poorvottar Bhaarat

uttar poorvi Bhaarat

Location of Northeast India

samay kshetr IST (yu ti si+5:30)
kshetr 262,230 km²
Bhaarat ke raajya evam kendra shaasit pradesh arunaachal pradesh, asam, manipur, meghaalaya, mijoram, naagaalaind, sikkim, tripura
uttar poorvi Bhaarat ke bade shahar (2008) Guwahati, Agartala, shilaaaing, aaijol, imfaal
aadhikaarik bhaashaaeain asami, bangaali, bodo, manipuri
jan sankhya 38,857,769
jan sankhya ghanatv 148 /km²
janm dar
mrutyu dar
shishu mrutyu dar

poorvottar Bhaarat se aashay Bhaarat ke sarvaadhik poorvi kshetron se hai jismein ek saath jude 'saat bahanon' ke naam se prasiddh raajya, sikkim tatha uttari Bengal ke kuchh bhaag (daarjeeling, jalapaaigudi aur kooch Bihar ke jile) shaamil hain. poorvottar Bhaarat saanskrutik drushti se Bhaarat ke anya raajyon se kuchh bhinn hai. bhaasha ki drushti se yeh kshetr tibbati-barmi bhaashaaoain ke adhik prachalan ke kaaran alag se pahachaana jaata hai. is kshetr mein vah drudh jaateeya sanskruti vyaapt hai jo sanskruteekaran ke prabhaav se bachi rah gayi thi. ismein vishisht shreni ke maanyata praapt aath raajya bhi hain.

in aath raajyon ke aarthik aur saamaajik vikaas ke liye 1971 mein poorvotar parishad (North istarn kaaunsil / NEC)[1] ka gathan ek kendreeya sanstha ke roop mein kiya gaya tha. North istarn develapameint finance Corporation limited (NEDFi)[2] ka gathan 9 August 1995 ko kiya gaya tha aur uttarapoorveeya kshetr vikaas mantraalaya (DoNER)[3][4] ka gathan sitmbar 2001 mein kiya gaya tha.

uttarapoorveeya raajyon mein sikkim 1947 mein ek bhaarateeya sanrakshit raajya aur uske baad 1975 mein ek poorn raajya ban gaya. pashchim Bengal mein sthit sileegudi corridor jiski ausat chaudaai 21 kilometer se 40 kilometer ke beech hai, uttarapoorveeya kshetr ko mukhya bhaarateeya bhoo-bhaag se jodta hai. iski seema ka 2000 kilometer se bhi adhik kshetr anya deshon : Nepal, China, bhootaan, barma aur Bangladesh ke saath lagti hai.

anukram

itihaas

asam mein baaihaata kariyaali ke paas madan kaamadev mein ek kroor sher khudaaya hua hai jo shaktishaali kaamaroop-paalas ka pratinidhitv hai (si. 9 veen-10 veen shataabdi E.)
1950 ke dashak mein raajya asam ke maanachitr
inhein bhi dekhein: Political integration of India

bhaarateeya svatantrata ke baad british Bhaarat ke uttarapoorveeya kshetr ko asam ke ekal raajya ke antargat vargeekrut kar diya gaya tha. baad mein svatantr tripura committee jaise kai svatantrata aandolan samast uttarapoorveeya raajyon ko asam ke antargat samooheekrut karne ke virodh mein chalaae gaye the. 1960-70 ke dashak mein naagaalaind, meghaalaya aur mijoram raajyon ka gathan kiya gaya. asam ki rajdhani shilaaaing se dispur visthaapit kar di gayi, jo ab Guwahati ka ek bhaag hai. shilaaaing meghaalaya ki rajdhani ban gayi. in sabhi raajyon ke saath inki anoothi sanskruti aur itihaas juda hai. iname se adhikaansh kshetr british raaj ke dauraan Bhaarat ki mukhyadhaara mein shaamil kiye gaye the jab british aupaniveshik adhikaariyon ne paaramparik alag alag seemaaon vaale raajyon ko apne kshetr aur baahya shaktiyon ke beech ek madhyavarti kshetr banaane ke liye jod diya (jaise: uttarapoorv mein asam, manipur aur tripura aur uttarapashchim mein baluchistaan tatha uttar pashchim seemaant pradesh). 1947 mein aajaadi ke baad bhaarateeya raajyon aur raajaneetik pranaaliyon ka vistaar ek chunauti raha hai.[5]

arunaanchal pradesh ke adhikaansh bhaag par cheen apna daava karta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 1962 mein hue Bhaarat-cheen yuddh ke kaaran cheen-Bhaarat sambandhon mein khataas aa gayi. yuddh ke kaaranon ko lekar ab bhi Bhaarat aur cheen donon pakshon ke stroton mein vivaad hai. 1962 mein yuddh ke dauraan, peeaarasi (PRC) ne 1954 mein Bhaarat dvaara banaaye gaye enaiefae (NEFA) (uttar-poorveeya seemaant sanstha) ke adhikaansh bhaag par kabja kar liya. haalaanki, sheegra hi cheen ne swayam hi jeet ki ghoshana kar di aur you.N. (U.N.) mein soviyt sangh ke veto ke kaaran maikamohan line tak vaapis khisak gaya aur 1963 mein yuddh ke dauraan bandi banaae gaye kaidiyon ko bhi chhod diya. haalaaainki Bhaarat mein Modi sarkaar ke aane ke baad arunaachal mein Bhaarat kaafi majaboot hua hai.aur ab cheen ka tavaang par daava kamjor padta dikh raha hai.

yeh kshetr apni anoothi sanskruti, hastashilp, maarshal Art aur praakrutik sundarata ke liye jaana jaata hai. is kshetr ki samasyaaon mein vidroh, berojgaari, maadak padaarthon ka sevan aur aadhaarbhoot suvidhaaon ka abhaav hai. 1990 ke dashak mein aarthik udaareekaran ki shuruaat se hi adhyayanon ke maadhyam se yeh prakat hua hai ki vikaas ke maamale mein yeh kshetr anya kshetron ki tulana mein pichhda hua hai.

bhoogol

sikkim se himaalaya ka drushya.

uttarapoorveeya Bhaarat ki jalavaayu mukhyat: nam ardh-ooshnakatibandheeya hai aur greeshmakaal garm va umas bhara hota hai tatha atyadhik varsha hoti hai aur halaki thand padti hai. Bhaarat ke pashchimi tat ke saath saath, is kshetr mein bhi bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke kuchh bache hue varsha van sthit hain. arunaanchal pradesh aur sikkim raajyon ki parvateeya jalavaayu thandi himaachhaadit sardiyon ke saath halaki garm hai.

raajaneetik mudde

naagaalaind se naaga ladki.
inhein bhi dekhein: Insurgency in Northeast India

british saamraajyavaad ke parinaamasvaroop uttarapoorveeya raajyon ka alagaav tab hi se shuroo ho gaya tha jab is kshetr ko apne paaramparik vyavasaayik bhaageedaaron (bhootaan, myaanmaar aur Bhaarat-cheen) se alag kiya jaane laga tha.[6] 1947 mein bhaarateeya svatantrata aur vibhaajan ne is ekaaki kshetr ko bhang karte hue ise ek sthalaseema kshetr bana diya jise deri se pahachaana gaya, kintu abhi tak is par adhyayan naheen kiya ja saka hai.[7] sheegra hi yeh mukhyaadhaara ke Bhaarat ke liye ek aabaddh baajaar ban gaya.[8]

uttarapoorveeya raajyon mein matadaataaon ka tulanaatmak pratishat kam hai (Bhaarat ki kul janasankhya ka 3.8 pratishat) isliye unhein lok sabha ki kul 543 seaton mein se maatr 25 seatein (kul seaton ka 4.6 pratishat) hi aavantit ki jaati hain.

uttarapoorveeya raajya kai jaateeya samoohon ki gruhabhoomi hain jo sv-rakshan mein lage hue hain.[sandigdh ][krupaya uddharan jodein] haal ke samay mein, iname se kuchh sangharshon ne hinsak roop le liya jiske falasvaroop ulfa (ULFA), enaelaefati[9] (NLFT), enadeeefabi[10] (NDFB) aur enaesaseeen[11] (NSCN) jaise sashastr vidrohi samoohon ka prasaar hone laga. 1962 ke Bhaarat-cheen yuddh ke sheegra baad hi aur vishesh roop se kshetr mein vidroh uthane ke baad, yahaan niyamon mein suraksha prabhaav badha diye gaye hain.[12]
kuchh samay se is kshetr ke niyam nirmaataaon aur arthashaastriyon ke beech is tathya ko vyaapak star par maanyata di gayi hai ki uttarapoorveeya kshetr ke vikaas mein avarodh ka pramukh kaaran iski bhaugolik avasthiti hai.[13] vaishveekaran ke aane ke falasvaroop vikshetreekaran aur seemaarahit vishv ki dhaarana ka prasaar hua hai jisko praay: aarthik ekeekaran ke saath joda jaata hai. iski seema ka 98 pratishat bhaag cheen, myaanmaar, bhootaan, Bangladesh aur Nepal ke saath hone ke kaaran vaishveekaran ke yug mein uttarapoorveeya Bhaarat mein vikaas ki sambhaavnaaen adhik hain.[14] parinaamasvaroop, buddhijeeviyon aur raajaneetijnyaon ke beech ek nayi neeti viksit hui ki ek maatr disha jiski or uttarapoorveeya kshetr ko abhimukh hona chaahiye, vah yeh hai ki shesh Bhaarat ke saath raajaneetik ekeekaran aur shesh Asia, visheshakar poorv aur dakshinpoorv Asia ke saath aarthik ekeekaran ke dvaara hi vikaas ke nae maarg khuleinge kyonki shesh Bhaarat se aarthik ekeekaran ke falasvaroop koi vishesh laabh praapt naheen hua hai. is nayi neeti ke vikaas ke saath Bhaarat sarkaar ne uttarapoorveeya kshetr ke vikaas ke liye luk East paulisi ghoshit kar di hai. is paulisi ka jikr baahya maamalon ke mantraalaya ki 2004 ki varshaant sameeksha mein hai, jismein kaha gaya hai ki: "Bhaarat ki luk East paulisi ko ab UPA (UPA) sarkaar dvaara nae aayaam diye gaye hain. visheshakar apne poorveeya or uttarapoorveeya kshetr ke liye, beeaaiemaesateeisi (BIMSTEC) mein aur Bhaarat-eesaieen (ASEAN) shikhar vaarta dvaara, donon ko arthavyavastha aur suraksha hiton ke liye anivaarya roop se jodte hue, ab Bhaarat eesaieen (ASEAN) deshon ke saath saajhedaari ki or vichaar kar raha hai."[15]

samudaaya

  • asamiya
  • bishnupriya manipuri
  • bodo
  • dimaasa
  • gaaro
  • nepaali
  • kaarbi
  • khaasi
  • kuki
  • manipoori
  • mijo
  • naaga
  • rabha
  • raajabongashi
  • tiva
  • tripuri
  • bangaali

inhein bhi dekhein

tippaniyaaain

  1. uttar poorv parishad
  2. North istarn development finance kaurporeshan limited.
  3. poorvottar kshetr ke vikaas ke mantraalaya
  4. poorvottar nigraani se poorvottar kshetr ke vikaas mantraalaya
  5. vargeej, vi. ji. (2001) anafinishd bijnis in the North East: pauintars tuvards ristrakcharing end risrjens, saataveen kamal kumaari smaarak vyaakhyaan, Guwahati
  6. baruaa, sanjeeb (2004), bitveen saaooth end saaoothaist Asia naurthaist India end luk East paulisi, senisiys pepar 4, Guwahati
  7. saataveen kamal kumaari smaarak vyaakhyaan.
  8. khanna, susheel: (2005) aarthik avsar ya jaari thaharaav sangoshthi, June 2005.
  9. tripura ke naishanal libreshan frant - dakshin Asiaee aatankvaad portal
  10. naishanal democratic frant of bodolaind (enadeeऍfbi (NDFB)) - asam ke aatankvaadi samooh - dakshin Asia aatankvaad portal
  11. naishanal soshalist kaunsil of naagaalaind - khapalang - dakshin Asia aatankvaad portal
  12. sanjeeb baruaa (2001) janarals S gavarnars: di pairlel pauleetikl system of naurthaist India, 24 April 2009 ko pun:praapt
  13. sachadeva, gulashan. poorvottar ki arthavyavastha: neeti, vartamaan shartein aur bhavishya ki sambhaavnaaen. nai Delhi: konaark prakaashak, 2000, prushth. 145.
  14. thongkholaal hokip, "Bhaarat ke poorvottar neeti: nirantarata aur badlaav" http://www.freewebs.com/roberthaokip/articles/India's_Northeast_Policy_Continuity_and_Change.pdf
  15. iyar end review 2004, videshi maamalon ke mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar. nai Delhi.

baahari kadiyaaain