police

ameriki khufiya police seva ke adhikaari

police (angreji: Police, shuddh hindi: aarakshi ya aarakshak) ek suraksha bal hota hai jiska upayog kisi bhi desh ki andarooni naagrik suraksha ke liye theek usi tarah se kiya jaata hai jis prakaar kisi desh ki baahari anaitik gatividhiyon se raksha ke liye sena ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

anukram

Bhaarat mein police ka itihaas

police ke kaarya

police ke mukhyat: nimnalikhit kaarya hain :

(1) aparaadhanirodh evam aparaadhon ka vivechan.

(2) yaataayaat niyantran

(3) raajaneetik soochanaaon ka ekatreekaran tatha raajaneetik drushti se mahatvapoorn vyaktiyon ki suraksha.

gruharaksha vibhaag ke antargat aane wala vibhaag hone se desh ki kaanoon vyavastha ko sambhaalne ka kaam police ke haath hi hota hai. aaparaadhik gatividhiyon ko rokane, aparaadhiyon ko pakadne, aparaadhiyon ke dvaara kiye jaane vaale aparaadhon ki khojabeen karne, desh ki aantarik sampatti ki raksha karne aur jo aparaadhi hain aur unka aparaadh saabit karne ke liye paryaapt saakshya jutaana hi police ka kaarya hai. aparaadhi ghoshit karne ke baad police sanbandhit vyakti ko adaalat ko saunpati hai. yeh nyaayavyavastha ki ek mahatvapoorn kadee ke roop mein kaam karti hai, lekin kisi aparaadhi ko saja dena police ka kaam nahi hota hai,saja dene ke liye adaalaton ko police dvaara aparaadhi ke khilaaf jutaaye gaye pukhta saboot aur jaankaari par nirbhar rahana hota hai saath hi isi jaankaari aur sabooton ke aadhaar par hi kisi vyakti ko aparaadhi ghoshit kiya ja sakta hai.

alag-alag deshon ki police ke paas alag prakaar ki kaanooni dhaaraayein hai aur pratyek dhaara alag alag dand ghoshit karti hai.

aparaadhanirodh ke antargat na keval vyakti evam sampatti sambandhi aparaadhon ka nirodh hota hai varan maadak dravyon ka tatha gaaainja, bhaaaing, afeem, kokeen ke taskar vyaapaar ka nirodh aur veshyaavrutti sambandhi adhiniyam ko laagoo karaane ki kaaryavaahiyaaain bhi sannihit hain. yaataayaat sambandhi vyavastha sthaapan mein trefik police dvaara nagaron mein yaataayaat ka suniyantran evam motor sambandhi adhiniymon ka paripaalan karaane ki kaarravaai ki jaati hai. is sambandh mein amareeka aadi mein raashtreeya maargon par motor cycle athva motor gaadiyon par yantron se susajjit police adhikaariyon dvaara gasht karaae jaate hain. raajaneetik soochanaaon ke ekatreekaran ka kaarya desh ke bheetar evam antararaashtreeya star par guptacharon dvaara hota hai. iske nimitt desh ke bheetar vibhinn samudaayon evam vargon ki raajaneetik pravruttiyon, gatividhi evam neetiyon se sambandhit soochanaaeain ekatr ki jaati hain. pratyek yug mein raajaneetik shadyantr evam hatyaakaand hote rahe hain aur pichhle kuchh varshon mein vishv mein is sambandh mein anek ghatanaaeain hone ke kaaran apne desh ke evam baahar ke mahatvavaale vyaktiyon ki suraksha ka aayojan pratyek raashtra ki police dvaara kiya jaata hai. antararaashtreeya star par mitr athva shatru raashtron ki neetiyon ke sambandh mein soochanaaeain bhi ekatr ki jaati hain.

aparaadhavivechan ke nimitt nirantar vaigyaanik vidhiyon aur saadhanon ka prayog ho raha hai. hatya aur balaatkaar se sambandhit vivechanaaon mein rakt, kesh or veerya ke vaigyaanik vishleshan se sahaayata milti hain. jin aparaadhon mein aagneya aayudhon ka vyavahaar hota hai unako vivechanaaon ke nimitt aagneya aayudh se sambandhit vishleshan kiya jaata hai. angulichihn se aparaadhon ke vivechan mein ek atyant vishvasaneeya saakshya upalabdh hota hai. at: pratyek desh mein angulichihnon ke paryaapt abhilekh ekatr kiye jaate hain taaki kaalaantar mein ghatnaasthal par upalabdh anguli chihnon ki unase tulana ki ja sake evam aparaadhon ki shodh ka kaarya ho sake. padachihnon, hastalipiyon aadi ka vishleshan bhi aparaadh vivechan mein sahaayak hota hai. vaigyaanik reeti se unnatisheel deshon mein "laai ditektar" ke dvaara aparaadhi ki manodasha ka gyaan karte hue jhooth sach ka anumaan kiya jaata hai. anek deshon mein kutton ka upayog aparaadhi ka pata lagaane ke liye hota hai.

vidroh evam upadravi tatvon ke daman ke nimitt anek avsaron par police ko ashruvaahak gas, laathi athva aagneya aayudhon ka prayog karna padta hai. hamaare desh mein praadeshik police ka ek ang, jise aarm police, praavinshil aarm constrabulary, special aarm fors aadi naam vibhinn pradeshon mein diye gaye hain, vishesh aashankaajanak sthitiyon mein mukhyat: upadravon ke daman ke liye prayukt hota hai. saamaanya prashaasan athva aparaadhon ki rokathaam thaanon par niyukt civil police dvaara ki jaati hai.

si. I. di.

pratyek pradesh mein antarjanapadeeya athva antapradesheeya aparaadhon ki vivechana evam praadeshik star par raajaneetik soochanaaon ke ekatreekaran aur mahatvapoorn vyaktiyon ki suraksha ka kaarya pradesh ke guptachar vibhaag dvaara sampann hota hai. hamaare desh ke inteleejains bureau dvaara raashtreeya star par raajaneetik gatividhiyon ka nireekshan kiya jaata hai.

khufiya police

saamaanya vaartaalaap mein jab police shabdon ka prayog hota hai tab kisi chhahmaveshadhaari anusandhaanakarta athva gupt doot ki kalpana moort hone lagti hai. yugon se prayog mein aanevaali is shabdaavali ke dvaara prajaajanon ki gatividhiyon ka paroksh se nireekshan karanevaale raajya ke adhikaariyon ka bodh hota hai. aparaadhon ki vivechana aur aparaadhiyon ke kaaryakalaapon ki jaaainch mein anek aise tatv nihit hote hain jinka pratyaksh upaayon athva vidhiyon se anaavaran naheen ho paata. police ki veshabhoosha dekhkar aparaadhiyon athva aparaadh ke sambandh mein jaankaari rakhanevaalon ke kaaryakalaapon aur unke sanlaapon mein svaabhaavik nirodh utpann ho jaata hai aur unke kaaran tathyon ki vivechana kathin ho jaati hai. isliye yeh paddhati rahi hai ki chhadmavesh dhaaran karke ghatit athva ghataneeya aparaadhon ki vivechana yuktipoorvak ki jaae aur saakshya evam pramaanon ka ekatreekaran kiya jaae.

khufiya police ka upayog kaalaantar mein raajaneetik pravruttiyon se sambandhit soochanaaeain praapt karne ke liye bhi kiya jaane laga. aaj ke yug mein vyakti athva sampatti sambandhi aparaadhon ke atirikt raajaneetik evam saamayik mahatva ki soochanaaeain praapt karne mein khufiya police ka upayog hota hai. khufiya police hamaare desh mein guptachar vibhaag ke bruhat sangathan ke roop mein aaj vidyamaan hai. Bhaarat ke pratyek pradesh mein guptachar vibhaag mukhyat: do angon mein vibhkt hai. ek ang mahatvapoorn aparaadhon ke anusheelan evam vivechan ka kaarya karta hai tatha doosra ang aantarik vyavastha, suraksha aadi se sambandhit raajaneetik mahatva ki soochanaaeain ekatr kata hai.

aparaadhon ko vivechana mein sthaneeya police bhi bahudha apne karmachaariyon athva soochanaadaataaon ke dvaara gupt vidhi se soochanaaeain ekatr karti hai. ye soochanaadaata yadyapi police ke karmachaari naheen hote tathaapi aparaadhavivechan ke liye police sangathan ke bhi avichhinn ang hain.

si. I. di. athva guptachar vibhaag ke ab anya anek upaang hain jinke dvaara aparaadhavivechan mein paroksh sahaayata milti hai. pradesh mein keindreeya roop mein evam pratyek janapad mein sthaaneeya roop mein aparaadhon ke rikaards rakhane ka kaaryaalaya hota hai jahaaain mahatvapoorn soochanaaeain upalabdh hoti hain. anguliyon ki chhaap, padachihnon ki chhaap ka ek keindreeya kaaryaalaya praaya: pradesheeya si. I. di. ke antargat bana hai jahaaain dandit aparaadhiyon ke angulachihnon aadi ka rikaard rahata hai.

pradeshiya si. I. di ke vaigyaanik vibhaag dvaara aparaadh anveshan mein vaigyaanik vidhiyon se arthaat aagneyaayudhon ke pareekshan, hastalipi pareekshan aadi dvaara sahaayata di jaati hai. isi prakaar aparaadhavivechan ke liye Bhaarat ke kuchh pradeshon, jaise Bengal, uttar pradesh aadi mein kutton ka bhi safalataapoorvak upayog hota hai.

Bhaarat ke vishesh police sansthaan dvaara akhil bhaarateeya star par evam pradesh ke guptachar vibhaag dvaara praadeshik star par shaasakeeya adhikaariyon ke aacharan ki jaaainch athva unke viruddh kiye gaye abhiyogon ki vivechana hoti hai. iske atirikt inheen donon sangathanon dvaara dhokhaadehi, jaalasaajo aadi ki antarjanapadoya athva ant:praadeshik ghatnaaon athva abhiyogon ki vivechana ki jaati hai.

uparyukt vivran se yeh spasht hai ki "khufiya police" vyaktisoochak kalpana ka naya sanskaran ho chuka hai aur aaj ke yug mein "khufiya police" vistrut bahuangi sangathanon ka prateek hain.

vishesh police sansthaan

Delhi mein ek mahaanireekshak ke nirdeshan mein sanchaalit vishesh police sansthaan dvaara sarkaar ke vibhaageeya adhikaariyon ke bhrashtaachaar evam vyaavasaayik dhokhaadehi ke mahatvapoorn maamalon ki vivechana ki jaati hai. pratyek varsh is vishesh police sanstha ki jaaainchon ke falasvaroop bhrashtaachaari adhikaariyon ke viruddh vaidhaanik tatha vibhaageeya kaarravaai ki jaati hai.

anya deshon ki police paddhati

amareeka

amareeka ke 49 raajyon ka koi keindreeya police shaasan naheen hai. keindreeya evam raajya sarkaar, County shaasan, nagaron ke aur graameen roop se police dal sthaapit dal hain. 20veen sadi ke madhya mein aise savaitanik athva ardhavaitanik police karmachaariyon ki kul sankhya lagbhag paune do lakh thi. New York sareekhe nagar se sthaaneeya police ka pratyek 20 hajaar vyakti par ek athva do police karmachaari ka anupaat tha. doosare mahaayuddh ka aarambh hone tak pratyek raajya ne apna ek chhota-mota police samudaaya nirmit kar liya tha. keindreeya roop se keval Federal bureau ov inavesteegeshan naam ki sanstha hi kaam karti hai. police karmachaariyon ki sankhya apekshaakrut kam hote hue bhi amareekan police prachur saajasajja, motor gaadiyon aur aadeshavaahak saadhanon se yukt hain aur isliye kaaryakushal hain.

UK

san 1829 mein sthaapit maitropaalitn police Britain ke kushal aadhunik police shaasan ki prateek hai. anya nagaron aur kaauntiyon mein sthaaneeya County kaunsil niyukt cheef kaanstebil evam kaanstebil police shaasan ke stambh hai. maitropaalitn police ki sankhya san 1948 mein lagbhag 20 hajaar thi. iske atirikt County aur nagaron ke police dal ki sanya lagbhag 48 hajaar thi. skaatalaind yaard maitropaalitn police ka mukhyaalaya hai aur yahaaain ke chatur karmachaari, saajasajja aur soochanaaeain british police ka gaurav badhaati hai.

inglaid athva amareeka ki police ka janta ke prati drushtikon vishvaas aur sammaanapoorn hain. san 1829 mein England mein raabart peel ne police ka sangathan kiya tha. tab janta ne police ko peel ke gundon ka giroh kaha tha. kintu aaj Britain ka pulismain vahaaain ka lokapriya adhikaari hai. vahaaain ke kaanoon mein police karmachaari ke prati avishvaas ki moolabhoot dhaarana naheen hai. durbhaagya se angrejon ke do shataabdi ke shaasan mein bhaarateeya police ko janapreranaaon ke daman ke nimitt vyavahrut kiya gaya. parinaamasvaroop, bhaaratavarsh mein police ko saamaanyat: avishvaas ki drushti se dekha jaata hai. bhaaratavarsh ka saakshya sambandhi adhiniyam, jismein police ke nimn athva uchch padaadhikaari ke samaksh ki gayi aparaadhasveekruti amaanya thaharaai gayi hai, is baat ke jvalant pramaan hai ki police ki satyasheelata par us adhiniyam ke rachayitaaon ne kitna avishvaas kiya tha. London athva amareekan police ke saamaanya padaadhikaari tak ka kathan is baat ka pramaan maana jaata hai ki aparaadhi ne uske sammukh aparaadh sveekaar kiya hain. iske vipreet hamaare desh ke saakshya adhiniyam ke antargat police ke mahaanireekshak tak ka kathan aparaadhi ki sveekaarokit ko pramaanit karne ke liye amaanya hai. nae yug aur nai police ke vinyaas ke nimitt ukt adhiniyam mein aur police ke prati janta ke drushtikon mein sanshodhan param aavashyak hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain