potaishiym


potaishiym / Potassium
raasaayanik tatv
K,19.jpg
namoona
raasaayanik chinh: K
parmaanu sankhya: 19
raasaayanik shrunkhala: kshaar dhaatu
K-TableImage.png

aavart saarani mein sthiti
Electron shell 019 Potassium.svg
electronic dhaancha
anya bhaashaaon mein naam: Potassium (angreji), Кaaаaaлaaиaaй (roosi), દaaહaaાaaતaaુ (gujaraati), palaash (maraathi), カaaリaaウaaム (Japani)
potaishiym

potaishiym (Potassium) ek raasaayanik tatv hai. iska prateek 'K' hai. yeh aarvat saarani ke pratham mukhya samooh ka tatv hai. iske do sthir samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 39 aur 41) gyaat hain. ek asthir samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 40) prakruti mein nyoon maatra mein paaya jaata hai. inke atirikt teen anya samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 38, 42 aur 43) krutrim roop se nirmit hue hain.

anukram

itihaas

potaishiym ke yaugik puraatan kaal se gyaat hain. charakasanhita mein bhasm se kshaar banaane ki vidhi ka varnan aaya hai. cheeni turkistaan me sthit buddhamandir mein ek chikitsa granth ki 1890 E. mein praapti hui. is granth mein yavakshaar (potassium carbonate) ka varnan aaya hai. uparyukt baaton se gyaat hota hai ki pautaishiym kshaaron ka upayog puraatan kaal mein oshadhi tatha raasaayanik kriyaaon mein hota tha.

potaishiym tatv ka pruthakkaran 1807 E. mein sar hanfri devi ne potaishiym haaidrauksaaid ke vidyudvishlaishan dvaara kiya. potaash shabd ke aadhaar par devi ne is tatv ka naam potaishiym rakha.

upasthiti

potaishiym atyant sakriya tatv hone ke kaaran yaugik avastha mein hi paaya jaata hai. iske yaugik pruthvi mein samuchit maatra mein faile hain. anek chattaanon mein iske jatil siliket upasthit rahate hain. bhooparpati mein 2.6 pratishat potaishiym rahata hai. samudra mein is tatv ke yaugikon ka prachur parimaan hai, parantu pratishat maatra mein kam hone ke kaaran abhi usaka adhik upayog naheen ho paaya. Germany mein straisafurt (Strassfurt) pradesh mein iske bahut samruddh srot hain, jinmein potaishiym kloraaid ya silvaait (sylvite) badi maatra mein maigneeshiym aur kailsiym lavanon ke saath mishrit dasha mein paaya jaata hai. sanyukt raajya amareeka, ke kailofauniya pradesh mein potaishiym ke lavan paae jaate hain. Bhaarat mein shora (saltpetre), kenaait (kanite, KCl, MgSO4, 3H2O) aur laingabeenaait (langbenie, K2SO4, 2MgSO4) potaishiym ke mukhya praapya yaugik hai. ye saanbhar jheel mein samuchit maatra mein milte hain.

nirmaan

potaishiym dhaatu ka nirmaan devi ki vidhi par nirbhar hai. ismein vishuddh potaishiym haaidrauksaaid athva kaustik potaash (KOH) ka sangalit avastha mein vidyudvishleshan karne par, potaishiym lauh ke rin vidyudagr par jama ho jaata hai. kaustik potaash ke sthaan par potaishiym kloraaid (KCl) aur potaishiym floraaid (KF) ka sanmishran bhi liya jaata hai.

gun dharm

potaishiym neelima liye chamakadaar shvet dhaatu hai, jo 00 sein. taap par kathor aur bhangur hai, parantu saadhaaran taap par itna komal hota hai ki chaakoo se kaata ja sakta hai. iske kuchh bhautik gun nimnaankit hain : sanket K, paramaanusankhya 19, paramaanubhaar 39.102, galanaank 62.50 sein., kvathanaank 7600 sein. ghanatv 0.865, paramaanuvyaas 4.76 aingstram, vidyutapratirodhakata 6.15 maaikrooham-meinmi. tatha aayaneekaran vibhv 4.329 ivo. hai.

potaishiym vaayu mein sheegra malin ho jaata hai aur garm karne par pidyalakar jalata hai. jal mein daalne par visfot ke saath kriya karke baingani jvaala ke saath jalata hai. is prakriya mein haaidrojan mukt hota hai, jo uchch taap ke kaaran vaayu ke sampark mein jalne lagta hai. potaishiym ke vaashp ke kaaran jvaala rang baingani ho jaata hai. potaishiym ko tel athva nishkriya vaataavaran mein surakshit rakhate hain.

sodiym ki bhaaainti potaishiym bhi drav aimoniya mein ghulakar neela vilyan deta hai aur potaishamaaid (potassamide, KNH2) banta hai. 2000 sein. se 4000 sein. taap par potaishiym haaidrojan ko apne andar adhidhaarit kar leta hai. aisa anumaan hai ki is dasha mein ek yaugik (khkt) banta hai.

yaugik

potaishiym ekasanyoji yaugik banaata hai. potaishiym parmaanu mein chauthe kaksh mein keval ek ilektraan hota hai. yadi yeh ilektraan parmaanu se nikal jaaya, to usaki ilektraan rachana aagran gas ke samaan rah jaayagi, jo sthir hoti hai. is kaaran pratyek kriya mein potaishiym ki is ilektraun ko pradaan karne ki pravrutti rahati hai.

potaishiym ke oksaaid

potaishiym ke nishchit roop se teen oksaaid, potaishiym oksaaid (K2O), potaishiym daaioksaaid (KO2) aur potaishiym paraoksaaid (K2O2), gyaat hain. yadi pautaishiym naaitraaid ko potaishiym dhaatu ke saath vaayu ki anupasthiti mein garm kiya jaaya, to potaishiym oksaaid praapt hoga, jo matamaila bhangur padaarth hai. yeh bada sakriya oksaaid hai aur teevr gati se jal se abhikriya kar potaishiym haaidrauksaaid banaata hai.

yadi potaishiym ko adhik okseejan ke vaataavaran mein jalaaya jaaya, to naarangi rang ka thos potaishiym daaoksaaid banta hai. yeh atyant sakriya yaugik hai aur jal se kriya kar okseejan tatha haaidrojan paraoksaaid donon mukt karta hai. yeh anek tatvon ka okseekaran teevr gati se karta hai.

yadi potaishiym ko okseejan ki parignit maatra mein garm kiya jaaya, to potaishiym paraoksaaid praapt hoga, jo shvet rang ka thos padaarth hai. yeh jal se prakriya kar keval haaidrojan par oksaaid mukt karta hai.

kaustik potaash

yeh potaishiym kloraaid vilyan ke vaidyut vightan se banta hai. idas kriya ko kesanar-kailanar vidhi kehte hain. yeh shvet, apaaradarshi, thos padaarth hai aur garam karne par sheegra hi gal jaata hai. yeh atyant jalapriya tatha atyant jal vileya hai. amlon se kriya kar yeh vileya lavan banaata hai.

potaishiym ke hailaujan yaugik

floreen, kloreen, bromeen tatha aayodeen ke saath potaishiym ke yaugik gyaat hain. kaustik potaash par haaidroflorik aml (HF) ki kriya se potaishiym floraaid, ek saamaanya floraaid (KF), doosra amleeya floraaid (KHF2) bante hain. potaishiym floraaid namakeen svaadavaala aardrataagraahi thos padaarth hai.

potaishiym kloraaid Germany ke straisafurt pradesh mein bahut maatra mein upalabdh hai. maigneeshiym aur kailsiym yaugikon ke saath mishrit avastha mein yeh praaya: milta hai. yadi iske vilyan mein haaidrojan kloraaid gas pravaahit ki jaaya, to shuddh potaishiym kloraaid ka avakshep praapt hoga aur anya yaugik vilyit avastha mein raheinge. potaishiym kloraaid urvarak tatha anya potaishiym lavanon ke banaane ke udyog mein badi maatra mein kaam aata hai.

potaishiym bromaaid (KBr) aur aayodaaid (KI) kaustik potaash par kramash: bromeen aur aayodeen ki abhikriya dvaara praapt ho sakte hain. ye donon lavan kloraaid se samaanata rakhate hain, parantu jal mein usase adhik vileya hain. potaishiym bromaaid ka fotograafi udyog mein upayog hota hai. donon yaugik oshadhi ke roop mein tatha raasaayanik prayogashaalaaon ki anek kriyaaon mein kaam aate hain.

potaishiym ke gandhak yaugik

gandhak ke saath potaishiym salfaaid aur iska jal ke 5 anuon se sanyukt ho (K2S, 5H2O) kristal banta hai. iske atirikt kaustik potaash ke vilyan mein haaidrojan salfaaid pravaahit karne se potaishiym haaidrosalfaaid (KHS) banta hai. kaustik potaash vilyan mein salafar daaiaaksaaid (SO2) pravaahit karne par par potaishiym salfaait (K2SO3) banega.

potaishiym salfet (K2SO4) straisafurt ke khanijon mein upalabdh hai. yeh anek raasaayanik udyogon mein upajaat ke roop mein bhi milta hai. iska amleeya roop potaishiym haaidrojan salfet (KHSO4) hai. potaishiym salfet ka upayog oshadhiyon, urvarak aur fitkari ke banaane mein praaya: hota hai.

potaishiym naaitret

keemiyaagar ise saaltapeetar ke naam se sambodhit karte the. prakruti mein kaarbanik padaartho ke kshaya dvaara yeh banta rahata hai. Bihar mein noni mitti se yeh nikaala jaata tha. Rajasthan mein saaainbhar jheel ke pradesh mein bhi upalabdh hai.

potaishiym kaarbonet

ise potaash bhi kehte hain. bahut kaal tak yeh kaashtharaakh se praapt kiya jaata tha, jisko sanskrut granthon mein yavakshaar kaha gaya hai. aajkal leblaank vidhi se yeh taiyaar hota hai. yeh jal mein bahut vileya hai aur kshaar gun pradhaan hai. yeh kathor kaaainch, potaash saabun aur kaustik potaash banaane mein kaam aata hai. iske vilyan mein kaarban daaioksaaid pravaahit karne se potaishiym baaikaarbonet (KHCO3) banta hai.

potaishiym ke avileya yaugik

potaishiym kloroplaitinet (K2PtCl6) ki vileyata bahut kam hai. iska peela avakshep potaishiym vishleshan mein kaam aata hai. iske atirikt potaishiym kobaalteenaaitraait, K3, Co(NO2)6] bhi avileya hai, jo potaishiym aur kobaalt ke vishleshan mein prayukt hota hai.

upayog

bhojan mein

potaishiym kloraaid (KCl) ka prayog saadhaaran namak (NaCl) ke sthaan par kiya jaata hai.

udyogon mein