praacheen bhaarateeya itihaas ki jaankaari ke saadhan

yon to Bhaarat ke praacheen saahitya tatha darshan ke sambandh mein jaankaari ke anek saadhan upalabdh hain, parantu Bhaarat ke praacheen itihaas ki jaankaari ke saadhan santoshaprad naheen hai. unki nyoonata ke kaaran ati praacheen bhaarateeya sanskruti evam shaasan ka kramavaddh itihaas naheen milta hai. fir bhi aise saadhan upalabdh hain jinke adhyayan evam sarvekshan se hamein Bhaarat ki praacheenata ki kahaani ki jaankaari hoti hai. in saadhanon ke adhyayan ke bina ateet aur vartamaan Bhaarat ke nikat ke sambandh ki jaankaari karna bhi asambhav hai.

praacheen Bhaarat ke itihaas ki jaankaari ke saadhanon ko do bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai- saahityik saadhan aur puraataatvik saadhan, jo deshi aur videshi donon hain. saahityik saadhan do prakaar ke hain- dhaarmik saahitya aur laukik saahitya. dhaarmik saahitya bhi do prakaar ke hain - braahman granth aur abraahman granth. braahman granth do prakaar ke hain - shruti jismein ved, braahman, upanishd ityaadi aate hain aur smruti jiske antargat raamaayan, mahaabhaarat, puraan, smrutiyaaain aadi aati hain. laukik saahitya bhi chaar prakaar ke hain - aitihaasik saahitya, videshi vivran, jeevani aur kalpana pradhaan tatha galp saahitya. puraataatvik saamagriyon ko teen bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai - abhilekh, mudraaen tatha bhagnaavashesh smaarak.

adholikhit taalika in srot saadhanon ko adhik spasht karti hai-

  • (k) saahityik saadhan
    • 1. dhaarmik saahitya
    • 2. braahman granth
    • 3. shruti (ved braahman upanishd vedaang)
    • 4. smruti (raamaayan mahaabhaarat puraan smrutiyaaain)
    • 5. abraahman granth
    • 6. laukik saahitya
    • 7. aitihaasik
    • 8. videshi vivran
    • 9. jeevani
    • 10. kalpana pradhaan tathaagalp saahitya

anukram

saahityik saadhan

praacheen bhaarateeya itihaas ki jaankaari ke pramukh saadhan saahityik granth hain jinhein do upakhandon mein rakha ja sakta hai-dhaarmik saahitya aur laukik saahitya. inka pruthak-pruthak ullekh karna aavashyak hai. braahman ya dhaarmik saahitya- braahman granth praacheen bhaarateeya itihaas ka gyaan pradaan karne mein atyadhik sahayog dete hain. Bhaarat ka praacheenatam saahitya pradhaanat: dharm-sambandhi hi hai. aise anek braahman granth hain jinke dvaara praacheen Bhaarat ki sabhyata tatha sanskruti ki kahaani jaani jaati hai. ve nimnalikhit mukhya hain-

ved

aise granthon mein ved sarvaadhik praacheen hain aur ve sabse pehle aate hain. ved aaryon ke praacheenat granth hain jo chaar hain-rigved, saamaved, yajurved aur atharvaved se aaryon ke prasaar; paarasparik yuddh; anaaryon, daason, daason aur dasyuon se unke nirantar sangharsh tatha unke saamaajik, dhaarmik tatha aarthik sangathan ki vishisht maatra mein jaankaari praapt hoti hai. isi prakaar atharvaved se tatkaaleen sanskruti tatha vidhaaon ka gyaan praapt hota hai.

braahman

vaidik mantron tatha sanhitaaon ki gadya teekaaon ko braahman kaha jaata hai. puraatan braahman mein aitareya, shatapath, panchavish, taitareeya aadi vishesh mahatvapoorn hain. aitareya ke adhyayan se raajyaabhishek tatha abhishikt nrupatiyon ke naamon ka gyaan praapt hota hai. shathapath ke ek sau adhyaaya Bhaarat ke pashchimottar ke gaandhaar, shaalya tatha kekaya aadi aur praachya desh, kuru, paanchaal, koshal tatha videh ke sambandh mein aitihaasik kahaaniyaaain prastut karte hain. raaja pareekshit ki katha braahmanon dvaara hi adhik spasht ho paayi hai.

upanishd

upanishdon mein 'bruhadaaranyak' tatha 'chhaandonya', sarvaadhik prasiddh hain. in granthon se bimbisaar ke poorv ke Bhaarat ki avastha jaani ja sakti hai. pareekshit, unke putr janamejaya tatha pashchaatakaaleen raajaaon ka ullekh inheen upanishdon mein kiya gaya hai. inheen upanishdon se yeh spasht hota hai ki aaryon ka darshan vishv ke anya sabhya deshon ke darshan se sarvottam tatha adhik aage tha. aaryon ke aadhyaatmik vikaas praacheenatam dhaarmik avastha aur chintan ke jeete jaagate jeevant udaaharan inheen upanishdon mein milte hain.

vedaang

yugaantar mein vaidik adhyayan ke liye chh: vidhaaon ki shaakhaaon ka janm hua jinhein 'vedaang' kehte hain. vedaang ka shaabdik arth hai vedon ka ang, tathaapi is saahitya ke pauroosheya hone ke kaaran shruti saahitya se pruthak hi gina jaata hai. ve ye hain-shiksha, kalp, vyaakaran, nirookt, chhandashaastr tatha jyotish. vaidik shaakhaaon ke antargat hi unka pruthakru-pruthak varg sthaapit hua aur inheen vargon ke paathya granthon ke roop mein sootron ka nirmaan hua. kalpasootron ko chaar bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya-shraut sootr jinka sambandh mahaayajnyaon se tha, gruhya sootr jo gruh sanskaaron par prakaash daalte the, dharm sootr jinka sambandh dharm tatha dhaarmik niyamon se tha, shulv sootr jo yagya, havan-kunth bedi, naam aadi se sambandhit the. vedaang se jahaaain ek or praacheen Bhaarat ki dhaarmik avasthaaon ka gyaan praapt hota hai, vahaaain doosari or iski saamaajik avastha ka bhi.

raamaayan, mahaabhaarat

vaidik saahitya ke uttar mein raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat naamak do mahaakaavya saahitya ka pranayan hua. sampoorn dhaarmik saahitya mein ye donon mahaakaavya apna vishisht sthaan rakhate hain. raamaayan ki rachana maharshi baalmeeki ne ki jismein ayodhya ki raamakatha hai. ismein raajya seema, yavanon aur shakon ke nagar, shaasan kaarya raamaraajya aadi ka varnan hai. mool mahaabhaarat ka pranayan vyaas muni ne kiya. mahaabhaarat ka vartamaan roop praacheen itihaas kathaaon upadeshon aadi ka bhandaar hai. is granth se Bhaarat ki praacheen saamaajik tatha dhaarmik avasthaaon par prakaash padta hai. in donon mahaakaavyon ki sabse badi visheshata yeh hai ki ve aarya sanskruti ke dakshin mein prasaar ka nirdesh karte hain. raamaayan mein tatkaaleen paur janapadon aur mahaabhaarat se 'sudhamaan' aur 'devasabha' ka hamein jo gyaan praapt hua hai, usase pata chalta hai ki raaja kis seema tak svechhaachaari tha aur kahaan tak uske prabhaav aur kaarya ki seemaayein in raajaneetik sansthaaon tatha praja pratinidhitv dvaara parimit thi.

puraan

mahaakaavyon ke pashchaat puraan aate hain jinki sankhya athaarah hai. inki rachana ka shreya 'soot' lomaharshan athva unke putr ugrashravas ya ugrashrava ko diya jaata hai. puraanon mein paaainch prakaar ke vishyon ka varnan siddhaantat: is prakaar hai-sarg, pratisrg, vansh, manvantar tatha vanshaanucharit. sarg beej ya aadi srushti ka puraan hai pratisrg pralaya ke baad ki punarsrushti ko kehte hain, vansh mein devataaon ya rishiyon ke vansh vrukshon ka varnan hai, manvantar mein kalp ke mahaayugon ka varnan hai jinmein se pratyek mein manushya ka pita ek manu hota hai aur vanshaanucharit puraanon ke ve ang hain jinmein raajavanshon ki taalikaayein di hui hain aur raajaneetik avasthaaon, kathaaon aur ghatnaaon ke varnan hain. uparyukt paanch puraan ke vishay hote hue bhi athaarahon puraanon mein vanshaanucharit ka prakaran praapt naheen hota. yeh durbhaagya hi hai kyonki puraanon mein jo aitihaasik drushtikon se adhik mahatvapoorn vishay hai, vah vanshaanucharit hai. vanshaanucharit keval bhavishya, matsya, vaayu, vishnu, brahmaand tatha Bhagwat puraanon mein hi praapt hota hai. garud-puraan mein bhi paurav, ikshvaaku aur baarhadaya raajavanshon ki taalika praapt hoti hai. par inki tithi poornataya anishchit hai. puraanon ki bhavishyavaani shaili mein kaliyug ke nrupatiyon ki taalikaaon ke saath shishunaag, nand, maurya, shung, kanv, aandhr tatha guptavanshon ki vanshaavaliyaaain bhi praapt hoti hain. shishunaagon mein hi bimbisaar evam ajaatashatru ka ullekh milta hai. is prakaar puraan chauthi shataabdi ki sthitiyon ka ullekh karte hain. maurya vansh ke sambandh mein vishnu puraan mein adhik ullekh milte hain. theek isi prakaar matsya puraan mein maandhr vansh ka poora ullekh milta hai. vaayu puraan gupt samraaton ki shaasan pranaali par prakaash daalte hain. in puraanon mein shoodron aur mlechhon ki vanshaavali bhi di gayi hai. aabheer, shak, gardabh, yavan, tushaar, hoon aadi ke ullekh inheen soochiyon mein milte hain.

