht kar diya.[66] parinaamasvaroop, misr ki moortipoojak sanskruti mein lagaataar giraavat aati gayi. jabki deshi aabaadi ne apni bhaasha bolna jaari rakha, hearoglifik lekhan ko padhne ki kshamata, misr ke mandir ke pujaariyon aur pujaarinon ki bhoomika ke ksheen hone ke saath-saath dheere-dheere lupt ho gayi. khud mandiron ko kabhi-kabhi church mein badal diya gaya ya registaan mein chhod diya gaya.[67]

sarkaar aur arthavyavastha

prashaasan aur vaanijya

fairo ko aam taur par shaahi aur shakti prateekon ko pahane hue dikhaaya gaya hai.

fairo, desh ka nirpeksh samraat tha aur kam se kam siddhaant roop mein, desh aur uske sansaadhanon ka poora niyantran uske haathon mein tha. raaja, sarvochch sainya naayak aur sarkaar ka mukhiya tha, jo apne maamalon ke prabandhan ke liye adhikaariyon ki ek naukarashaahi par nirbhar tha. prashaasan ka kaaryabhaar, raaja ke baad doosare sthaan par kamaan sambhaalne vaale vajeer ke adheen tha, jo raaja ke pratinidhi ke roop mein kaam karta tha aur bhoomi sarvekshan, khajaana, nirmaan pariyojanaaon, kaanooni pranaali aur abhilekhaagaaron ka samanvaya karta tha.[68] kshetreeya star par, desh ko kareeb 42 prashaasanik kshetron mein vibhaajit kiya gaya tha jise noms kaha jaata tha, jismein se pratyek, ek nomaark dvaara shaasit hota tha jo apne adhikaar kshetr ke liye vajeer ke prati javaabadeh tha. mandir, arthavyavastha ka aadhaar the. ve na keval aaraadhana ke gruh the, balki anaaj bhandaar aur khajaane ki ek pranaali ke tahat, raashtra ki sanpada ke ekatran aur bhandaaran ke liye bhi jimmedaar the, jise ovarasiyron dvaara prashaasit kiya jaata tha jo anaaj aur maal ko pun: vitrit karte the.[69]

adhikaansh arthavyavastha kendreeya roop se vyavasthit thi aur ise kadaai se niyantrit kiya jaata tha. yadyapi praacheen misr ke logon ne uttaraardh avadhi tak sikke ka upayog naheen kiya tha, unhonne ek prakaar ke dhan-vinimay pranaali ka prayog zaroor kiya tha,[70] jismein shaamil the anaaj ke maanak bore aur deben, kareeb 91 gram (3 auns) vajan ka ek taanbe ya chaandi ka batakhara jo ek aam bhaajak tha.[71] shramikon ko anaaj ke roop mein bhugataan kiya jaata tha; ek saadhaaran majdoor prati maah 5½ bore anaaj kama sakta tha (200 kilo ya 400 pound), jabki ek foramain 7½ bore anaaj kama sakta tha (250 kilo ya 550 pound). keematon ko desh bhar ke liye tay kiya gaya tha aur vyaapaar ko suvidhaajanak banaane ke liye ise soochi mein darj kiya gaya tha; udaaharan ke liye ek shart ki keemat paanch taanbe deben thi, jabki ek gaaya ki 140 deben.[71] ann ka kaarobaar anya vastuon ke liye kiya ja sakta hai, nirdhaarit moolya soochi ke anusaar.[71] 5veen shataabdi isa poorv ke dauraan, sikke ki mudra ko misr mein videsh se shuroo kiya gaya. shurooaat mein sikkon ko asli mudra ki bajaay, keemati dhaatu ke maanakeekrut tukadon ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya, lekin agali sadiyon mein antarraashtreeya vyaapaariyon ne sikkon par nirbhar hona shuroo kar diya.[72]

saamaajik sthiti

misr ka samaaj uchch roop se stareekrut tha aur saamaajik sthiti ko spasht roop se pradarshit kiya jaata tha. aabaadi ka mukhya hissa kisaanon se nirmit tha, lekin krushi upaj par seedhe raajya, mandir, ya kuleen parivaar ka svaamitv hota tha jo bhoomi ke svaami the.[73] kisaanon ko shram kar dena padta tha aur ek kaarvi pranaali mein unhein sinchaai ya nirmaan pariyojanaaon par kaam karna aavashyak tha.[74] kalaakaaron aur kaareegaron ki haisiyat kisaanon se adhik oonchi thi, lekin ve bhi raajya ke niyantran mein the aur mandiron se judi dukaanon mein kaam karte the aur unhein raajya ke khajaane se seedhe bhugataan kiya jaata tha. praacheen misr mein lekhakon aur adhikaariyon ke tabake ko uchch varg ka maana jaata tha, jinhein san ke prakshaalit vastr, jo unke darje ke prateek ke roop mein kaarya karte the, pahanane ke sandarbh mein tathaakathit "safed kilt varg" ka kaha jaata tha.[75] uchch varg ne kala aur saahitya mein apni saamaajik sthiti ko pramukhata se pradarshit kiya. kuleen varg ke neeche sthaan tha pujaariyon, chikitsakon aur injeeniyron ka jinhein apne kshetr mein vishesh prashikshan praapt tha. praacheen misr mein gulaami ka vajood tha, lekin iski hadon aur iski prasaar seema ke baare mein jaankaari spasht naheen hai.[76]

praacheen misr mein, gulaamon ko chhodkar sabhi vargon ke logon sahit, purushon aur mahilaaon ko kaanoon ke samaksh anivaarya roop se ek nazar se dekha jaata tha aur yahaaain tak ki ek kshudr kisaan ko bhi shikaayat nivaaran ke liye vajeer aur usaki adaalat mein yaachika daayar karne ka hak praapt tha.[77] purushon aur mahilaaon, donon ko sampatti rakhane aur bechne, anubandh karne, vivaah aur talaak karne, uttaraadhikaar praapt karne aur adaalat mein kaanooni vivaadon ka mukadama ladne ka adhikaar praapt tha. vivaahit jode sanyukt roop se sampatti rakh sakte the aur khud ko talaak se surakshit rakhane ke liye shaadi ke ek anubandh par sahamat ho sakte the, jismein vivaah samaapt hone ki sthiti mein apni patni aur bachchon ke prati pati ke vitteeya daayitv nirdhaarit hote the. apne samakaksh praacheen grees, rom aur duniya ke apekshaakrut adhik aadhunik sthaanon ki tulana mein bhi, praacheen misr ki mahilaaon ke paas vyaktigat pasand aur upalabdhi ke avsaron ki ek vistrut shrrunkhala thi. yahaaain tak ki hatshepasat aur kliyopetra jaisi mahilaaeain, fairo bhi bani, jabki anya ne amun ki Dave patniyon ke roop mein shakti ka prayog kiya. in svatantrataaon ke baavajood, praacheen misr ki mahilaaon ne prashaasan mein aadhikaarik bhoomikaaon mein hissa naheen liya, balki mandiron mein hi gaun bhoomikaaon mein apni sevaaen Dean aur purushon ke samaan unke shikshit hone ki sambhaavana naheen thi.[77]

lekhak, kuleen varg aur achhi tarah se shikshit hote the ve karon ka moolyaankan, aankadon ka rakh-rakhaav karte the aur prashaasan ke liye uttaradaayi the.

kaanooni pranaali

aadhikaarik taur par kaanooni pranaali ka mukhiya fairo tha, jo kaanoon ko laagoo karne, nyaaya pradaan karne aur kaanoon aur vyavastha banaae rakhane ke liye jimmedaar tha, ek avadhaarana jise praacheen misr ke log maat ke roop mein uddhrut karte the.[68] haalaanki praacheen misr ka koi kaanooni sanhita maujood naheen hai, adaalat ke dastaavejon se pata chalta hai ki, misr ka kaanoon sahi aur galat najriye vaale ek vyaavahaarik gyaan par aadhaarit tha jo samjhaute tak pahuainchane aur vivaad hal karne par bal deta tha aur na ki kadaai se vidhiyon ke ek jatil set ke anupaalan karne par.[77] naveen saamraajya mein kenabet ke roop mein vikhyaat bujurgon ki sthaaneeya parishdein, chhote daavon aur laghu vivaadon vaale adaalati maamalon mein faisale ke liye jimmedaar hoti theen.[68] hatya, vishaal bhoomi len-den aur kabr dakaiti vaale adhik gambhir maamalon ko great kenabet ke supurd kiya jaata tha jiski adhyakshata vajeer ya fairo karta tha. abhiyogi aur bachaav paksh ko khud ko upasthit karna apekshit tha aur unhein ek shapath lene ki aavashyakta hoti thi ki unhonne jo bhi kaha hai sach kaha hai. kuchh maamalon mein raajya, vakeel aur nyaayaadheesh, donon ki bhoomika ada karta tha aur ek aaropi se bayaan praapt karne aur kisi bhi sah-saajishkarta ka naam ugalavaane ke liye yaatana svaroop use maar sakta tha. chaahe aarop tuchh hon ya gambhir, adaalat ke lekhak shikaayat, gavaahi aur maamale ke faisale ko bhavishya mein sandarbh ke liye likh lete the.[78]

aparaadh ki gambheerta ke aadhaar par chhote aparaadhon ke liye saja mein shaamil tha jurmaana, maar, chehare ki vikruti, ya nirvaasan. hatya aur kabr dakaiti jaise gambhir aparaadhon ki saja ke taur par praanadand diya jaata tha jise shirchhedan, paani mein dubaakar, ya sooli par lataka kar nishpaadit kiya jaata tha. saja ko aparaadhi ke parivaar tak badhaaya ja sakta tha.[68] naveen saamraajya mein shuroo hote hue, orekal ne kaanooni vyavastha mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai, jahaaain usane deevaani aur faujadaari, donon maamalon mein nyaaya pradaan kiya. is prakriya mein, devata se ek mudde ke sahi ya galat ke sambandh mein "haan" ya "naheen" savaal poochha jaata tha. kai pujaariyon dvaara nishpaadit is prakriya mein devata donon mein se ek ka chunaav karte hue, aage ya peechhe hatate hue, ya pepirus ke tukade ya ostraasan par likhe kisi ek uttar ki or ishaara karte hue nirnaya pradaan karte the.[79]

krushi

inhein bhi dekhein: Ancient Egyptian cuisine
kabr mein ek nakkaashi, jismein shramikon ko ek ovarasiyr ke nirdeshan mein kheton mein jutaai karte, fasal kaatate aur anaaj ko kootate hue darshaaya gaya hai

anukool bhaugolik visheshataaon ke ek sanyojan ne praacheen misr ki sanskruti ki safalta mein yogadaan diya, jinmein sabse mahatvapoorn hai neel nadi ke vaarshik jalaplaavan ke parinaamasvaroop samruddh upajaaoo mitti. is prakaar, praacheen misr ke log bahut adhik khaadyaann utpaadit karne mein saksham rahe, jiske kaaran janasankhya ne samay aur sansaadhanon ko saanskrutik, takaneeki aur kalaatmak gatividhiyon ke liye adhik samarpit kiya. praacheen misr mein bhoomi prabandhan mahatvapoorn tha kyonki karon ka nirdhaaran ek vyakti ke svaamitv mein aane waali jameen ke aadhaar par hota tha.[80]

misr mein kheti, neel nadi ke chakr par nirbhar thi. mishr ne teen jalavaayu ki pehchaan ki: aakhet (baadh), peret (ropan) aur shemu (kataai). baadh ka mausam June se September tak chalta tha, jo nadi ke tat par khanij se samruddh ek parat jama kar deta tha jo fasalon ke liye aadarsh tha. baadh ke jal ke kam hone ke baad, upaj ka mausam October se February tak chalta tha. kisaan kheton mein jutaai karte aur beej daalte the, jise naalon aur naharon se sinchit kiya jaata tha. misr mein varsha kam hoti thi, isliye kisaan apni fasalon ki sinchaai ke liye neel nadi par aashrit rahate the.[81] March se May tak, kisaan apni fasalon ko kaatne ke liye hansiya ka upayog karte the, jise fir anaaj se seenke alag karne ke liye ek saant se peeta jaata tha. pachhorane se bhoosa anaaj se alag ho jaata tha aur fir us anaaj ko aate mein pees liya jaata tha, beer banaane ke liye kinvan kiya jaata tha, ya baad mein upayog ke liye bhandaarit kiya jaata tha.[82]

praacheen misravaasi emaar aur jau tatha kai anya anaajon ki kheti karte the, jinmein se sabhi ka upayog do mukhya bhojan, roti aur biyr banaane ke liye kiya jaata tha.[83] san ke paudhon ko, jinhein foolane se pehle hi ukhaad liya jaata tha, unke tanon ke tantuon ke liye ugaaya jaata tha. in tantuon ko inki lanbaai mein vibhaajit kiya jaata tha aur dhaage mein nirmit kiya jaata tha jiska prayog san ki chaadarein bunane aur kapde banaane mein kiya jaata tha. neel nadi ke kinaare ugaae jaane vaale pepirs ka istemaal kaagaj banaane ke liye kiya jaata tha. sabjiyon aur falon ko udyaan bhookhandon mein upajaaya jaata tha, jo bastiyon ke najdeek aur oonchi jameen par hota tha aur iski sinchaai haathon se hoti thi. sabjiyon mein leek, lahasun, kharabooje, skvaish, daal, salaad patta aur anya fasalein shaamil thi, iske alaava angoor ki kheti hoti thi jisse sharaab banaai jaati thi.[84]

bailon ki ek jodi ke saath, jinhein bojha dhone aur bhojan ke srot ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata tha, apne khet ki jutaai karta senedajem.

pashu

mishravaasiyon ka maanana tha ki manushyon aur pashuon ke beech ek santulit sambandh, laukik vyavastha ka ek anivaarya tatv hai, isliye manushyon, praaniyon aur paudhon ko ek ekal pind ke sadasya ke roop mein maana jaata tha.[85] isliye paalatoo aur jangali, donon prakaar ke pashu, adhyaatm, saahacharya aur praacheen misr ke nirvaah ka ek mahatvapoorn srot the. maveshi sabse mahatvapoorn pashudhan the; niyamit ganana ke saath prashaasan, pashuon par kar ekatr karta tha, ek jhund ke aakaar se unka svaamitv rakhane vaale riyaasat ya mandir ki pratishtha aur mahatva pratibinbit hota tha. pashuon ke alaava praacheen misravaasi, bhed, bakari aur sooar paalate the. poltri, jaise batakh, hans aur kabootaron ko jaal mein pakada jaata tha aur kheton mein paala jaata tha, jahaaain unhein mota karne ke liye jbaradasti aata khilaaya jaata tha.[86] neel nadi ne machhali ka bharpoor srot pradaan kiya. madhumakkhiyon ko, kam se kam, praacheen saamraajya se paala jaata raha hai aur unase shahad aur mom, donon praapt hota tha.[87]

praacheen misravaasi, bojha dhone vaale jaanvaron ke roop mein gadhe aur bailon ka prayog karte the aur unase kheton mein jutaai aur mitti mein beejaaropan karavaaya jaata tha. mote bail ki bali chadhaana bhi bheint pooja ka ek kendreeya bhaag hua karta tha.[86] ghodon ka prayog doosare madhyavarti kaal mein hiksos dvaara shuroo kiya gaya aur haalaanki oont ko naveen saamraajya se hi jaana jaata tha, unhein uttaraardh kaal tak bojha dhone vaale pashu ke roop mein upayog naheen kiya gaya. aise bhi saboot hain jo bataate hain ki uttaraardh kaal mein haathiyon ka kuchh samay ke liye upayog kiya jaata tha, lekin mukhya roop se charaai ki jameen ki kami ke kaaran unhein chhod diya gaya.[86] kutte, billi aur bandar aam paalatoo pashu the, jabki Africa ke androoni kshetron se aayaatit videshi jaanavar, jaise sher raaja ke liye aarakshit the. herodotas ne kaha hai ki mishravaasi hi aise log the jo apne pashuon ko apne gharon mein apne saath rakhate the.[85] poorv-raajavansheeya aur uttaraardh kaal ke dauraan, devataaon ki pooja unke pashu roop mein kaafi lokapriya thi, jaise billi devi bastet aur ibis devata thoth aur in jaanvaron ko pooja mein bali ke prayojan ke liye kheton mein badi sankhya mein paala jaata tha.[88]

praakrutik sansaadhan

misr, imaarati aur sajaavati pattharon, taanba aur seesa ayask, sona aur keemati pattharon ke maamale mein samruddh hai. in praakrutik sansaadhanon ne praacheen misravaasiyon ko smaarakon, pratima utkeernan, upakaran banaane aur fashion gahane ke nirmaan ki anumati di.[89] shavalepan karne vaale mamikriya ke liye vaadi natrun se namak ka prayog karte the jo plaastar banaane mein aavashyak jipsam bhi pradaan karta tha.[90] ayask vaale patthar ke nirmaan door, durgam poorvi registaan aur sinaai mein ghaati mein paae gaye, vahaaain upalabdh praakrutik sansaadhanon ko praapt karne ke liye vishaal, raajya niyantrit abhiyaan ki aavashyakta thi. noobiya mein vyaapak svarn khadaanein theen aur sabse praarambhik gyaat nakshon mein se ek is kshetr mein ek sone ki Khan ka hai. vaadi hammaamat grenaait, grevaik aur sone ka ek pramukh srot tha. chakamak patthar pehla ekatrit aur upakaran banaane ke liye prayukt khanij tha aur chakamak patthar ke hast kulhaadi, neel nadi ghaati mein basti ke sabse praarambhik saboot hain. blade banaane aur madhyam kathorata aur tikaaoo vaale teer banaane ke liye khanij ke pind se bade dhyaan se papadi nikaali jaati thi, haalaanki is prayojan ke liye taanbe ka prayog pehle hi apnaaya ja chuka tha.[91]

nivl bhaar, saahul aur chhoti moortiyaaain banaane ke liye gebal rosaas mein seesa ayask galena par kaam kiya. praacheen misr mein upakaran banaane ke liye taanba sabse mahatvapoorn dhaatu tha aur sinaai se khanan kiye gaye mailaakaait ayask se bani bhattiyon mein ise pighlaaya jaata tha.[92] jalodh jamaav mein talachhat se dali ko dhokar, shramik sona ekatrit karte the ya isse adhik parishram waali paddhati ke tahat sona yukt kvaartajaait ko peesakar aur dhokar praapt karte the. oopari misr mein paae gaye lauh bhandaar ka istemaal uttaraardh kaal mein kiya gaya.[93] misr mein uchch gunavatta vaale imaarati patthar prachur maatra mein the; praacheen misr vaasi neel nadi ghaati se choona patthar khodakar laate the, aasavaan se grenaait aur poorvi registaan ki ghaatiyon se besaalt aur baluaa patthar. porafiri grevaik, ailabaistar aur sfatik jaise sajaavati pattharon ke bhandaar poorvi registaan mein bhare the aur inhein pratham raajavansh se pehle hi ekatr kiya gaya tha. tolemik aur roman kaal mein, khanikon ne vaadi sikait mein neelam aur vaadi L-hudi mein janbumani ke bhandaaron ki khudaai ki.[94]

vyaapaar

praacheen mishravaasi misr mein na paae jaane vaale durlabh, videshi vastuon ko praapt karne ke liye apne videshi padosiyon ke saath vyaapaar karte the. poorv-raajavansheeya kaal mein, svarn aur itr praapt karne ke liye unhonne noobiya ke saath vyaapaar sthaapit kiya. unhonne fileesteen ke saath bhi vyaapaar ki sthaapana ki, jiska saboot pratham raajavansheeya fairo ki kabr mein paae gaye fileesteeni shaili ke tel ke katore se milta hai.[95] dakshini kanaan mein tainaat misr ki ek colony ka kaal pratham raajavansh se thoda pehle ka hai.[96] naaramer mein kanaan mein nirmit mitti ke bartan hain aur jinhein vaapas misr ko niryaat kiya gaya.[97]

dviteeya raajavansh tak, biblos ke saath vyaapaar ne praacheen misr ko uchch gunavatta waali lakdi ka ek mahatvapoorn srot pradaan kiya jo misr mein naheen pai jaati thi. paanchavein raajavansh mein pant ke saath hone vaale vyaapaar se mishr ko svarn, khushaboodaar rejin, aabanoos, haatheedaant aur jangali jaanavar praapt hue jaise bandar aur baboon.[98] tin ki aavashyak maatra aur taanbe ki aapoorti ke liye mishr, anaatoliya par aashrit tha, kyonki donon dhaatuen peetal ke nirmaan ke liye aavashyak theen. praacheen mishravaasi neele patthar laapis lajuli beshakeemati maanate the, jise unhein sudoor Afghanistan se aayaat karna padta tha. misr ke bhoomadhya kshetr ke vyaapaar bhaageedaaron mein grees aur kret bhi the jo anya vastuon ke saath jaitoon ke tel ki aapoorti karte the.[99] apni vilaasita vastuon ke aayaat aur kachche maal ke badle mishr, kaanch aur patthar ki vastuon aur anya taiyaar maal ke alaava mukhya roop anaaj, sona, san ke kapde aur pepirs ka niryaat karta tha.[100]

bhaasha

aitihaasik vikaas

r n kmt
'Egyptian language'
in chitralekh
r
Z1
n km m t
O49

misr ki bhaasha uttari afreeki-Asiaee bhaasha hai jiska barbar aur saami bhaashaaon se nikat ka sambandh hai.[101] kisi bhi bhaasha ki tulana mein iska sabse lamba itihaas hai, jise kareeb 3200 isa poorv se madhya yug tak likha gaya aur shesh, samvaad bhaasha ke roop mein kaafi baad tak bani rahi. praacheen misr ke vibhinn charan hain, praacheen misr, madhya misr (shaastreeya misr), paravarti misr, bolachaal ki bhaasha aur kauptik.[102] misr ka lekhan, kauptik se pehle boli ke antar ko naheen dikhaata hai, lekin yeh shaayad memfis ke aas-paas aur baad ke thebs mein kshetreeya boliyon mein bola gaya.[103]

praacheen misr ki bhaasha ek sanshlisht bhaasha thi, lekin yeh baad mein vishleshanaatmak ban gayi. paravarti misr mein viksit poorvapratyaya nishchayavaachak aur anishchayavaachak upapad, puraane vibhktipradhaan pratyaya ko pratisthaapit karte hain. puraana shabd-kram, kriya-karta-karm se parivrtit hokar karta-kriya-karm ban gaya hai.[104] misr ki chitralipi, yaajakeeya aur bolachaal ki lipiyon ko antat: adhik dhvanyaatmak kauptik varnamaala dvaara pratisthaapit kar diya gaya. kauptik ka istemaal aaj bhi misr ke roodhivaadi church mein upaasana paddhatiyon mein hota hai aur iske nishaan aadhunik misr ki arabi bhaasha mein paae jaate hain.[105]

dhvani aur vyaakaran

praacheen misr mein anya afreeki-Asiaee bhaashaaon ke samaan hi 25 vyanjan hain. inmein shaamil hain grasani aur balaaghaati vyanjan, saghosh aur aghosh viraam, aghosh sangharshi aur saghosh aur aghosh sparsh-sangharshi. ismein teen lambe aur teen chhote svar hain, jo paravarti misr mein lagbhag nau tak vistrut hue.[106] misr bhaasha ka mool shabd, saami aur barbar ke samaan hi, vyanjan aur ardh-vyanjan ka trivrni ya dvivrni dhaatu hai. shabd rachana ke liye pratyaya jode jaate hain. kriya roop purush se mel khaate hain. udaaharan ke liye, trivyanjanik dhaancha S--M shabd 'sun' ka arthagat saar hai; usaka mool kriyaaroop hai sm=f 'vah sunata hai'. yadi karta sanjnyaa hai, to kriya ke saath pratyaya ko naheen joda jaata hai:[107]sḏaam ḥaamt 'vah mahila sunati hai'.

visheshan ko sanjnyaa se ek prakriya ke maadhyam se praapt kiya jaata hai jise mishr visheshagya arabi ke saath iski samaanata ke kaaran nisbeshan kehte hain.[108] kriyaatmak aur visheshanaatmak vaakya mein shabd ka kram vidheya-karta hota hai aur sanjnyaaatmak aur kriya-visheshanaatmak vaakya mein karta-vidheya hota hai.[109] yadi vaakya lamba hai to karta ko vaakya ke praarambh mein le jaaya ja sakta hai, jiske baad punargruheet sarvanaam aata hai.[110] kriya aur sanjnyaa ko nipaat n se nakaar diya jaata hai, lekin nn ka prayog kriya-visheshan aur visheshanaatmak vaakyon ke liye kiya jaata hai. balaaghaat antim ya upaantya akshar par padta hai, jo khula (CV) ho sakta hai ya band (CVC).[111]

lekhan

rosetta patthar (kareeb 196 E.poo.) ne bhaashaavidon ko chitralipi samajhne ki prakriya shuroo karne mein saksham kiya.[112]

chitralipi lekhan ka kaal kareeb 3200 E.poo. ka hai aur yeh kareeb 500 prateekon se bana hai. chitralipi, ek shabd, ek dhvani ya ek mook nirdhaarak ka pratinidhitv kar sakta hai; aur ek hi prateek bhinn sandarbhon mein bhinn kaarya kar sakta hai. chitralipi ek aupachaarik lipi thi, jiska prayog patthar ke smaarakon aur kabron par kiya jaata tha, jo kala ke vyaktigat kaarya ke samaan vistrut ho sakta tha. dainandin lekhan ke liye, lekhakon ne lekhan ke ek ghaseet roop ka istamaal kiya jise yaajakeeya kaha jaata hai, jo drut aur aasaan tha. jabki aupachaarik chitralipi ko kisi bhi disha mein pankti ya column mein padha ja sakta hai (haalaanki aam taur par daaen se baaen or likha jaata hai), yaajakeeya ko aam taur par kshaitij panktiyon mein, hamesha daaen se baaen or likha jaata tha. lekhan ka ek naya roop, bolachaal ki bhaasha, prachalit lekhan shaili ban gayi aur aupachaarik chitralipi ke saath - lekhan ka yahi roop tha jo rosetta ston par greek paath ke saath raha hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]pehli shataabdi ke aas-paas, kauptik varnamaala ko bolachaal ki bhaasha ki lipi ke saath prayog kiya jaane laga. kauptik ek sanshodhit greek varnamaala hai jismein kuchh bolachaal ki bhaasha ke prateekon ko shaamil kiya gaya hai.[113] haalaanki aupachaarik chitralipi ka istemaal samaarohi bhoomika mein chauthi shataabdi tak hota raha hai, jiske ant tak sirf chand pujaari ise padh sakte the. jab paaramparik dhaarmik pratishthaanon ko bhang kar diya gaya to chitralipi lekhan ka gyaan jyaadaatar kho gaya. inhein samajhne ke prayaas baaijaantin[114] aur misr[115] mein islaami kaal tak hote rahe, par sirf 1822 mein, rosetta patthar ki khoj aur Thomas yang aur jeen frekvois chanpoliyn ke varshon ke anusandhaan ke baad chitralipi ko lagbhag poori tarah se samjha ja saka.[116]

saahitya

edavin smith shalya pepirs (kareeb 16veen shataabdi E.poo.) shareer rachana vigyaan aur chikitsa upachaar ka varnan karta hai aur yaajakeeya mein likha hai.

lekhan, pehli baar shaahi makabaron mein paae gaye madon ke liye lebal aur taig par raajashaahi se sambandhit roop mein paaya gaya. yeh mukhya roop se lekhakon ka kaarya tha, jo par aankh sanstha ya house of life se baahar kaarya karte the. baad vaale mein shaamil the kaaryaalaya, pustakaalaya (house of books kaha jaata tha), prayogashaalaaen aur vedhashaalaaen.[117] praacheen misr ke saahitya ke sarvaadhik gyaat khand, jaise piraamid aur taaboot granth, shaastreeya misr bhaasha mein likhe gaye hain, jo 1300 isa poorv tak lekhan ki bhaasha bani rahi. baad mein misr bhaasha ko naveen saamraajya ke baad se bola gaya aur yeh raamesid prashaasanik dastaavejon, pranaya geeton aur kahaaniyon mein aur saath hi bolachaal ki bhaasha aur kauptik granthon mein prastut hoti hai. is avadhi ke dauraan, lekhan ki parampara kabr aatmakatha mein viksit ho chuki thi, jaise harkhuf aur veni ki. sebaayat (nirdesh) ke roop mein jaani jaane waali shaili ko mashahoor raison ke upadesh aur maargadarshan ko prasaarit karne ke liye viksit kiya gaya tha; ipuver papirus, praakrutik aapada aur saamaajik kraanti ka varnan karti vilaap ki ek kavita, ek prasiddh udaaharan hai.

madhyakaaleen misr mein likhi gayi story of sinuhe, misr ke saahitya ki shaastreeya kruti ho sakti hai.[118] isi samay likha gaya tha vestakaar pepirus, pujaariyon dvaara kiye gaye chamatkaaron se sambandhit kahaaniyon ki ek shrrunkhala, jise khufu ko uske beton dvaara sunaaya gaya.[119] instrakshan of amenemope ko nikat-poorvi saahitya ki ek utkrusht kruti maana jaata hai.[120] naveen saamraajya ke antim kshanon mein, lokapriya lekhan ke liye sthaaneeya bhaasha ka prayog aksar hone laga, jaise story of venaamun aur instrakshan of eni. pehli waali kahaani mein ek saamant ki katha hai jo devadaar khareedne ke liye Lebanon jaate samay raaste mein loot liya jaata hai aur fir sangharsh karte hue misr lautata hai. kareeb 700 isa poorv se, galp kahaaniyon aur nirdeshon, jaise lokapriya instrakshans of onchasheshonki aur saath hi vyaktigat aur vyaavasaayik dastaavejon ko bolachaal ki bhaasha ki lipi aur misr bhaasha ke roop mein likha gaya. grees-rom kaal ke dauraan bolachaal ki bhaasha mein likhi gayi kai kahaaniyaaain poorv ke aitihaasik yug mein aadhaarit theen, jab misr ek svatantr desh tha jis par mahaan fairo ka shaasan hua karta tha, jaise raameses II.[121]

sanskruti

dainik jeevan

chitr:LowClassAncientEgyptianStatuettes.png
praacheen misr ke nimn vargeeya vyavasaayon ko chitrit karti moortiyaan.
praacheen misravaasiyon ne ek samruddh saanskrutik viraasat ko banaae rakha, jo sangeet aur nrutya se labarej daavaton aur tyauhaaron se bhara hua tha.

adhikaansh praacheen misravaasi kisaan the jo jameen se bandhe hue the. unke aavaas jo sirf sage paarivaarik sadasyon ke liye seemit the mitti ki inton se nirmit the jo garmi ke dinon mein thande bane rahate the. har ghar mein khuli chhat waali ek rasoi hoti thi, jismein aata peesane ke liye ek saan aur roti pakaane ke liye ek chhota avan hota tha.[122] deevaaron par safed rang lagaaya jaata tha aur inhein range hue san ke kapde ke parde se dhaka ja sakta tha. farsh ko ikh ki chataai se dhaka jaata tha, jabki furniture mein shaamil the lakdi ke stool, farsh se ooncha utha hua bistar aur vyaktigat table.[123]

praacheen misravaasi svachhata aur prastuteekaran ko atyadhik mahatva dete the. adhikaansh log neel nadi mein snaan karte the aur pashu vasa aur chaak se nirmit ek leidaar saabun ka prayog karte the. safaai ke liye purush apne poore shareer ki hajaamat karte the aur khushaboodaar itr aur malaham se durgandh ko door aur tvacha ko naram kiya jaata tha.[124] kapde, safed rang mein prakshaalit saadhaaran san ki sheet se bane hote the aur uchch varg ke purush aur mahilaaeain, donon vig, gahane aur prasaadhan saamagri dhaaran karte the. bachche paripakva hone tak bina kapadon ke rahate the, kareeb 12 varsh ki umr tak aur is umr mein purushon ka khatana kiya jaata tha aur unke sir munda diye jaate the. bachchon ki dekhbhaal ka jimma maan ka hota tha, jabki pita parivaar ko aay pradaan karte the.[125]

mukhya aahaar mein shaamil thi roti aur biyr, jiski poorak theen sabjiyaaain jaise pyaaj aur lahasun aur fal jaise khajoor aur anjeer. daavat ke din sabhi log sharaab aur maans ka aanand lete the, jabki uchch varg adhik niyamit roop se ismein shareek hota tha. machhali, maans aur murgi, namakeen ya sookhi ho sakti thi aur ise damapukht mein pakaaya ja sakta tha ya ek gril par bhuna ja sakta tha.[126] sangeet aur nrutya un logon ke liye lokapriya manoranjan the jo unhein khareed sakte the. aaranbhik vaadyon mein shaamil thi baansuri aur haarp, jabki upakaran jo turahi, obos aur pipe ke samaan the, baad mein viksit aur lokapriya hue. naveen saamraajya mein, misravaasi ghanti, jhaanjh, daf aur drum bajaate the aur unhonne lyoot aur veena ko Asia se aayaatit kiya.[127] sistram ek khadkata sangeet vaadyayantr tha jo vishesh roop se dhaarmik samaaroh mein mahatvapoorn tha.

praacheen misravaasi avakaash mein khel aur sangeet sahit kai gatividhiyon ka aanand lete the. senet, ek board game, jismein tukade yaadruchhik mauke ke mutaabik chalte the, aaranbhik kaal se vishesh roop se lokapriya tha; ek aur isi tarah ka khel mehen tha, jiska game board vruttaakaar tha. karatab dikhaana aur geind ke khel bachchon mein lokapriya the aur beni hasan mein ek kabr mein kushti ko bhi pralekhit kiya gaya hai.[128] praacheen misr ke samaaj ke dhani sadasya, shikaar aur nauka vihaar ka bhi aanand lete the.

der L-madeena ke shramik gaanv ki khudaai se sarvaadhik vistaarapoorvak pralekhit aise dastaavej praapt hue hain, jo lagbhag chaar sau saal ki avadhi mein faile praacheen vishv ke saamudaayik jeevan ka vivran prastut karte hain. tulanaatmak roop se anya koi aisi site naheen hai jismein sangathan, saamaajik sampark, ek samudaaya ke kaam karne aur jeevan yaapan ki sthitiyon ka itne vistaar se adhyayan kiya ja sake.[129]

karnak mandir ke hipo shaili ke hall, chhat ke beam ko samarthan dete hue mote stambh ki panktiyon ke saath nirmit hain

vaastu

edfu mein susanrakshit horus ke mandir, misr ke vaastushilp ka ek namoona hai.

praacheen misr ki vaastukala mein duniya bhar ki kuchh sabse prasiddh sanrachanaaen shaamil hain: jaise geeja ke mahaan piraamid aur thebs ke mandir. na keval dhaarmik aur yaad kiye jaane ke uddeshya se nirmaan pariyojanaaon ko raajya dvaara sangathit aur vitt poshit kiya jaata tha, balki fairo ki shakti ko punarsthaapit karne ke liye bhi kiya jaata tha. praacheen misravaasi daksh nirmaanakarta the; saadhaaran parantu prabhaavi upakaranon aur darshaneeya upakaranon ka prayog karke, vaastukaar badi sateekata aur parishuddhata se vishaal patthar ki sanrachanaaen bana sakte the.[130]

misr ke abhijaat varg aur saamaanya varg ke logon ke ghareloo aavaas nasht ho jaane waali cheejon, jaise mitti ki inton aur lakdi se banaae jaate the, jinke avashesh aaj nahi bache. krushak varg saadhaaran gharon mein rahate the, jabki vishisht vargon ke mahalon ki sanrachana vyaapak aur bhavya hua karti thi. naveen saamraajya ke mahalon ke bache hue kuchh avashesh, jaise jo maalakaata aur amarna mein hain, deevaar aur jameen par bhavya sajaavat pradarshit karte hain, jis par manushyon, pakshiyon, jal prapaaton, devataaon aur jyaamiteeya aakaaron ke chitr ankit hain.[131] mahatvapoorn sanrachanaaen, jaise mandir aur makabare, jinke chirkaal tak bane rahane ki sambhaavana thi, unhein inton ke bajaay pattharon se nirmit kiya gaya. vishv ki pehli vishaal paimaane ki patthar ki sanrachana, josar ka murdaaghar parisar ke vaastu tattv mein shaamil hai - pepirs aur kamal roopaankan mein chauki aur lintel ka samarthan.

praacheen misr ke sabse aaranbhik sanrakshit mandir, jaise jo geeja mein hain, ek ekal, band hall se nirmit hain, jismein column dvaara samarthit chhat ke slaib hain. naveen saamraajya mein, vaastukaaron ne toran, khule aangan aur mandir parisar ke saamane hiposhaili ke hall jode, yeh shaili grees-roman kaal tak maanak bani rahi.[132] praacheen saamraajya mein sabse aaranbhik aur lokapriya kabr vaastukala mastaba thi, jo bhoomigat dafan kaksh ke oopar mitti ki int ya patthar se bani hui ek sapaat-chhat waali aayataakaar sanrachana thi. josar ka step piraamid, ek ke oopar ek rakhe patthar ke mastaba ki ek shrrunkhala hai. piraamid ka nirmaan praacheen aur madhya saamraajya ke dauraan hua tha, lekin baad ke shaasakon ne unhein tyaagate hue apekshaakrut kam suspasht chattaan ko kaat kar banaai gayi kabr ko tarajeeh di.[133]

kala

moortikaar thutamos dvaara neferateeti ki ardh pratima, praacheen misr ki kala ki sabse prasiddh krutiyon mein se ek hai.

praacheen misravaasiyon ne kaaryaatmak prayojanon ko poora karne ke liye kala ka nirmaan kiya. kareeb 3500 varshon se adhik tak, kalaakaaron ne praacheen saamraajya ke dauraan viksit kalaatmak roopon aur pratimaa‍ vigyaan ka anusaran kiya jismein unhonne kattar siddhaanton ka paalan kiya, jo videshi prabhaav aur aantarik parivartan ka virodh karta tha.[134] in kalaatmak maanakon - saral rekhaaon, aakaar aur sthaanik gaharaai ke bina aakrutiyon ke sapaat chitran ke saath sanyukt, rang ke sapaat kshetr - ne ek sanrachana ke bheetar kram aur santulan ki bhaavana paida ki. chhaviyon aur paath ko kabr aur mandir ki deevaaron, taabooton, prastar-patt aur moortiyon par bhi badi baareeki se goontha gaya. udaaharan ke liye, the naarmar rangapattika aisi aakrutiyaaain dikhaata hai jinhein chitralipi ke roop mein bhi padha ja sakta hai.[135] un kathor niyamon ke kaaran jo iski uchch sundarata aur prateekaatmak roop ko niyantrit karte the, praacheen misr ki kala ne apne raajaneetik aur dhaarmik prayojanon ko sateekata aur spashtata ke saath nishpaadit kiya.[136]

praacheen misr ke kaareegaron ne pratimaaon aur baareek nakkaashiyon ko banaane ke liye patthar ka istemaal kiya, lekin unhonne lakdi ka prayog ek saste aur aasaani se taraashe jaane vaale sthaanaapann ke roop mein kiya. peint ko khanijon se praapt kiya jaata tha, jaise lauh ayask (laal aur peele geroo), taanba ayask (neela aur hara), kaajal ya lakdi ka koyala (kaala) aur choona patthar (safed). peint ko ek bandhak ke roop mein arabi gond ke saath milaaya ja sakta tha aur cake ke liye dabaaya ja sakta tha, jise zaroorat padne par paani se sikt kiya ja sakta tha.[137] fairoon ne nakkaashiyon ka istemaal ladaai mein mili jeet, shaahi farmaan aur dhaarmik drushyon ko darj karne ke liye kiya. aam naagrikon ki pahuainch antyeshti kala ke namoonon tak thi, jaise shabti pratimaaeain aur mrutakon ki pustakein, jo unhein vishvaas tha mrutyu ke baad unki raksha kareingi.[138] madhya saamraajya ke dauraan, kabr mein jode gaye rojmarra ki jindagi se chitron ko ukerate lakdi ya mitti ke model, lokapriya hue. mrutyu-pashchaat ki gatividhiyon ki nakal karne ki koshish mein, in modelon mein majdoor, makaan, naavein aur yahaaain tak ki sainya sanrachanaaen bhi pradarshit ki gayi hain, jo praacheen misr ke aadarsh punarjanm ka rekhaachitreeya prastuteekaran hain.[139]

praacheen misr ki kala ki samaroopata ke baavajood, kisi vishisht samay aur sthaanon ki shaili, kabhi-kabhi parivrtit hote saanskrutik ya raajaneetik najriye ko pratibinbit karti hai. doosare madhyavarti kaal mein hiksos ke aakraman ke baad, minon shaili ke bhittichitr avaaris mein paae gaye hain.[140] kalaatmak svaroopon mein ek raajaneetik prerit parivartan ka sabse spasht udaaharan amarna avadhi se praapt hota hai, jahaaain aakrutiyon ko akhenaaten ke kraantikaari dhaarmik vichaaron ke anuroop dhaalane ke liye samool roop se parivrtit kar diya gaya.[141] amarna kala ke roop mein jaani jaane waali is shaili ko akhenaaten ki maut ke baad sheegra aur poori tarah se mita diya gaya aur iski jagah paaramparik shaili ne le li.[142]

dhaarmik vishvaas

the book of the ded, mruyu-pashchaat mrutak ki yaatra ke baare mein ek guide thi.

paramaatma aur punarjanm mein vishvaas, praacheen misr ki sabhyata ki sthaapana kaal se hi gahre jame hue the; fairo ka shaasan, raajaaon ke daiveeya adhikaaron par aadhaarit tha. misr ke devaalaya un devataaon se aachhaadit hain jinke paas alaukik shaktiyaaain theen aur jinhein madad ya sanrakshan ke liye aahvaan kiya jaata tha. tathaapi, devataaon ko hamesha udaar ke roop mein naheen dekha jaata tha aur misravaasiyon ka maanana tha ki un devataaon ko prasaad aur pooja ke dvaara santusht karna padta hai. padaanukram mein nae devataaon ko padonnat kiye jaane ke kaaran, is devaalaya ka dhaancha lagaataar badalta raha, lekin pujaariyon ne vividh aur kabhi-kabhi paraspar virodhi utpatti mithkon aur kahaaniyon ko ek susangat pranaali mein sangathit karne ka koi prayaas naheen kiya.[143] devatv ki in vibhinn dhaaranaaon ko virodhi naheen maana jaata tha, balki vaastavikta ke vibhinn pahaluon ki paratein maana jaata tha.[144]

Ka pratima, prakat karne ke liye Ka ko ek bhautik sthaan pradaan karti hai.

devataaon ki pooja panth mandiron mein ki jaati thi, jise raaja ke nimitt kaarya kar rahe pujaariyon dvaara prashaasit kiya jaata tha. mandir ke kendra mein ek punyasthaan par panth pratima hoti thi. mandir, saarvajanik pooja ya mandali ke sthaan naheen the aur sirf daavat aur samaaroh ke chuninda din, devata ki moorti ke saath punyasthaan ko saarvajanik pooja ke liye mandir se baahar laaya jaata tha. aam taur par, Bhagwan ka ilaaka, baahar ki duniya se kata hua tha aur abhigm, sirf mandir ke adhikaariyon ko sulabh tha. aam naagrik, apne gharon mein niji moortiyon ki pooja kar sakte the aur araajak shaktiyon ke khilaaf, taabeej suraksha pradaan karte the.[145] naveen saamraajya ke baad, ek aadhyaatmik madhyasth ke roop mein fairo ki bhoomika par bal dena kam ho gaya, kyonki dhaarmik sanskaaron ka jhukaav, devataaon ki pratyaksh pooja karne ki or sthaanaantarit ho gaya. parinaamasvaroop, pujaariyon ne logon tak devataaon ki ichha ke seedhe sampreshan ke liye orekal ki ek pranaali viksit ki.[146]

misravaasiyon ka maanana tha ki har insaan shaareerik aur aadhyaatmik hisson ya pahaluon se bana hai. shareer ke alaava, pratyek vyakti mein ek šaawt (parachhaain), ek ba (vyaktitv ya aatma), ek ka (praan-shakti) aur ek naam hota hai.[147] dil ko, na ki dimaag ko vichaaron aur bhaavanaaon ka sthaan maana jaata tha. mrutyu ke baad, aadhyaatmik pahaloo shareer se mukt ho jaate the aur apni ichha se ghoom sakte the, lekin ek sthaayi ghar ke roop mein unhein shaareerik avasheshon (ya ek moorti ke roop mein ek vikalp) ki aavashyakta hoti thi. ek mrutak ka antim lakshya apne ka aur ba se fir se milkar "dhanya mrutak" ban jaane ka hota tha, jo fir ek akh ya "ek prabhaavi" ke roop mein jeeta tha. aisa ghatit hone ke liye, mrutak ko ek mukadame mein yogya ghoshit hona chaahiye, jismein hrudaya ko "satya ke pankh" ke khilaaf tola jaata tha. yadi yogya samjha gaya to mrutak, aadhyaatmik roop mein pruthvi par apne astitv ko jaari rakh sakte the.[148]

fairo ki kabr mein prachur dhan rakha jaata tha, jaise tutanakhaamun ki mami se mila yeh svarn mukhauta

dafan pratha

praacheen misravaasiyon ne dafan ki ek vistrut pratha ko banaae rakha tha, jo unke vishvaas ke anusaar maut ke baad amaratv ko sunishchit karne ke liye aavashyak thi. in prathaaon mein shaamil tha mameekaran dvaara shareer ka parirkshan, dafan sanskaaron ka nishpaadan aur shareer ke saath-saath mrutyu ke baad mrutak dvaara prayog ki jaane waali vastuon ka pravesh.[138] praacheen saamraajya se pehle, registaani gaddhe mein dafanaae gaye shav, svaabhaavik roop se shushkeekaran dvaara sanrakshit hote the. banjar, registaani paristhitiyaan, gareebon ki antyeshti ke liye praacheen misr ke poore itihaas mein ek varadaan bani rahi, jo kuleen varg ko upalabdh vyaapak dafan aayojanon ko vahan naheen kar sakte the. ameer misravaasiyon ne apne mrutakon ko patthar ki kabron mein dafanaana shuroo kiya aur parinaamasvaroop, unhonne krutrim mameekaran ka upayog kiya, jiske tahat aantarik angon ko hataaya jaata tha, shareer ko san mein lapeta jaata tha aur use ek aayataakaar sarkofaigas patthar ya lakdi ke taaboot mein dafan kiya jaata tha. kuchh angon ko alag se kenopik jaar mein sanrakshit karna chauthe raajavansh mein shuroo hua.[149]

anoobis, praacheen misr ke mameekaran aur antyeshti sanskaar se jude devata the, yahaaain, ve ek mami ko dekh rahe hain.

naveen saamraajya tak, praacheen misravaasiyon ne mameekaran ki kala ko nikhaar liya tha; behatareen takaneek mein 70 din lagte the, jiske tahat aantarik angon ko hataaya jaata tha, naak ke maadhyam se mastishk ko hataaya jaata tha aur namak ke ek mishran mein, jise naatran kehte the, shareer ko sukhaaya jaata tha. iske baad shareer ko san ke kapde mein lapeta jaata tha jiski paraton ke beech suraksha taabeej ko daala jaata tha aur fir use ek susajjit maanav roop ke taaboot mein rakha jaata tha. uttaraardh kaal ke mami ko bhi chitrit kaartonej ke mami ke khol mein rakha jaata tha. parirkshan ki vaastavik prathaaon ko tolemik aur roman yug ke dauraan tyaag diya gaya aur jyaada jor mami ke baahari svaroop par diya jaane laga jise sajaaya jaata tha.[150]

ameer misravaasiyon ko vilaasita ki adhik vastuon ke saath dafnaaya jaata tha, par sabhi antyeshtiyon mein, saamaajik sthiti ki lihaaj na karte hue, mrutak ke liye saamaan shaamil hota tha. naveen saamraajya shuroo hote hue, mrutak ki pustakon ko kabr mein shaamil kiya gaya, jiske saath shabti pratimaaeain hoti theen jo, aisa vishvaas tha ki mrutyu-pashchaat mrutak ke liye shaareerik shram karti theen.[151] aise sanskaar jismein mrutak ko jaadui tareeke se pun: jeevit kiya jaata tha, antyeshti ka hissa the. dafanaane ke baad, jeevit rishtedaar, mrutak ke nimitt kabhi-kabhi kabr par bhojan laate the aur praarthana karte the.[152]

sena

misr ka ek rath.

praacheen misr ki sena, videshi aakraman ke khilaaf misr ki raksha karne aur nikat-poorv mein misr ke varchasv ko banaae rakhane ke liye jimmedaar thi. sena ne praacheen saamraajya ke dauraan sinaai mein khanan abhiyaanon ko sanrakshit kiya aur pehle aur doosare madhyavarti kaal ke dauraan gruh yuddh lada. mahatvapoorn vyaapaar maargon ki kilebandi banaae rakhane ke liye sena jimmedaar thi, jaisa ki noobiya ke raaste mein buhen shahar mein paaya gaya. sainya thikaanon ke roop mein bhi kilon ka nirmaan kiya gaya, jaise sile ka kila, jo levaant abhiyaanon ke liye ek sanchaalan adde ka kaam karta tha. naveen saamraajya mein, ek shrrunkhala mein kai fairoon ne misr ki khadi sena ka upayog kush aur levaant ke kuchh hisson par hamla karne aur vijay haasil karne ke liye kiya.[153]

vishisht sainya upakaranon mein shaamil the dhanush aur teer, bhaale aur ek lakdi ke frem par pashuon ki tvacha ko kheench kar banaai gayi gol dhaal. naveen saamraajya mein, sena ne rath ka upayog shuroo kiya jise poorv mein hiksos aakramanakaariyon ne shuroo kiya tha. peetal ko apnaane ke baad shastr aur kavach mein sudhaar hota raha: dhaal ko ab thos lakdi se banaaya jaane laga, jismein kaanse ka bakal laga hota tha, teer ki nok par kaansa lagaaya jaata tha aur Asiaee sainikon se khopesh apnaaya gaya.[154] fairo ko kala aur saahitya mein aam taur par sena ke aage savaar chitrit kiya gaya aur aise saboot maujood hain jo siddh karte hain ki kam se kam kuchh fairo, jaise sikvenenar taao II aur uske bete, aisa karte the.[155] sainikon ko aam janta se bharti kiya jaata tha, par naveen saamraajya ke dauraan aur khaaskar baad mein, noobiya, kush aur Libya se bhaade ke ladaakuon ko misr ke liye ladne ke liye liya gaya.[156]

praudyogiki, chikitsa aur ganit

praudyogiki

praudyogiki mein, chikitsa aur ganit mein, praacheen misr ne utpaadakata aur parishkaar ke ek apekshaakrut uchch star ko praapt kiya. paaramparik anubhavavaad, jaisa ki edavin smith aur ebers papiri dvaara pramaanit hua (lagbhag 1600 isa poorv), usaka pehla shreya misr ko jaata hai aur vaigyaanik paddhati ki jadein bhi praacheen misr se prasaarit hui.[krupaya uddharan jodein] misravaasiyon ne apni khud ki varnamaala aur dashamlav pranaali viksit ki.

kaanch-nirmaan ek uchch viksit kala thi.

cheeni mitti aur kaanch

praacheen saamraajya se pehle hi, praacheen misravaasiyon ne kaanch ke samaan ek padaarth viksit kiya jise faaens kehte hain, jise ve krutrim arddh keemati patthar ka ek prakaar maanate the. faaens, silika, choona aur soda ki alp maatra aur ek ranjak, aamtaur par taanba se bana ek gair mitti ka seraamik hai.[157] is padaarth ka prayog moti, taails, moortiyaaain aur chhoti saamagriyaaain banaane ke liye kiya jaata tha. faaens nirmaan karne ke liye kai tareekon ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai, lekin aam taur par nirmaan prakriya mein ek pest ke roop mein paaudar saamagri ko ek mitti ke kor par prayog kiya jaata hai, jise fir aag mein jalaaya jaata hai. ek sambandhit takaneek dvaara, praacheen misravaasi ijipshan blue naam ke ek varnak ka utpaadan karte the jise blue frit bhi kaha jaata hai, jise silika, taanba, choona aur naitran jaise kshaar ke mishran (ya sintaring) dvaara nirmit kiya jaata tha. utpaad ko peesa ja sakta hai aur ek varnak ke roop mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai.[158]

praacheen misravaasi mahaan kaushal ke saath kaanch se vibhinn vastuon ko dhaal sakte the, lekin yeh spasht naheen hai ki unhonne is prakriya ko svatantr roop se viksit kiya tha.[159] yeh bhi spasht naheen hai ki unhonne apne khud ke kachche sheeshe ko nirmit kiya ya keval poorv-nirmit silliyon ka aayaat kiya, jise unhonne baad mein pighlaaya aur svaroop diya. tathaapi, vastuen banaane mein unhein nishchit roop se takaneeki visheshajnyaata haasil thi, saath hi saath, taiyaar glaas ke rang ko niyantrit karne ke liye sanket tatvon ko jodne mein bhi kushal the. vividh rangon ka utpaadan kiya ja sakta tha, jismein shaamil the peela, laal, hara, neela, baingani aur safed aur sheeshe ko ya to paaradarshi ya apaaradarshi banaaya ja sakta tha.[160]

aushadhi

kom ombo mein mandir par tolemik avadhi ke shilaalekh mein chitrit praacheen misr ke chikitsa upakaran.

praacheen misravaasiyon ki chikitsa samasyaaeain seedhe unke vaataavaran se janit theen. neel nadi ke paas rahane aur kaam karne se maleriya aur kamzor banaane vaale sistosomiaasis parajeevi ka hamla hota rahata tha, jo jigr aur pet ko nasht kar deta tha. magaramachh aur dariyaai ghode jaise khatarnaak vanyajeevon ka bhi ek aam khatra mandaraata rahata tha. aajeevan chalne waali kheti aur nirmaan kaaryon ka dabaav, reedh ki haddi aur jodon par asar daalata tha aur nirmaan kaaryon aur yuddh janit dardanaak chotein shareer ko ghaatak nuksaan pahuainchaati theen. patthar se peese gaye aate ki kankari aur ret se daanton mein kharonch aati thi, jisse ve fodon ke prati samvedansheel ho jaate the (haalaanki asthikshaya durlabh the).[161]

jo dhanaadhya the unke aahaar mein shakkar ki maatra adhik hoti thi, jo periyodeintal rog ko janm deti thi.[162] kabr ki deevaaron par chaatukaaritaapoorn shareer ke chitran ke baavajood, uchch varg ki kai vajnadaar mami se jeevan mein atyadhik bhojan se padne wala prabhaav saaf dikhta hai.[163] vayask jeevan pratyaasha purushon ke liye kareeb 35 tha aur mahilaaon ke liye 30, par vayask umr tak pahuainchana mushkil tha kyonki ek tihaai aabaadi shaishavaavastha mein hi mrutyu ko praapt ho jaati thi.[164]

praacheen misr ke chikitsak apne upachaar kaushal ke liye praacheen nikat-poorv mein prasiddh the aur kuchh, jaise imhotep, apni mrutyu ke baad bhi lambe samay tak prasiddh rahe.[165] herodotas ne tippani ki hai ki misr ke chikitsakon mein visheshajnyaata ka ek uchch star tha, jahaaain kuchh chikitsak sirf sir ya pet ka upachaar karte the jabki anya aankhon ke Doctor aur dant chikitsak the.[166] chikitsakon ka prashikshan par aankh ya "house of life" mein hota tha, ullekhaneeya roop se jinka mukhyaalaya naveen saamraajya mein par-bastet mein aur uttaraardh kaal mein abidos aur saais mein tha. chikitsa paapiri se shareer rachana vigyaan, choton aur vyaavahaarik upachaar ka anubhavajanya gyaan pradarshit hota hai.[167]

jkhmon ka patti baandhakar upachaar kiya jaata tha jismein kachche maans, safed san, taanke, jaali, pad aur sankraman rokane ke liye madhu mein lipta faaha prayog kiya jaata tha, jabki dard ko kam karne ke liye afeem diya jaata tha. achhe svaasthya ko badhaava dene ke liye lahasun aur pyaaj ka niyamit roop se istemaal kiya jaata tha aur iske prayog ko asthama se chhutakaara ka ek upaaya maana jaata tha. praacheen misr ke shalya-chikitsak jkhm silte the, tooti haddiyon ko jodte the aur rogagrast ang ko kaatate the, lekin unhonne sveekaar kiya ki kuchh chotein itni gambhir hoti theen ki ve rogi ko uske marne tak keval aaraam pahuaincha sakte the.[168]

jahaaj nirmaan

aaranbhik misravaasiyon ko kareeb 3000 isa poorv ke aas-paas yeh jaankaari thi ki kaise lakdi ke pataron ko ek jahaaj peta banaane ke liye ikatthe joda jaata hai. ameriki puraatatv sansthaan[6] ne khabar di ki pata lagaae gaye ab tak ke sabse puraane jahaajon ko, abidos mein khoje gaye 14 jahaaj ka ek samooh, lakdi ke pataron ko ek saath sil kar banaaya gaya tha. New York vishvavidyaalaya[169] ke ijiptolojist David O'kaunar dvaara ki gayi is khoj mein paaya gaya ki goonthe gaye feeton ko pataron ko ek saath jode rakhane ke liye istemaal kiya gaya,[6] aur pataron ke beech bhara paaya gaya narakat ya ghaas jodon ko seal karne mein madad karta tha.[6] choonki sabhi jahaajon ko ek saath aur khaasekhemi fairo[169] ke murdaaghar ke paas dafan kiya gaya hai, maana jaata hai ki mool roop se ve sabhi usi ke the, lekin 14 jahaajon mein se ek ka kaal 3000 E.poo. ka hai,[169] aur jahaaj ke saath dafn kiye gaye sambaddh mitti ke martabaan bhi poorv ki taareekh ko sujhaate hain.[169] 3000 isa poorv ki avadhi wala jahaaj 75 feet lamba hai[169] aur ab yeh maana jaata hai ki yeh shaayad kisi pehle ke fairo se sambandhit hai.[169] professor O'kaunar ke anusaar, 5000 saal puraana yeh jahaaj sanbhavat: aha fairo ka ho.[169]

aaranbhik misravaasi yeh bhi jaante the ki kaise lakdi ke gujjhon ke upayog se pataron ko ek saath baandha ja sakta hai aur alakatare ke prayog se sandhiyon ko sandaband kiya ja sakta hai. "khufu jahaaj", ek 43.6-meter pot jise 2500 E.poo. ke aas-paas chauthe raajavansh mein geeja piraamid parisar mein geeja ke mahaan piraamid ke neeche ek gaddhe mein gaad diya gaya tha, ek poorn-aakaar ka jeevit udaaharan hai, jisne sanbhavat: saur baark ka prateekaatmak kaarya poora kiya ho. aaranbhik misravaasi yeh bhi jaante the ki kaise is jahaaj ke pataron ko chool aur khaancha sandhiyon se ek saath baandha jaae.[6] aasaani se naugamya neel nadi par chalne ke liye vishaal naukaaon ka nirmaan karne ki praacheen misr ki kshamata ke baavajood, unhein achhe naavik ke roop mein naheen jaana jaata hai aur ve bhoomadhya ya laal saagar mein vyaapak naukaayan ya pot-parivhan mein sanlagn naheen hote the.

ganit

ganiteeya ganana ka sabse aaranbhik anupramaanit udaaharan, poorv-raajavansheeya naakaada avadhi mein milta hai aur ek poori tarah se viksit ank pranaali ko darshaata hai.[170] ek shikshit misravaasi ke liye ganit ka mahatva naveen saamraajya ke ek kaalpanik patra dvaara parilkshit hota hai jismein lekhak, apne aur ek anya lekhak ke beech dainik ganana ke kaaryon, jaise shram, anaaj aur bhoomi ke hisaab se sambandhit ek pratiyogita ka prastaav rakhata hai.[171] rind maithametikl pepirs aur Moscow maithametikl pepirs yeh darshaate hain ki praacheen misravaasi, chaar buniyaadi ganiteeya sankriyaaon ko kar sakte the - jod, ghataav, guna aur vibhaajan - apoornaank ka upayog, bakse aur piraamid ke parimaan ki ganana aur aayaton, trikon, vrutt aur yahaaain tak ki chakr ke tal-kshetrafal ki ganana bhi kar sakte the.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ve beejaganit aur jyaamiti ki aadhaarbhoot avadhaaranaaon ko samajhte the aur yugapat sameekaran ke saral set ko hal kar sakte the.[172]

23
in chitralekh
D22

ganiteeya sanketan dashamlav tha aur das lakh tak das ke pratyek ghaat ke prateekaatmak sanket par aadhaarit tha. inmein se pratyek ko ichhit sankhya tak jod kar pahuainchane ke liye aavashyakataanusaar kai baar likha ja sakta tha; yaani sankhya assi ya aath sau ko likhne ke liye, das ya sau ke sanket ko kramash: aath baar likha jaata tha.[173] choonki unki ganana ke tareeke se ek se adhik ganak ke adhikaansh apoornaank ko sambhaala naheen ja sakta tha, praacheen misr ke apoornaank ko kai apoornaank ke jod ke roop mein likha jaata tha. udaaharan ke liye, apoornaank do bata paanch ko, ek bata teen + ek bata pandrah ke jod mein hal kiya jaata tha; ise moolyon ki maanak soochi se aasaan kiya jaata tha.[174] kuchh aam apoornaank, tathaapi, ek vishesh glif ke saath likhe jaate the; aaj ke aadhunik do tihaai ko daahini taraf dikhaaya jaata tha.[175]

praacheen misr ke ganitjnyaon ko paaithaagoras prameya ke mool siddhaanton ki samajh thi, udaaharan ke liye, ek trikon mein karn ke vipreet ek samakon hota hai jab iske paksh 3-4-5 anupaat mein hote hain.[176] ve ek vrutt ke kshetr fal ka anumaan, uske vyaas se nauvein hisse ko ghataakar aur parinaam ko duguna kar ke laga lete the.

Area ≈ [(89)D]2 = (25681)r 2 ≈ 3.16r 2,

πr 2 formula ka ek tarkasangat sanniktan.[176][177]

yeh sunahara anupaat piraamid sahit, misr ke kai nirmaan mein parilkshit hota hai, lekin ho sakta hai iska prayog, anupaat aur sadbhaav ke sahaj gyaan ke saath gaanthadaar rassiyon ke prayog ke sanyojan ke praacheen misr ke abhyaas ka ek anpekshit parinaam ho.[178]

viraasat

dau॰ jaahi havaas, Supreme kaaunsil of ainteekviteej ke vartamaan sekretari general hain

praacheen misr ki sanskruti aur smaarakon ne duniya par ek sthaayi viraasat chhod di hai. udaaharan ke liye, devi isis ka panth roman saamraajya mein lokapriya hua, jabki obelisk aur anya avasheshon ko, rom mein vaapas le jaaya gaya.[179] rom vaasiyon ne misr shaili mein dhaanche khade karne ke liye misr se nirmaan saamagri bhi aayaat ki. aaranbhik itihaasakaaron, jaise herodotas, straibo aur diodoras siklas ne is desh ka adhyayan kiya, jise rahasya ki ek jagah ke roop mein dekha jaane laga.[180] madhya yug aur punarjaagaran kaal ke dauraan, misr ki moortipoojak sanskruti ka, isaai aur baad mein islaam dharm ke udaya ke baad patan hone laga, lekin madhyayugeen vidvaanon, jaise dhul-nun al-misri aur al-makriji ke lekhon mein misr ki puraatanata ke prati roochi bani rahi.[181]

17veen aur 18veen shataabdiyon mein, Europeeya yaatri aur paryatak, vahaaain se lautate hue praacheen vastuen laae aur apni yaatra ki kahaani likhi, jisne sampoorn Europe mein ijiptomeniya ki ek lahar ko prerit kiya. is punarnaveenikrut roochi ne misr mein sangraahakon ko bheja, jinhonne kai mahatvapoorn praacheen vastuon ko khareeda, laaya, ya praapt kiya.[182] haalaanki, misr mein Europeeya aupaniveshik vyavasaaya ne is desh ki aitihaasik viraasat ke ek mahatvapoorn hisse ko nasht kar diya, kuchh videshiyon ne adhik sakaaraatmak parinaam diye. udaaharan ke liye, nepoliyn ne ijiptolauji mein pehla adhyayan aayojit kiya, jab ve misr ke praakrutik itihaas ke adhyayan aur pralekhan ke liye kareeb 150 vaigyaanik aur kalaakaaron ko laae, jise Description de l'Ėaagypte mein prakaashit kiya gaya.[183] 19veen sadi mein, misr sarkaar aur puraatatvavidon ne khudaai mein, saanskrutik sammaan aur ekta ke mahatva ko maanyata di. the Supreme kaunsil of ainteekviteej, ab sabhi khudaai ko manjoori deti hai aur dekharekh karti hai, jinka uddeshya khajaana dhoondhne ke bajaay jaankaari praapt karna hai. parishad, misr ki aitihaasik viraasat ke sanrakshan ke liye banaaye gaye smaarak aur sangrahaalaya punarnirmaan kaaryakramon ka sanchaalan bhi karti hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

  • praacheen misr ki jaati ka vivaad
  • praacheen misr ki kalaakrutiyon ki shabdaavali
  • praacheen misr mein chitraankan

nots

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  2. dodasan (2004) pru. 46
  3. kletan (1994) pru. 217
  4. James (2005) pru. 8
  5. manuliyn (1998) pru. 6-7
  6. a aa i E u ward, cheril. "World's Oldest Planked Boats", puraatatv mein (54 khand, sankhya 3, May/June 2001). ameriki puraatatv sansthaan.
  7. kletan (1994) pru. 153
  8. James (2005) pru. 84
  9. shau (2002) pru. 17
  10. shau (2002) pru. 17, 67-69
  11. Ikram, Salima (1992). Choice Cuts: Meat Production in Ancient Egypt. University of Cambridge. pa॰ 5. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9789068317459. OCLC 60255819. http://books.google.com/books?id=1Am88Yc8gRkC&printsec=frontcover#PPA5,M1. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-22. saaaincha:Lccn
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  14. paatai, raafail (1998), "children of noaa : juish seefering in enaseeent times" (prinsatan vishvavidyaalaya press)
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sandarbh

atirikt pathan

baahari kadiyaaain

praacheen misr ke baare mein, vikipeediya ke bandhuprakalpon par aur jaane:
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