poorvi Pakistan

poorvi Pakistan
পaaূaaরaa্aaব পaaাaaকaaিaaসaa্aaতaaাaaন
مaaشaaرaaقaaی پaaاaaکaaسaaتaaاaaنEast Pakistan
poorvat: Pakistan ka pashchimi bhaag
Flag of Pakistan.svg
1955 – 1971 Flag of Bangladesh (1971).svg
Location of पूर्वी पाकिस्तान
rajdhani dhaaka
bhaasha(eain) baangala bhaashaa (aadhikaarik)
angreji
dharm islaam
sarkaar janavaadi raajya (1954–58)
adhyaksheeya ganaraajya (1960–69)
sainya sarkaar (1969–71)
prashaasak
- 1960–1962 aazam Khan
- 1962–1969 abdul monim Khan
- 1969–1971 Sayyed mohammad ehsaan
- 1971 Aamir abdullaah Khan niyaaji
mukhyaamantri
- 1955–1956, 1958 ab husain sarkaar
- 1956–1958 ataaur Rahman Khan
raajyapaal
- 1955–1956 ameeruddeen Ahmad
- 1956–1958 abdul kaasim fajlul hak
- 1958–1960 jakair husain
vidhaayika vidhaanasabha
aitihaasik yug sheetayuddh
- sthaapana 1955
- antim samjhauta 22 November 1954
- Bangladesh mukti yuddh 26 March 1971
- Bhaarat-Pakistan yuddh 3 December 1971
- Pakistan ka aatmasamarpan 16 December, 1971
Area km² ( sq mi)
mudra Pakistani rupaya
vartamaan mein Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
a. Pakistan adhiraajya ki dviteeya raashtreeyabhaasha

poorvi Pakistan(baangla: পaaূaaরaa্aaব পaaাaaকaaিaaসaa্aaতaaাaaন, poorbo Pakistan; urdoo: مaaشaaرaaقaaی پaaاaaکaaسaaتaaاaaن, mashariki Pakistan; angreji: East Pakistan, East Pakistan), ek ikaai vyavastha ke tahat, tatkaaleen Pakistan ki poorvi ikaai thi. yeh vartamaan Bangladesh ke sthaan par, 1955 se 1971 tak vidyamaan tha. iski raajadhani dhaaka thi, evam raajabhaasha baangla thi.[1] poorvi Pakistan ka kul bhookshetr, 1,47,570 varg kee•amee• tha. yeh poorv, uttar va pashchim dishaaon mein Bhaarat se ghira hua tha, aur dakshin ki or, Bengal ki khaadi ke tat par tha. saath hi poorv mein yeh ek chhoti si seema rekha, barma ke saath saajha karta tha. yeh Pakistan ke sabse bade pranshan mein se ek raha hai, aur arthavyavastha, raajanaitik pratinidhitiv va janasankhya ke aadhaar par, tatkaaleen Pakistan ka sabse bada raajya tha. [2] antyat:, 16 December 1971 ko, nau maheenon tak chale yuddh ke pashchaat, poorvi Pakistan ne Bangladesh ke roop mein svatantrata ghoshit kar di.[1]

anukram

prushthabhoomi

Pakistan ki sthaapana Pakistan aandolan ka seedha parinaam tha, jiske rahanuma muhammad Ali jinnaah the. san 1947 mein bhaarateeya svatantrata adhiniyam ke paarit hone ke saath hi, Bhaarat vibhaajan ke baad Pakistan ki sthaapana hui thi. is vibhaajan ke tahat british Bhaarat ke poorvi va pashchimi chhoron par muslim bahul ilaakon ko Pakistan mein shaamil kar diya gaya. saath hi isi vibhaajan ke tahat, british-Bhaarat ke Punjab evam Bengal praanton ko bhi vibhaajit kar diya gaya aur poorvi Bengal aur pashchimi Punjab ko Pakistan mein sammilit kar diya gaya. Pakistan ke bhookshetr mein british-shaasit Bhaarat ke paaainch praant the: poorvi Bengal, pashchimi Punjab, baloochistaan, sindh aur uttar-pashchim seemaant praant. saath hi kuchh riyaasaton ne bhi Pakistani sandh mein shaamil hone ka prastaav sveekaar kiya tha.

vibhaajan ke baad, dharm ke naam par laakhon logon ne is rekha ke dono paar palaayan kiya tha. tatpashchaat, kyonki us desh mein koi bhi samvidhaan nahin tha, iseeliye Pakistan ko 1935 ke Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam ke antargat shaasit kiya ja rahaatha. samvidhaan naheen ban paane ka ek mahatvapoorn kaaran yeh bhi tha, ki donon bhaagon ke siyaasi netrutv, samvidhaan se sambandhit kai aham vishyon par samanvaya ki sthiti mein naheen aa pa rahe the. vibhaajan va Pakistan ki sthaapana ke pashchaat‌, aisi sthiti mein, vyavasthaapika ko Pakistan ke do pruthak bhaagon ko, jo kareeb hajaar meal ki bhaarateeya bhoomi se alag-thalag the, ko ek hi jagah se, prashaasit karne mein khaasi asuvidha ka saamana karna pad raha tha. iske alaava, pashchimi bhaag swayam hi chaar praanton, kabaaili ilaake evam vibhinn riyaasaton mein vibhaajit tha, jabaki poorvi bhaag ko ek praant tha. iske alaava, poorvi bhaag mein pashchimi bhaag ke mukaabale, vyavastha, naukarashaahi va sainya suraksha ki ati nishparyaapti thi. tatha, pashchimi bhaag tulanaatmak roop se adhik viksit tha evam uske paas badi sena va paryaapt naukarashaahi va vyavasthaapika thi. at: poorvi bhaag, jo pashchim ke hi tulanaatmak janasankhya rakhata tha, ke liye vikaas va sampannata ka raasta kathin evam pashchim ke mukaabale asaamya tha. aisi sthiti mein poorvi hisse ki netritv ke man mein bhaasha va saanskrutik muddon ke alaava, shaktiyon va suvidhaaon ke bantavaare va saamarik va aarthik samaanata ke vishay ko lekar gambhir prashn the.[3]

is bhaugolik sthiti se upaji prashaasanik va asamaanata ki kathinaai, va aarthik naaummeedi ke samaadhaan ke liye ek vishesh praanteeya vyavastha ka masauda taiyaar kiya gaya, jise "ek ikaai vyavastha" kaha gaya, jiske tahat donon hison mein keval ek hi praant hoga, at: donon ko baraabar ki raajaneetik shakti praapt hogi. saath hi, is yojana mein anya viks neetiyon ko bhi shaamil kiya gaya tha. pradhaanamantri chaudhari muhammad Ali ne 14 aktoob 1955 ko, 30 September 1955 me Pakistan ki raashtreeya sabha mein paarit, pashchimi Pakistan ke sabhi praanton ko mila dene ke adhiniyam ko kaaryaanvit kar, van yunit system ko laagoo kar diya. tatpoorv, pradhaanamantri mohammad Ali bogara ne 22 November 1954 ko iski aadhikaarik ghoshana ki thi.

is sab ke atirikt, is vyavastha ka ek aur pahaloo tha: kai raajaneetijnyaon ka yeh bhi prayaas tha ki Pakistan ke vibhinn kshetreeya paramparaaon va sanskruteeyo ko khatm kar ke Pakistan ko ek raashtreeya sanskruti ke taraf le jaaya jaaye. at: vibhinn kshetreeya praanton ke ant se poore desh ko ek saanskrutik ikaai banaane mein suvidha hoti. at: is neeti ko praanteeya va kshetreeya sanskrutiyon ko khatm kar, ek raashtreeya sanskruti ko badhaava dene ke liye bhi laaya gaya tha.

ek ikaai vyavastha

svatantrata pashchaat Pakistani bhoomi ka maanachitr, Pakistan ke donon bhaagon ko dakha ja sakta hai.

ek ikaai vyavastha athva van-unit seestam, Pakistan ki ek purvat: paravartit prashaasanik vyavastha thi, jiske antargat, tatkaaleen Pakistani bhoomi ke donon bhinn tukadon ko "ek prashaasanik ikaai" ke roop mein hi shaasit kiye jaane ki yojana rakhi gayi thi. is tarah ki prashaasanik neeti ko apnaane ka mukhya kaaran, sarkaar dvaara, Pakistani adhiraajya ke do vibhkt evam pruthak bhaugolik aanchalon ki ek hi keindreeya vyavastha ke antargat shaasan mein aane waali ghor prashaasanik asuvidhaaeain, evam bhaugolik kathinaaiyaaain bataai gayi thi. at: is bhaugolik va prashaasanik vishay ke samaadhaan ke roop mein, sarkaar ne in do bhaugoleeya hisson ko hi, ek mahaasangheeya dhaanche ke antargat, Pakistan ke do vaahid prashaasanik ikaaiyon ke roop mein sthaapit karne ki neeti banaai gayi. iske tahat, tatkaaleen mumalikaat-A-Pakistan ke, poorvi bhaag mein maujood sthiti ke anusaar hi, pashchimi bhaag ke paaainchon praanton va unki praanteeya sarkaaron ko bhang kar, ek praant, pashchimi Pakistan gathit kiya gaya, vaheen poorvi bhaag (jo ab Bangladesh hai) ko poorvi Pakistan kah kar gathit kiya gaya. tatprakaar, Pakistan, ek ikaai yojana ke tahat, mahaj do praanton mein vibhaajit ek raajya ban gaya.

van unit yojana ki ghoshana pradhaanamantri mohammad Ali bogara ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan 22 November 1954 ko ki gayi, aur 14 October 1955 ko desh ke pashchimi bhaag ke sabhi praanton ko ekeekrut kar, pashchimi Pakistan praant gathit kiya gaya, jismein, sabhi praanton ke alaava tatkaaleen, raajashaahiyon aur kabaaili ilaake bhi shaamil the. is praant mein 12 pramandal the, aur iski rajdhani Lahore thi. doosari or poorvi Bengal ke praant ko poorvi Pakistan ka naam diya gaya, jiski rajdhani dhaaka thi. sangheeya rajdhani(kaaryapaalika) ko varsh 1959 mein karaaainchi se Rawalpindi sthaanaantarit kiya gaya, jahaan sena mukhyaalaya tha, aur nai rajdhani, Islamabad ke poora hone tak yahaan maujood raha jabki sangheeya vidhaanapaalika ko dhaaka mein sthaapit kiya gaya.

is neeti ka uddeshya bajaahir prashaasanik sudhaar laana tha lekin kai lihaaj se yeh bahut vinaashakaari kadam tha. pashchimi Pakistan mein maujood bahut saari raajyon ne is aashvaasan par vibhaajan ke samay Pakistan mein shaamil ho gaye the ki unki svaayattata kaayam rakhi jaaegi lekin van ikaai bana dene ke faisale se sabhi sthaaneeya raajyon ka ant ho gaya. is sambandh mein bahaavalapur, kheeripor aur kalaat ke raajya visheshakar ullekhaneeya hain. maamale is samay adhik gambhir samay 1958 E. ke takhtaapalat ke baad mukhyamantri ka pad samaapt kar diya gaya aur raashtrapati ne pashchimi Pakistan ke vikalp apne paas rakh liye. raajaneetik visheshagyon yeh bhi samajhte hain ki pashchimi Pakistan ke sabhi praanton ko ekajut karne ke uddeshya poorvi Pakistan ki bhaashaai aur raajaneetik ikaai ka jor todna tha.

antat: ek July 1970 ko raashtrapati yaahya Khan ne ek ikaai ka safaaya karte hue pashchimi Pakistan ke sabhi praanton bahaal kar diya.

raajaneetik itihaas

san 1947 mein Bhaarat vibhaajan ke baad Pakistan ki sthaapana hui thi. is vibhaajan ke tahat british Bhaarat ke poorvi va pashchimi chhoron par muslim bahul ilaakon ko Pakistan mein shaamil kar diya gaya. saath hi isi vibhaajan ke tahat, british-Bhaarat ke Punjab evam Bengal praanton ko bhi vibhaajit kar diya gaya aur poorvi Bengal aur pashchimi Punjab ko Pakistan mein sammilit kar diya gaya. vibhaajan ke samay hui khuni jhadpon ne bangaali musalmaanon aur hinduon ko aur bhi vibhaajit kar diya.[4][5] us saimaaaya, Bengal ke muslim bahul jile, maauntabaitan yojana ko sveekruti ke pashchaat, vibhaajan ke pakshadhaar the, aur, unahonne poorvi bangaalako Pakistan adhiraajya ke saath sammilit kar diya.[6] san 1947 se 1954 tak poorvi Bengal, Pakistan ki hi ek svatantr prashaasanik ikaai raha, jo noorul aameen ke netrutv mein, Pakistan muslim league dvaara shaasit kiya ja raha tha.[6] varsh 1955 mein, bangaali pradhaanamantri muhammad Ali bogara ne praant poorvi Bengal ko visthaapit kar, ek ikaai neeti ke antargat, poorvi Pakistan ko sthaapit kiya, jiski rajdhani, dhaaka thi.[1] 1954 ke chunaav mein Pakistan muslim league ko aavaami league dvaara netrit United frant ke haathon kraari haar ka saamana karna pada tha.[7][8][9] aavaami league ne husain shaheed suharaavardi ko Pakistan ka pradhaanamantri niyukt kar, poorvi Pakistan ki baag-dor apne haath mein li. iske pashchaat aane waali sattaavaadeekaal ko, jo 1954 se 1971 tak astitv mein rahi, aksar bade paimaane par daman, asantosh, aur raajaneetik upeksha aur ajnyaaanata ka kaal maana jaata hai.[10][11][12][2] varsh 1965 ke raashtrapatijnya chunaav mein poorvi Pakistan ekamat se ne ayoob Khan ke viruddh, faatima jinnaah ke paksh mein matadaan kiya.[13] in chunaavon ko vyaapak roop se ayoob Khan ke paksh mein, dhaandhaleeparaast maana gaya tha, evam aisa bhi man gaya tha ki unamein, raajakeeya sanrakshan mein, apratyaksh chunaav ke nirvaachak mandal ko raajakeeya sanrakshan va dhamaki ke maadhyam se prabhaavit karne ki koshish ki gayi thi. [13]

poorav aur pashim ke beech ki ye aarthik asamaanata, pashchimi netrutv ki adhiptyataavaadi bartaav, aur yeh dhaarana ki alpasankhyak pashchim, bahusankhyak poorvi hisse par raaj kar raha hai, tatha sampannata praapt kar raha hai, ne poorvi Pakistan mein, bangaali raashtravaad ki bhaavana jagaana shuroo kar di.[14] 1966 mein, aavaami league dvaara laayi gayi chhah dafa aandolan ne janta ke beech, raajya svaayattata ke liye samarthan badha diya,[15] aur aavaami league issi mudde ko lekar 1970 ke chunaav mein purajor pradarshan kiya aur poorvi Pakistan mein spasht evam ananya bahumat praapt kiya, aur isi ke saath, aavaami league ne Pakistan ki sansad mein bhi spasht bahumat praapt kiya[16][17]

aam chunaav ke pashchaat, Pakistan peepals party ne aavaami league ke janaadesh ko maan ne se inkaar kiya, aur aavaami league ke sarkaar banaane ka virodh karna shuroo kar diya. is sthiti mein, tatkaaleen sainya raashtrapati yaahya Khan ne donon raajanaitik dalon ke beech sulah karne ka prayaas kiya, aur kendra mein, sahayog se sarkaar banaane ki salaah di. pashchimi Pakistan ke is ravaiye ne poorvi Pakistan mein bheeshan vidroh va virodh pradarshan ko sulaga diya, aur donon dalon ke beech ki charcha vifal ho gayi jab yaahya Khan ne operation sarchalaait ke naam se, poorvi Pakistan mein sainya kaarravaai ke aadesh de diye.[16] iske uttar mein, aavaami league ne 26 March 1971 paurvi Pakistan ki svatantrata ki ghoshana kar di, aur ek mukti yuddh ki ghoshana kar di, jiska samarthan karte hue, Bhaarat ne mukti vaahini ko sainya sahayog pradaan karna shuroo kar diya.[18] iske baad chhida yuddh, 16 December 1971 ko khatm hua, jab dhaaka sthit Pakistani sena ko Bhaarat-Bangladesh ki sanyukt sena dvaara padadalit hona pada, aur aatmasamarpan ke upakaranon par hastaakshar karna pada. is yuddh ne dviteeya vishvayuddh ke pashchaat sabse adhik yuddh-bandi taiyaar kiye the., [18] antyat:, 16 December 1971 ko poorvi Pakistan ne aadhikaarik roop se bandaladesh ke naam se svatantrata ki ghoshana kar di.[18]

shaasan pranaali

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa i Ben Cahoon, WorldStatesmen.org. "Bangladesh". http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Bangladesh.html. abhigman tithi: 3 October 2007.
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  3. http://historypak.com/one-unit/
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  7. Rahman, Syedur (2010). Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh. USA: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group. pp. 300. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-08108-6766-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=bJfcCPUr0OoC&pg=PA101&dq=Awami+League+1954#v=onepage&q&f=true.
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  9. Ali, Tariq (April 2003). The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity. United Kingdom: Verso Publishing Co. plc. pp. 181–237, 342pp. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-85984-457-X. https://books.google.com/books?id=C8h_VjG4ucsC&pg=PA181&lpg=PA181&dq=Pakistan+legislative+elections+1954+communists#v=onepage&q=Pakistan%20legislative%20elections%201954%20communists&f=true.
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  14. Asif Haroon Raja. "After East Pakistan, another global conspiracy in the offing in Balochistan". Asif Haroon Raja. http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/02/14/after-east-pakistan-another-global-conspiracy-offing-balochistan. abhigman tithi: 22 March 2012.
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  16. a aa Press Release. "General Elections 1970". Pakistan Parliamentary Elections, 1970. http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A140&Pg=2. abhigman tithi: 25 March 2012.
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  18. a aa i Website Release. "Tragedy and Reconstruction (The Separation of East Pakistan [1971 )"]. The Separation of East Pakistan [1971] (Part IV). http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A070&Pg=5. abhigman tithi: 25 March 2012.

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