smrutiyaaain

braahman granthon mein smrutiyon ka bhi aitihaasik mahatva hai. manu, vishnu, yaajnyaavalkya naarad, vruhaspati, paraashar aadi ki smrutiyaaain prasiddh hain jo dharm shaastr ke roop mein sveekaar ki jaati hain. manusmruti mein jiski rachana sanbhavat: doosari shataabdi mein ki gayi hai, dhaarmik tatha saamaajik avasthaaon ka pata chalta hai. naarad tatha vahaspati smrutiyon se jinki rachana kareeb chhathi sadi E. ke aas-paas hui thi, raaja aur praja ke beech hone vaale uchit sambandhon aur vidhiyon ke vishay mein jaana ja sakta hai. iske atirikt paraashar, atri haris, ushanas, angirs, yam, umavrat, kaatyaan, vyaas, daksh, sharataataya, gaargeya vagairah ki smrutiyaaain bhi praacheen Bhaarat ki saamaajik aur dhaarmik avasthaaon ke baare mein batalaati hain.

abraahman granth

dhaarmik saahitya ke braahman granthon ke atirikt abraahman granthon se us samay ki vibhinn avasthaaon ka pata chalta hai.

bauddh granth-

bauddhamataavalbiyon ne jis saahitya ka srujan kiya, usamein bhaarateeya itihaas ki jaankaari ke liye prachur saamagriyaaain nihit hain. 'tripitk' inka mahaan granth hai. sut, vinaya tatha amidhmm milaakar 'tripitk' kahalaate hain. bauddh sangh, mikshuon tatha bhikshuniyon ke liye aacharaneeya niyam vidhaan vinaya pitk mein praapt hote hain. sutt pitk mein buddhadev ke dharmopadesh hain. Gautam nikaayon mein vibhkt hain-

pratham deergh nikaaya mein buddh ke jeevan se sambaddh evam unke sampark mein aaye vyaktiyon ke vishesh vivran hain. doosare sanyukt nikaaya mein chhathi shataabdi poorv ke raajaneetik jeevan par prakaash padta hai, kintu saamaajik aur aarthik sthiti ki jaankaari isse adhik hoti hai. teesare majhim nikaaya ko Bhagwan buddh ko daivik shaktiyon se yukt ek vilkshan vyakti maanata hai.

chauthe, anguttar nikaaya mein solah mahaanapadon ki soochi milti hain. paaainchavein, khuddak nikaaya laghu granthon ka sangrah hai jo chhathi shataabdi E. poorv se lekar maurya kaal tak ka itihaas prastut karta hai. amidhmm pitk mein bauddh dharm ke daarshanik siddhaant hain. kuchh anya bauddh granth bhi hain. milindamanh mein yoonaani shaashak minendar aur bauddh mikshu naagasen ke vaartaalaap ka ullekh hai.

'deepavansh' maurya kaal ke itihaas ki jaankaari deta hai. 'mahaavansh' bhi mauryakaaleen itihaas ko batalaata hai. 'mahaabodhivansh' maurya kaal ka hi itihaas maana jaata hai. 'mahaavastu' mein Bhagwan buddh ke jeevan ko bindu banaakar chhathi shataabdi E. poorv ke itihaas ko prastut kiya gaya hai. 'lalit vistaar' mein buddh ki aihik leelaaon ka varnan hai jo mahaayaan se sambaddh hai. paali ki 'nidaan katha' bodhi satvon ka varnan karti hai. yaatimokkh, mahaavagg, chuglavagg, sut vibhang evam parivaar mein bhikkhu-bhikkhuniyon ke niyamon ka ullekh hai. ye paaainchon granth 'vinaya' ke antargat aate hain.

amidhmm ke saat sangrah hai jinmein tatvajnyaaan ki charcha ki gayi hai. aitihaasik gyaan ke liye tripitkon ka adhyayan aavashyak hai kyonki ismein bauddh sanghon ke sangathanon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. isi prakaar bauddhagranthon mein jaatak kathaaon ka doosra mahatvapoorn sthaan hai jinki sankhya 549 hai. ''inka mahatva keval iseeliye naheen hai ki unka saahitya aur kala shreshth hai, pratyut teesari shataabdi E. poorv ki sabhyata ke itihaas ki drushti se bhi unka vaisa ooaincha maan hai.'' jaatak mein Bhagwan buddh ke janm ke poorv ki kathaaeain ullikhit hain.

jain granth-

praacheen bhaarateeya itihaas ka gyaan praapt karne ke liye jain granth bhi upayogi hain. ye pradhaanat: dhaarmik hain. in granthon mein 'parishisht parvat' vishesh mahatvapoorn hain. 'bhadrabaahu charitra' doosra prasiddh jain granth hai jismein jainaachaarya bhadrabaahu ke saath-saath chandragupt maurya ke sambandh mein bhi ullekh milta hai. in granthon ke atirikt katha-kosh, punyaashrav-kathaakosh, trilok prajnyaasti, aavashyak sootr, kaalika puraan, kalp sootr, uttaraadhyayan sootr aadi anek jain granth bhaarateeya itihaas ki saamagriyaan prastut karte hain. inke atirikt deepavansh, mahaavansh milndipnho, divyaavadaan aadi granth ki in donon dharmon tatha maurya saamraajya ke sambandh mein yatr-tatr ullekh karte hain.

laukik saahitya

aitihaasik saamagriyon ki upalabdhi ke drushtikon se laukik saahitya ko pramukhat: chaar bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai-

aitihaasik granth:

aise anek vishuddh aitihaasik granth hai jinmein keval samraat tatha shaasan se sambandhit tathyon ka hi ullekh kiya gaya hai. aise granthon mein kalhan krut 'raajatarangini' naamak granth sarvapratham aata hai jo poornat: aitihaasik hai. ismein katha-vaahik roop mein praacheen aitihaasik granthon raajya shaasakon aur prashastiyon ke aadhaar par aitihaasik vrutaant prastut kiye gaye hain. iski rachana. 1148 E. mein praarambh ki gayi thi. Kashmir ke saare nareshon ke itihaas jaankaari is prasiddh granth se hoti hai. ismein kramabaddhata ka poori tarah nirvaah kiya gaya hai.

isi shreni mein tamil granth bhi aate hain. ye hain nandivk laambakam, ottaktootan ka kulottungaj- pillaitt mil, jaya gondaar ka kalingattundharani, raaj-raaj-shaulan-ula aur cholavansh charitm. isi shreni mein sinhal ke do granth-deepavansh aur mahaavansh bhi aate hain jinmein bauddh Bhaarat ka ullekh milta hai.

guptakaaleen vishaakhadatt ka 'mudraaraakshas' sikndar ke aakraman ke sheegra baad hi bhaarateeya raajaneeti ka udghaatan karta hai. poras, jisne sikndar ke daaaint khatte kar diye the. mudraaraakshas ke pramukh paatron mein ek hai. saath hi saath, chandragupt maurya chaanakya tatha kuchh tatkaaleen nrupatiyon ka bhi ismein ullekh milta hai.

kautilya ka arthashaastr bhi is sambandh mein mahattvapoorn granth hai jiski rachana mudraaraakshas ke poorv hi ki gayi thi. is granth mein rachanaakaar ne tatkaaleen shaasan-paddhati par prakaash daala hai. raaja ke karttavya, shaasan-vyavastha, nyaaya aadi anek vishyon ke sambandh mein kautilya ne prakaash daala hai. vaastav mein mauryakaaleen itihaas ka yeh granth ek darpan hai.

paanini ka 'ashtaadhyaayi' ek vyaakaran granth hote hue bhi maurya poorv tatha mauryakaaleen raajaneetik avastha par prakaash daalata hai. isi tarah paatanjali ka 'mahaabhaashya' bhi raajaneeti ke sambandh mein charcha karta hai.

'shukraneetisaar' bhi ek mahattvapoorn aitihaasik granth hai jismein tatkaaleen bhaarateeya samaaj ka varnan milta hai. jyotish granth gaargi sanhita puraan ka ek bhaag hai jismein yavanon ke aakraman ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.

kaalidaas ka 'maalavikaagnimitr' saahityik hote hue bhi aitihaasik saamagriyaaain prastut karta hai. is granth mein kaalidaas ne pushyamitr shung ke putr agnimitr tatha vidrbharaaj ki Rajkumari maalavika ki prem katha ka ullekh kiya hai.

videshi vivran-

deshi lekhakon ke atirikt videshi lekhakon ke saahitya se bhi praacheen Bhaarat ke itihaas prushth nirmit kiye gaye hain. anek videshi yaatriyon evam lekhakon ne swayam Bhaarat ki yaatra karke ya logon se sunakar bhaarateeya sanskruti mein granthon ka pranayan kiya hai. inmein yoonaan, rom, cheen, Tibet, arab aadi deshon ke yaatri shaamil hain.

yoonaaniyon ke vivran sikndar ke poorv, uske samakaaleen tatha uske pashchaat ki paristhitiyon se sambandhit hain. skaaileks pehla yoonaani sainik tha jisne sindhu nadi ka pata lagaane ke liye apne svaami deriys pratham ke aadesh se sarvapratham Bhaarat ki bhoomi par kadam rakha tha. iske vivran se pata chalta hai ki bhaarateeya samaaj mein uchchakuleen janon ka kaafi sammaan tha. heketiys doosra yoonaani lekhak tha jisne Bhaarat aur videshon ke beech kaayam hue raajaneetik sambandhon ki charcha ki hai. herodotas jo ek prasiddh yoonaani lekhak tha, ne yeh likha hai ki bhaarateeya yuddh premi the. isi lekhak ke granth se yeh bhi pata chalta hai ki Bhaarat ka uttari tatha pashchimi deshon se madhur sambandh tha. tesiys Irani samraat jereksas ka vaidya tha jisne sikndar ke poorv ke bhaarateeya samaaj ke sangathan reeti rivaaj, rahan-sahan ityaadi ka varnan kiya hai. par iske vivran adhikaanshat: kalpana pradhaan aur asatya hain.

sikndar ke samay mein bhi aise anek lekhak the jinhonne Bhaarat ke sambandh mein granthon ki rachana ki. ye lekhak sikndar ke Bhaarat par aakraman ke samay hi uske saath bhaaratavarsh aaye the. inmein aristobulas, niaarkas, chaaras, yoomenees aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain.

sikndar ke pashchaat kaaleen yaatriyon aur lekhakon mein megaasthaneej, plani, taalimi, daayamekas, daayodoras, plootaark, eriyn, kartiys, Justin, strebo aadi ke naam ullekh megaasthaneej yoonaani shaasak selyookas ki or se raajadoot ke roop mein chandragupt maurya ke darbaar mein aaya tha. iski 'indika' bhaarateeya sansthaaon bhoogol samaaj ke vargeekaran, paataliputr aadi ke sanbadh mein prachur saamagriyaaain deti hain. yadyapi is granth ka mool roop apraapya hai, par iske uddharan anek lekhakon ke granthon mein aaye hain. daayamekas raajadoot ke roop mein bindusaar ke darbaar mein kuchh dinon tak raha jisne apne samay ki sabhyata tatha raajaneeti ka ullekh kiya hai. is lekhak ki bhi mool pustak anupalbadh hai taamali ne bhaarateeya bhoogol ki rachana ki. plini ne apne 'praakrutik itihaas' mein bhaarateeya pashuon, paudhon, khanij aadi ka varnan kiya. isi prakaar ereliyn ke lekh tatha kartiys, Justin aur strebo ke vivran bhi praacheen Bhaarat itihaas ke adhyayan ki saamagriyaaain pradaan karte hain. 'irithiyn' saagar ka periplas' naam granth jiske rachayita ka naam agyaat hai, Bhaarat ke vaanijya ke sambandh mein gyaan deta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain