plooto (bauna grah)

plooto प्लूटो का खगोलीय चिन्ह
Pluto by LORRI and Ralph, 13 July 2015.jpg
yam grah ka chitr, jise new horaaijns naamak antarikshayaan ne 13 July 2015 ko liya.
khoj
khoj karta klaaid taumabau
khoj ki tithi 18 February 1930
upanaam
MPC designation 134340 Pluto
kshudr grah
shreni
visheshan Plutonium
yug J2000
upasaur
  • 48.871 AU
  • (7,31,10,00,000 km)
apasaur
  • 29.657 AU
  • (4,43,70,00,000 km)
  • (5 sitmbar 1989)[2]
ardh mukhya aksh
  • 39.264 AU
  • (5,87,40,00,000 km)
vikendrata 0.244671664 (J2000)
0.248 807 66 (mean)[3]
parikraman kaal
  • 247.68 varsh[3]
  • 90,465 days[3][4]
  • 14,164.4 plootoniyn saur diwas[4]
sanyuti kaal 366.73 din[3]
ausat parikraman gati 4.7 km/s[3]
maadhya konaantar 14.85 degree
jhukaav
  • 17.151394 °
  • (11.88° soorya ki bhoomadhya rekha ki taraf)
aaroh paat ka anulamb 110.28683 °
Argument of perihelion 113.76349 °
upagrah 5
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya
  • 1,185±10 km [5]
  • 0.18 arths
tal-kshetrafal
  • 1.665×107 km2[b]
  • 0.033 Earths
aayatan
  • 6.39×109 km3[c]
  • 0.005899 arths
dravyamaan
  • 1.305±0.7×1022 kg[6]
  • 0.00218 arths
  • 0.178 chandrama
maadhya ghanatv 2.29±0.6 g/cm3[6]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
  • −6.38723 day
  • 6 d, 9 h, 17 m, 36 s
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 47.18 km/h
aksheeya naman 119.591±0.14 ° (kaksha ki taraf)[6][e]
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan 132.993°[7]
uttari dhruvavanaman −6.163°[7]
albedo 0.49 to 0.66 (jyaamiteeya, 35% tak tabdeeli)[3][8]
satah ka taapamaan
kelvin
nyoon maadhya adhi
33 K 44 K (−229° sein) 55 K
spasht parimaan 13.65[3] to 16.3[9]
(mean is 15.1)[3]
nirpeksh parimaan (H) −0.7[10]
koneeya vyaas 0.065″ to 0.115″[3][f]
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab 0.30 paaskal (garmiyon mein adhiktam)
sanghatan naaitrojan, methane, kaarban monooksaaid

yam ya plooto saur mandal ka dusara sabse bada bauna grah hai (sabse bada ऍris hai). plooto ko kabhi saur mandal ka sabse baahari grah maana jaata tha, lekin ab ise saur mandal ke baahari kaaipar ghere ki sab se badi khagoleeya vastu maana jaata hai. kaaipar ghere ki anya vastuon ki tarah plooto ka akaar aur dravyamaan kaafi chhota hai - iska aakaar pruthvi ke chandrama se sirf ek-tihaai hai. sooraj ke ird-gird iski parikrama ki kaksha bhi thodi bedhangi hai - yeh kabhi to varun (naiptayoon) ki kaksha ke andar jaakar sooraj se 30 khagoleeya ikaai (yaani 4.4 arab kimi) door hota hai aur kabhi door jaakar soorya se 45 kha॰ai॰ (yaani 7.4 arab kimi) par pahuainch jaata hai. plooto kaaipar ghere ki anya vastuon ki tarah adhiktar jami hui naaitrojan ki barf, paani ki barf aur patthar ka bana hua hai. plooto ko sooraj ki ek poori parikrama karte hue 248.09 varsh lag jaate hain.[11][12]

anukram

rang-roop

plooto ki satah par baithe hue najaara - computer par rachit kaalpanik chitr

plooto ka vyaas lagbhag 2,300 kimi hai, yaani pruthvi ka 18%. usaka rang kaala, naarangi aur safed ka mishran hai. kaha jaata hai ke jitna antar plooto ke rangon ke beech mein hai itna saur mandal ki bahut kam vastuon mein dekha jaata hai, yaani unapar rang adhiktar ek-jaise hi hote hain. san 1994 se lekar 2003 tak kiye gaye adhyayan mein dekha gaya ke plooto ke rangon mein badlaav aaya hai. uttari dhruv ka rang thoda ujala ho gaya tha aur dakshini dhruv thoda gaadha. maana jaata hai ke yeh plooto par badalate mausamon ka sanket hai.

vaayumandal

plooto ki kaksha (laal rang mein) baaki grahon ki kaksha se kon par hai (varun ki kaksha neele mein hai)
plooto ki kaksha (laal rang) kabhi to varun ki kaksha (neela rang) ke andar hoti hai aur kabhi baahar

plooto ka bahut patala vaayumandal hai jismein naaitrojan, methane aur kaarban monooksaaid hai. jab plooto parikrama karte hue sooraj se door ho jaata hai to us par thand badh jaati hai aur inhi gaison ka kuchh bhaag jamkar barf ki tarah usaki satah par gir jaata hai, jis se usaka vaayumandal aur bhi patala ho jaata hai. jab plooto sooraj ke paas aata hai tab usaki satah par padi isi barf ka kuchh bhaag gas bankar vaayumandal mein aa jaata hai.

chandrama

yam ke upagrah

plooto ke paaainch gyaat upagrah hain - 1978 mein khoj kiya gaya shairan jo ki sabse bada hai aur jiska vyaas yam ka aadha hai, 2005 mein khoj kiye gaye do nanhe chandrama, niks aur haaedra, stiks aur 20 July 2011 ko ghoshit kiya gaya karberaus jo ki aakaar mein 30 ki.mi. chauda hai. shairan sabse bada hai aur plooto ke jyaada kareeb bhi hai. inki kakshaaon ka kendra (baireesentar) inke andar na hokar kaheen beech mein hai. isliye kabhi kabhi inhein yugmak (joda) vaale grah bhi kaha jaata hai jo ek doosare ke saath saath chalte hain. [13] antarraashtreeya khagoleeya sangh ne abhi tak yugmak baune grahon ki koi thos paribhaasha naheen gadhi hai isliye filhaal aadhikaarik taur par shairon ko yam ka upagrah hi maana jaata hai.[14]

grah ya bauna grah

1930 mein ameriki khagolashaastri klaaid taumabau ne plooto ko khoj nikaala aur ise saur mandal ka nauva grah maan liya gaya. dheere-dheere plooto ke baare mein kuchh aisi cheejein pata chaleen jo anya grahon se alag theen -

  • iski kaksha ajeeb thi. baaki grah ek ke baahar ek andaakaar kakshaaon mein sooraj ki parikrama karte hain lekin plooto ki kaksha varun ki kaksha ki tulana mein kabhi sooraj ke zyaada sameep hoti hai aur kabhi kam.
  • iski kaksha baaki grahon ki kaksha ki tulana mein dhalaan par thi. baaki grahon ki kakshaaeain kisi ek hi chapate chakr mein hain, jis tarah jalebi ke lachhe ek hi chapate akaar mein hote hain. plooto ki kaksha is chapate chakr se kon par thi. dhyaan rahe ke is kon ki vajah se plooto aur varun ki kabhi takkar naheen ho sakti kyonki unki kakshaaeain ek dusare ko kabhi kaatati naheen haalaanki chitron mein kabhi aisa lagta zaroor hai.
  • iska aakaar bahut hi chhota tha. is se pehle sab se chhota grah budh (marakyuri) tha. plooto budh se aadhe se bhi chhota tha.

in baaton se khagolashaastriyon ke man mein shanka ban gayi thi ke kaheen plooto varun ka koi bhaaga hua upagrah to naheen, haalaanki iski sambhaavana bhi kam thi kyonki plooto aur varun parikrama karte hue kabhi zyaada paas naheen aate. fir, san 1990 ke baad, vaigyaaniko ko bahut si varun-paar vastueain milne lageen jinki kakshaaeain, roop-rang aur banaavat plooto se milti julati theen. aaj vaigyaaniko ne yeh pehchaan liya hai ke saur mandal ke is ilaake mein ek poora ghera hai jismein aisi hi vastueain paayi jaati hain jinmein se plooto sirf ek hai. isi ghere ka naam kaaipar ghera rakha gaya.

2004-2005 mein isi kaaipar ghere mein haumeya aur maakemaake mile jo kaafi bade the (haalaanki plooto se thode chhote the). 2005 mein kaaipar ghere se bhi baahar ऍris mila, jo plooto se bada tha. yeh saare anya grahon se alag aur plooto se milte julate the. antarraashtreeya khagoleeya sangh asamanjas mein pad gaya kyonki lagne laga ke aisi kitni hi vastueain aane vaale saalon mein mileingi. ya to yeh sab grah the ya fir plooto ko grah bulaana band karke kuchh aur bulaane ki jrurat thi. 13 sitmbar 2006 ko is sangh ne ailaan kiya ke plooto grah naheen hai aur unhonne ek nai "bauna grah" ki shreni sthaapit curry. plooto, haumeya, maakemaake aur ऍris ab baune grah kahalaate hain.[15]

new horaaijns

new horaaijns ameriki antariksh anusandhaan sanstha naasa ka ek antariksh shodh yaan hai jo plooto ke adhyayan ke liye chhoda gaya tha. is yaan ka prakshepan 19 January 2006 ko kiya gaya tha jo nau varshon ke baad 14 July 2015 ko plooto ke sabse najadeek se hokar gujara.[16]plooto aur iske upagrah shairan ke sabse najdeek se yeh yaan 14 July 2015 ko 12:03:50 (UTC) baje gujara. is samay is yaan ki plooto se doori lagbhag 12,500 kilometer thi aur yeh lagbhag 14 kilometer prati sekend ke veg se gujaar raha tha[17][18]

inhein bhi dekhein

References

  1. "HORIZONS Web-Interface for Pluto Barycenter (Major Body=9)". JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi?find_body=1&body_group=mb&sstr=9. abhigman tithi: 11 October 2012. Select "Ephemeris Type: Elements", "Target Body: Pluto Barycenter" and "Center: @Sun".
  2. "Horizon Online Ephemeris System for Pluto Barycenter". JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System @ Solar System Dynamics Group. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi?find_body=1&body_group=mb&sstr=9. abhigman tithi: 16 January 2011. (set Observer Location to @sun to place the observer at the center of the sun)
  3. a aa i E u oo A ai O Williams, David R. (7 September 2006). "Pluto Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/plutofact.html. abhigman tithi: 24 March 2007.
  4. a aa Seligman, Courtney. "Rotation Period and Day Length". http://cseligman.com/text/sky/rotationvsday.htm. abhigman tithi: 13 August 2009.
  5. lakadaavaala, emili. "Pluto minus one day: Very first New Horizons Pluto encounter science results". the plenetri society. http://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2015/07131311-pluto-first-science.html. abhigman tithi: 13 July 2015.
  6. a aa i Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, William M.; Young, Eliot F. evam anya (2006). "Orbits and photometry of Pluto's satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". Astronomical Journal 132 (1): 290. arXiv:astro-ph/0512491. Bibcode 2006AJ....132..290B. doi:10.1086/504422.
  7. a aa doi:10.1007/s10569-010-9320-4
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  8. haimltan, kailvin J. (12 February 2006). "Dwarf Planet Pluto [bauna grah yam"]. vyooj of the solar system. http://www.solarviews.com/eng/pluto.htm. abhigman tithi: 10 January 2007.
  9. "AstDys (134340) Pluto Ephemerides". ganit vibhaag, peesa ka vishvavidyaalaya, Italy. http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys/index.php?pc=1.1.3.1&n=134340&oc=500&y0=1870&m0=2&d0=9&h0=0&mi0=0&y1=1870&m1=3&d1=20&h1=0&mi1=0&ti=1.0&tiu=days. abhigman tithi: 27 June 2010.
  10. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 134340 Pluto". http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=Pluto. abhigman tithi: 12 June 2008.
  11. bairi dablyu. jons (2010) (angreji mein). Pluto: Sentinel of the Outer Solar System. Cambridge vishvavidmaalaya press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-521-19436-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=8nKZnNnWjE0C.
  12. paitrik moor, robin rees (2011). "... Pluto ... 248.09 years (90,613.3 days) ..." (angreji mein). Patrick Moore's Data Book of Astronomy. Cambridge vishvavidmaalaya press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-521-89935-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=2FNfjWKBZx8C.
  13. olkin, Cathrine bi.; vaisaramain, laurens H.; frainj, otto ji. (2003). "The mass ratio of Charon to Pluto from Hubble Space Telescope astrometry with the fine guidance sensors [habbal antariksh dooradarshi ke sanvedakon dvaara naapa gaya shairon se yam ke dravyamaan ka anupaat]" (angreji mein). ikaras (lauvel vedhashaala) 164 (1): 254–259. Bibcode 2003Icar..164..254O. doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00136-2. http://www.as.utexas.edu/~fritz/astrometry/Papers_in_pdf/%7BOlk03%7DPlutoCharon.pdf. abhigman tithi: 13 March 2007.
  14. ""Pluto and the Developing Landscape of Our Solar System" [yam aur hamaare saur mandal ke viksit hote paridrushya]". antarraashtreeya khagoleeya sangh. http://www.iau.org/public/pluto/. abhigman tithi: 14 July 2015.
  15. The hunt for planet X: new worlds and the fate of Pluto, Govert Schilling, Springer, 2009, ISBN 978-0-387-77804-4
  16. "plooto pahuncha antariksh yaan". http://www.dw.com/hi/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%9F%E0%A5%8B-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%B9%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BE-%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B7-%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A8/g-18582522. abhigman tithi: 14 July 2015.
  17. "New Horizons to Pluto, Mission Website". US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2 July 2015. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/newhorizons/main/. abhigman tithi: 7 July 2015.
  18. "New Horizons: Nasa spacecraft speeds past Pluto" (angreji mein). http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33524589. abhigman tithi: 14 July 2015.
the va b
saur mandal
सूर्य बुध शुक्र चन्द्रमा पृथ्वी Phobos and Deimos मंगल सीरिस) क्षुद्रग्रह बृहस्पति बृहस्पति के उपग्रह शनि शनि के उपग्रह अरुण अरुण के उपग्रह वरुण के उपग्रह नेप्चून Charon, Nix, and Hydra प्लूटो ग्रह काइपर घेरा Dysnomia एरिस बिखरा चक्र और्ट बादलSolar System XXVII.png
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