praacheen bhaarateeya vigyaan tatha praudyogiki

praacheen bhaarateeya vigyaan tatha takaneek ko jaanane ke liye puraatatv aur praacheen saahitya ka sahaara lena padata hai. praacheen Bhaarat ka saahitya atyant vipul evam vividhtaasampann hai. ismein dharm, darshan, bhaasha, vyaakaran aadi ke atirikt ganit, jyotish, aayurved, rasaayan, dhaatukarm, sainya vigyaan aadi bhi varnyavishya rahe hain.

vigyaan evam praudyogiki mein praacheen Bhaarat ke kuchh yogadaan nimnalikhit hain-[1]

  • aayurvigyaan evam shalyakarm - lagbhag 800 isaapoorv Bhaarat mein chikitsa evam shalyakarm par pehla granth ka nirmaan hua tha.
  • lalit kala - vedon ka paath kiya jaata tha jo sasvar evam shuddh hona aavashyak tha. iske falasvaroop vaidik kaal mein hi dhvani evam dhvaniki ka sookshm adhyayan aarambh hua.
  • yaantrik evam utpaadan praudyogiki - greek itihaasakaaron ne likha hai ki chauthi shataabdi isaapoorv mein Bhaarat mein kuchh dhaatuon ka pragalan (smelting) ki jaati thi.
  • jalayaan-nirmaan evam nauvahan (Shipbuilding & navigation) - sanskrut evam paali granthon mein saamudrik kriyaakalaapon ke anek ullekh milte hain.
  • khel (Sports & games) - shataranj, ludo, saaainp-seedhi evam taash ke khelon ka janm praacheen Bhaarat mein hi hua.

anukram

praacheen Bhaarat ke pramukh shaastr

praacheen samay mein na aafaset printing ki masheene theen, na skrin priting ki. na hi Internet tha jahaan kisi bhi vishay par asankhya soochanaaen upalabdh hoti hain. fir bhi praacheen kaal ke rishi-muniyon ne apne purushaarth, gyaan aur shodh ki madad se kai shaastron ki rachana ki aur use viksit bhi kiya. inmein se kuchh pramukh shaastron ka vivechan prastut hai-

aayurvedashaastr

aayurved shaastr ka vikaas uttaravaidik kaal mein hua. is vishay par anek svatantr granthon ki rachana hui. bhaarateeya parampara ke anusaar aayurved ki rachana sabse pehle brahma ne ki. brahma ne prajaapati ko, prajaapati ne ashvini kumaaron ko aur fir ashvini kumaaron ne is vidya ko indr ko pradaan kiya. indr ke dvaara hi yeh vidya sampoorn lok mein vistaarit hui. ise chaar upavedon mein se ek maana gaya hai.

kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar yeh rigved ka upaved hai to kuchh ka maanana hai ki yeh 'atharvaved' ka upaved hai. aayurved ki mukhya teen paramparaaen hain- Bhardwaj, dhanavantari aur kaashyap. aayurved vigyaan ke aath ang hain- shalya, shaalaakya, kaayachikitsa, bhootavidha, kaumaaramrutya, agadatantra, rasaayan aur vaajeekaran. charak sanhita, sushrut sanhita, kaashyap sanhita iske pramukh granth hain jin par baad mein anek vidvaanon dvaara vyaakhyaaen likhi gain.

aayurved ke sabse mahatvapoorn granth charakasanhita ke baare mein aisa maana jaata hai ki mool roop se yeh granth aatreya punarvasu ke shishya agnivesh ne likha tha. charak rishi ne is granth ko sanskrut mein roopaantarit kiya. is kaaran iska naam charak sanhita pad gaya. bataaya jaata hai ki patanjali hi charak the. is granth ka rachanaakaal in. poo. paanchavi shataabdi maana jaata hai.

rasaayanashaastr

rasaayanashaastr ka praarambh vaidik yug se maana gaya hai. praacheen granthon mein rasaayanashaastr ke 'ras' ka arth hota tha-paarad. paarad ko Bhagwan Shiv ka veerya maana gaya hai. rasaayanashaastr ke antargat vibhinn prakaar ke khanijon ka adhyayan kiya jaata tha. vaidik kaal tak anek khanijon ki khoj ho chuki thi tatha unka vyaavahaarik prayog bhi hone laga tha. parantu is kshetr mein sabse jyaada kaam naagaarjun naamak bauddh vidvaan ne kiya. unka kaal lagbhag 280-320 E. tha. unhonne ek nai khoj ki jismein paare ke prayog se taanba ityaadi dhaatuon ko sone mein badla ja sakta tha.

rasaayanashaastr ke kuchh prasiddh granthon mein ek hai rasaratnaakar. iske rachayita naagaarjun the. iske kul aath adhyaaya the parantu chaar hi hamein praapt hote hain. ismein mukhyat: dhaatuon ke shodhan, maaran, shuddh paarad praapti tatha bhasm banaane ki vidhiyon ka varnan milta hai.

prasiddh rasaayanashaastri shri govind bhagavatapaad jo shankaraachaarya ke guru the, dvaara rachit 'rasahrudayatantr' granth bhi kaafi lokapriya hai. iske alaava rasendrachoodaamani, rasaprakaasudhaakar rasaarnav, rasasaar aadi granth bhi rasaayanashaastr ke granthon mein hi gine jaate hain.

jyotishshaastr

jyotish vaidik saahitya ka hi ek ang hai. ismein soorya, chandr, pruthvi, nakshatr, ritu, maas, ayan aadi ki sthitiyon par gambhir adhyayan kiya gaya hai. is vishay mein hamein 'vedaang jyotish' naamak granth praapt hota hai. iske rachana ka samay 1200 E. poo. maana gaya hai. aaryabhatt jyotish ganit ke sabse bade vidvaan ke roop mein maane jaate hain. ek anumaan ke anusaar inka janm 476 E. mein Patna (kusumapur) mein hua tha. maatr 23 varsh ki umr mein inhonne 'aaryabhatteeya' naamak prasiddh jyotish granth ki rachana ki. is granth mein poore 121 shlok hain. ise chaar khandon mein baanta gaya hai- geetikaapaad, ganitpaad, kaalakriyaapaad aur golapaad.

varaahamihir ke ullekh ke bina to bhaarateeya jyotish ki charcha adhoori hai. inka samay chhathi shataabdi E. ke aarambh ka hai. inhonne chaar prasiddh granthon ki rachana ki- panchasiddhaantika, vruhajjaatak, vruhadayaatra tatha vruhatsanhita jo jyotish ko samajhne mein madad karti hain.

ganitshaastr

praacheen kaal se hi Bhaarat mein ganitshaastr ka vishesh mahatva raha hai. yeh sabhi jaante hain ki shoonya evam dashamlav ki khoj Bhaarat mein hi hui. yeh Bhaarat ke dvaara vishv ko di gayi anmol den hai. is khoj ne ganiteeya jatiltaaon ko khatm kar diya. ganitshaastr ko mukhyat: teen bhaagon mein baanta gaya hai. ankaganit, beejaganit aur rekhaaganit.

vaidik kaal mein ankaganit apne viksit svaroop mein sthaapit tha. 'yajurved' mein ek se lekar 10 kharab tak ki sankhyaaon ka ullekh milta hai. in ankon ko varnon mein bhi likha ja sakta tha.

beejaganit ka saadhaaran arth hai, agyaat sankhya ka gyaat sankhya ke saath sameekaran karke agyaat sankhya ko jaanana. angreji mein ise hi alajebra kaha gaya hai. bhaarateeya beejaganit ke avishkaar par vivaad tha. kuchh vidvaanon ka maanana tha iske avishkaar ka shreya yoonaani vidvaan diye faantas ko hai. parantu ab yeh saabit ho chuka hai ki bhaarateeya beejaganit ka vikaas svatantr roop se hua hai aur iska shreya bhaarateeya vidvaan aaryabhatt (446 E.) ko jaata hai.

rekhaaganit ka avishkaar bhi vaidik yug mein hi ho gaya tha. is vidya ka praacheen naam hai- shulvavidya ya shulvavijnyaaan. anek puraataatvik sthalon ki khudaai mein praapt yajnyaashaalaaen, vedikaaen, kund ityaadi ko dekhne tatha inke adhyayan karne par ham paate hain ki inka nirmaan rekhaaganit ke siddhaant par kiya gaya hai. brahmasfut siddhaant, navashati, ganittilk, beejaganit, ganitsaarasangrah, ganit kaumudi ityaadi ganit shaastr ke pramukh granth hain.

kaamashaastr

bhaarateeya samaaj mein purushaarth ka kaafi mahatva hai. purushaarth chaar hain- dharm, arth, kaam, moksh. kaam ka ismein teesara sthaan hai. sarvapratham nandi ne 1000 adhyaayon ka 'kaamashaastr' likha jise baabhravya ne 150 adhyaayon mein sankshipt roop mein likha. kaamashaastr se sambandhit sabse prasiddh granth hai 'kaamasootr' jiski rachana vaatsyaayan ne ki thi. is granth mein 36 adhyaaya hain jismein bhaarateeya jeevan paddhati ke baare mein bataaya gaya hai. ismein 64 kalaaon ka rochak varnan hai. iske alaava ek aur prasiddh granth hai 'kuhaneemat' jo ek laghukaavya ke roop mein hai. kokkak pandit dvaara rachit ratirhasya ko bhi behad pasand kiya jaata hai.

sangeetashaastr

bhaarateeya parampara mein Bhagwan Shiv ko sangeet tatha nrutya ka pratham achaarya kaha gaya hai. kaha jaata hai ke naarad ne Bhagwan Shiv se hi sangeet ka gyaan praapt kiya tha. is vishay par anek granth praapt hote hain jaise naaradashiksha, raaganiroopan, panchamasaarasanhita, sangeetamakarand aadi.

sangeetashaastr ke prasiddh aachaaryon mein mukhyat: umaamaheshvar, bharat, nandi, vaasuki, naarad, vyaas aadi ki ginti hoti hai. bharat ke naatayashaastr ke anusaar geet ki utpatti jahaan saamaved se hui hai, vaheen yajurved ne abhinay (nrutya) ka praarambh kiya.

dharmashaastr

praacheen kaal mein shaasan vyavastha dharm aadhaarit thi. pramukh dharm marmajnyaon vairavaanas, atri, ushana, kanv, kashyap, gaargya, chyavan, bruhaspati, Bhardwaj aadi ne dharm ke vibhinn siddhaanton evam roopon ki vivechana ki hai. purushaarth ke chaaron charanon mein iska sthaan pehla hai.

uttar kaal mein likhe gaye sangrah granthon mein tatkaaleen samay ki sampoorn dhaarmik vyavastha ka varnan milta hai. smrutigranthon mein manusmruti, yaajnyaavalkaya smruti, paraashar smruti, naaradasmruti, bruhaspatismruti mein lokajeevan ke sabhi pakshon ki dhaarmik drushtikon se vyaakhya ki gayi hai tatha kuchh niyam bhi pratipaadit kiye gaye hain.

arthashaastr

chaar purushaartho mein arth ka doosra sthaan hai. mahaabhaarat mein varnit hai ki brahma ne arthashaastr par ek lakh vibhaagon ke ek granth ki rachana ki. iske baad Shiv (vishaalaaksh) ne das hajaar, indr ne paanch hajaar, bruhaspati ne teen hajaar, ushanas ne ek hajaar vibhaagon mein ise sankshipt kiya.

arthashaastr ke antargat keval vitt sambandhi charcha ka hi ullekh naheen kiya gaya hai. varan raajaneeti, dandaneeti aur naitik upadeshon ka bhi vruhad varnan milta hai. arthashaastr ka sabse prasiddh granth hai kautilya ka arthashaastr. iski rachana chaanakya ne ki thi. chaanakya ka jeevan kaal chaturth shataabdi ke aas-paas maana jaata hai.

kautilya arthashaastr mein dharm, arth, raajaneeti, dandaneeti aadi ka vistrut upadesh hai. ise 15 adhikranon mein baanta gaya hai. ismein ved, vedaang, itihaas, puraan, dhaarmashaastr, arthashaastr, jyotish aadi vidyaaon ke saath anek praacheen arthashaastriyon ke maton ke saath vishay ko pratipaadit kiya gaya hai. iske alaava anya mahatvapoorn granth hai kaamandakeeya neetisaar, neetivaakyaamrut, laghuarthaneeti ityaadi.

praudyogiki granth

'bhrugushilpasanhita' mein 16 vigyaan tatha 64 praudyogikiyon ka varnan hai. injeeniyri praudyogikiyon ke teen 'khand' hote the. 'hindi shilpashaastr' naamak granth mein krushnaaji Damodar vajhe ne 400 praudyogiki-vishyak granthon ki soochi di hai, jismein se kuchh nimnalikhit hain-

vishvamedineekosh, shankhasmruti, shilpadeepika, vaasturaajavallabh, bhrugusanhita, mayamatam, maanasaar, aparaajitpruchha, samaraanganasootradhaar, kashyapasanhita, vruhataparaashareeya-krushi, nisaar:, shigru, saurasookt, manushyaalayachandrika, raajagruhanirmaan, durgavidhaan, vaastuvidya, yuddhajayaarnav.

praudyogiki se sambandhit 18 praacheen sanskrut granthon mein se 'kashyapashilpam' sarvaadhik praacheen maani jaati hai.

praacheen khanan evam khaniki se sambandhit sanskrit granth hain- 'ratnapareeksha', lohaarnanav, dhaatukalp, lohapradeep, mahaavajrabhairavatantr tatha paashaanavichaar.

'naaradashilpashaastram' shilpashaastr ka granth hai.

anya shaastr

nyaayashaastr, yogashaastr, vaastushaastr, naatyashaastr, kaavyashaastr, alankaarashaastr, neetishaastr aadi.

sandarbh granth

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain