plate vivrtaniki

vishv ki pramukh plets
pruthvi ke garbh mein maintal ka bhaag

plate vivrtaniki (angreji: Plate tectonics) ek vaigyaanik siddhaant hai jo pruthvi ke sthalamandal mein bade paimaane par hone waali gatiyon ki vyaakhya prastut karta hai. saath hi mahaadveepon, mahaasaagaron aur parvaton ke roop mein dharaataleeya uchchaavach ke nirmaan tatha bhookamp aur jvaalaamukhi jaisi ghatnaaon ke bhaugolik vitran ki vyaakhya prastut karne ka prayaas karta hai.

yeh siddhaant beesaveen shataabdi ke pratham dashak mein abhiklpit mahaadveepeeya visthaapan naamak sankalpana se viksit hua jab 1960 ke dashak mein aise naveen saakshyon ki khoj hui jinse mahaadveepon ke sthir hone ki bajaay gatisheel hone ki avadhaarana ko bal mila. in saakshyon mein sabse mahatvapoorn hain puraachumbakatv se sambandhit saakshya jinse saagar nitl prasaran ki pushti hui. Harry hes ke dvaara saagar nitl prasaran ki khoj se is siddhaant ka pratipaadan aarambh maana jaata hai[1] aur Wilson, maurgan, maikeinji, olivr, paarkar ityaadi vidvaanon ne iske paksh mein pramaan upalabdh karaate hue iske sanvardhan mein yogadaan kiya.

is siddhaant anusaar pruthvi ki oopari lagbhag 80 se 100 ki॰mee॰ moti parat, jise sthalamandal kaha jaata hai[2], aur jismein bhooparpati aur bhoopraavaar ke oopari hisse ka bhaag shaamil hain, kai tukadon mein tooti hui hai jinhein plate kaha jaata hai. ye pletein neeche sthit esthenosfeeyar ki ardhapighlit parat par tair raheen hain aur saamaanyataya lagbhag 10-40 mimi/varsh ki gati se gatisheel hain haalaaainki inmein kuchh ki gati 160 mimi/varsh bhi hai.[3] inhi pleton ke gatisheel hone se pruthvi ke vartamaan dharaataleeya svaroop ki utpatti aur parvat nirmaan ki vyaakhya prastut ki jaati hai aur yeh bhi dekha gaya hai ki praay: bhookamp in pleton ki seemaaon par hi aate hain aur jvaalaamukhi bhi inheen plate seemaaon ke sahaare paae jaate hain.

plate vivrtaniki mein vivrtaniki (laateen:tectonicus) shabd yoonaani bhaasha ke τaaεaaκaaτaaοaaνaaιaaκaaόaaς se bana hai jiska arth nirmaan se sambandhit hai.[4][5] plate shabd ka sarvapratham prayog Canada ke bhoovijnyaaani Wilson (Wilson) ne kiya tha aur plate tektoniks shabd ka pehli baar prayog morgan (Morgan) dvaara kiya gaya tha.

anukram

parichay

pleton ki sankhya

is siddhaant ke anusaar pruthvi ki oopari parat ke roop mein sthit sthalamandal, jismein krast aur oopari maintal ka kuchh hissa shaamil hai, kai tukadon mein vibhaajit hai jinhein plate kaha jaata hai. saamaanyataya in pleton mein badi pleton ki sankhya saat maani jaati hai. iske alaava kuchh majhale aur chhote aakaar ki plets bhi hain. inki ek soochi nimnavat hai:

badi pletein

madhyam aur chhoti pletein

kuchh vidvaan uttari ameriki plate aur dakshini ameriki plate ko ek hi maanate hue badi pleton ki sankhya chhah manaate hain.[1] chhoti plets ki sankhya mein bhi kai mataantar hain parantu saamaanyat: inki sankhya 100 se bhi adhik sveekaar ki jaati hai.

pleton ki gatisheelata

itihaas

parvat nirmaan ke sandarbh mein prathamataya do mat prachalit the, oordhvaadhar sanchalan dvaara aur kshaitij sanchalan dvaara. arthaat kuchh log yeh maanate the ki pruthvi ka aakaar utpatti ke baad sankuchan dvaara chhota hua aur is sankuchan ke parinaamasvaroop pruthvi ki satah mein bal pad gaye aur mudaav parvaton ke roop mein sthit hai. Europe mein sarvapratham ostriyaai Edward sves ne is tarah ki sankalpana ko prachaarit kiya tha.[2] iske vipreet kuchh ka maanana tha ki mahaadveepon ka kshaitij sthaanaataran hua hai aur inke takaraane se oopari satah mein bal pad jaane se parvaton ka nirmaan hua hai. sankuchanavaadiyon ko pehli chunauti tabhi mili thi jab mahaadveepon ke kshaitij sthaanaantaran ki sankalpana ka udbhav hua.

shurooaati solahaveen sadi mein hi vidvaanon ne atalaantik mahaasaagar ke donon kinaaron ki ek doosare se samaanata ko chihnit kiya tha.[6] angrej daarshanik Francis bekan (1561-1626) ne pehli baar sateek nakshon ke adhyayan se yeh samaanata chihnit ki, maanachitr vigyaani Abraham orteliys ne 1596 mein pehli baar yeh kaha ki America (donon) Europe aur afreeka se toot kar alag hue hain aur jarman dharmashaastri thiyodor liliyenathal ne 1756 mein orteliys ke kathan ki pushti baaibil ke ek kathan (First Book of Moses 10:25) ke aadhaar par karne ka prayaas kiya.[6]

baad mein ameriki bhoovetta ef॰ bee॰ Taylor ne 1908-10 mein chandrama ke gurutvaakarshan bal ke dvaara mahaadveepon ke ek tarah ke pravaah ki baat kahi, aur ise truteeyak yug ke parvaton ki utpatti ka kaaran bhi bataaya.[7] par unki baat par kisi ne bahut dhyaan naheen diya.

vaiganar ne, jo ek pura-vanaspati vigyaani aur pura-jalavaayu vigyaani the, yeh vichaar prastut kiya ki praacheen kaal mein jalavaayu ka vitran pratiroop vyaakhyaayit ho sakta hai yadi mahaadveepon ko gatisheel maan liya jaaya aur unhonne 1912 mein mahaadveepeeya visthaapan ka siddhaant pratipaadit kiya jo unki 1915 mein chhapi pustak mahaadveepon evam mahaasaagaron ki utpatti mein prakaashit hua.[8] vaiganar ne hi sabse pehle "mahaadveepeeya visthaapan" [9] shabd ka prayog kiya[10] vaiganar ke isi siddhaant se aage chalakar plate vivrtaniki ka vikaas sambhav ho paaya haalaaainki lagbhag aadhi sadi tak unke vichaaron ko bhi vidvaanon dvaara nakaara jaata raha[11] jab tak 1960 ke dashak mein pramaan naheen upalabdh hue.

saagar nitl prasaran

plate seemaayein

plate seemaaon ke teen prakaar

pleton ki gatisheelata ke kaaran inke ke kinaare ya seemaayein teen prakaar ke paae jaate hain[12][13]:

vinaashaatmak/abhisaari kinaara

is prakaar ke kinaaron ke sahaare do pletein ek doosare ki or gati karti hain aur takaraakar unamein se bhaari plate halaki plate ke neeche kshepit hoti hai. mudkar neeche ki or kshepit hone wala yeh hissa gaharaai mein ja kar taap aur daab ki adhikta ke kaaran pighlakar maigma mein parivrtit hota hai.[13] jis gaharaai par yeh ghatna hoti hai use kshepan mandal ya beneeof jon kehte hain. aise kinaaron ke sahaare bhoosannatiyon ke padaarth dabaav ke kaaran mudkar parvaton ka nirmaan karte hain. neeche jaakar pighla padaarth maigma ploom ke roop mein oopar uth kar jvaalaamukheeyata bhi utpann karta hai.

rachanaatmak/apasaari kinaara

apasaari kinaare ke sahaare ek rift ghaati, aaisalaind mein

jahaaain do pletein ek doosare ke vipreet gatisheel hoti hain, arthaat ek doosare se door hatati hain vahaaain neeche se maigma oopar uthakar nayi plate ka nirmaan karta hai. in kinaaron par paae jaane vaale sabse pramukh sthalaroop madhya mahaasaagareeya Cuttack hain.[13] jab yeh kinaara kisi mahaadveep par sthit hota hai to rift ghaatiyon ka nirmaan hota hai.[13] nayi plate ke nirmaan ke kaaran ise rachanaatmak kinaara bhi kehte hain.

sanrakshanaatmak kinaara

sanrakshi kinaara vah hai jiske sahaare do plete ek doosare ko ragadte hue gatisheel hon, arthaat na to apasaran ho raha ho na hi abhisran. saamaanyat: is kinaare ke sahaare ek doosare ko ragadte huye vipreet dishaaon mein gatisheel hoti hain kintu yeh anivaarya naheen hai, yadi do pletein ek hi disha mein gatisheel hon aur unki gati alag-alag ho tab bhi unke kinaare ragadte huye sanrakshi kinaara bana sakte hain. inke sahaare traansaform bhransh paae jaate hain. chooainki inke sahaare na to plate (krast ya sthalamandal) ka nirmaan hota hai aur na hi vinaash[13], at: inhein sanrakshi/sanrakshanaatmak kinaare kehte hain jahaaain nirmaan/vinaash ke sandarbhon mein yathaasthit sanrakshit rahati hai.

plate seemaaon ka vaishvik niroopan

plate vivrtaniki aur parvat nirmaan

do mahaadveepeeya pleton ka takaraana aur parvat nirmaan

plate vivrtaniki siddhaant valit parvaton ke nirmaan ki sabse nayi vyaakhya prastut karta hai. udaaharan ke liye alpaain parvat tantr ke parvaton ki utpatti ki vyakhya ko prastut kiya ja sakta hai. is siddhaant ke anusaar yeh maana jaata hai ki bhoomadhya saagar ke uttari aur dakshini or bane parvaton ki shrunkhalaayein tarshiyri yug mein hue vivrtanik ghatnaaon ka parinaam hain jinmein tetheej saagar mein jama avasaadon ke afreeki aur Europeeya pleton ke beech sanpeedan dvaara inka nirmaan hua.[14] himaalaya ki utpatti ke baare mein bhi is siddhaant ki yahi maanyata hai ki is parvatamaala ki utpatti Tibet plate (ya yooreshiyn plate) aur bhaarateeya plate ke paas aane aur tetheej saagar ya bhoosannati mein jama avasaadon ke sanpeedan se hua hai.[15]

bhaarateeya plate ka uttar ki or khiskaav

sandarbh

  1. a aa "plate vivrtan/vivrtanik siddhaant ya plate vivrtaniki". indiya vaatar portal. http://hindi.indiawaterportal.org/plate-vivrtanavivrtanik-siddhaant-ya-plate-vivrtaniki-plate-tectonic-theory-or-plate-tectonics. abhigman tithi: 11 January 2015.
  2. a aa oreskas, , Naomi (angreji mein) (Google pustak). Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History of the Modern Theory of the Earth [plate vivrtaniki: pruthvi ke aadhunik siddhaant ke androoni sootr ka itihaas]. Westview Press. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=8VoAv-jn9ngC&dq=plate+tectonics&source=gbs_navlinks_s.
  3. jen shaao, huaang (1997). "Speed of the Continental Plates [mahaadveepeeya pleton ki gati]" (angreji mein). the fijiks faiktabuk. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/ZhenHuang.shtml.
  4. mariym vebastar shabdakosh mein
  5. dikshanari dot com par
  6. a aa frishch, volfagaing; Martin meshchede, ronaald si bleki (angreji mein) (Google pustak). Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building [plate vivrtaniki: mahaadveepeeya bahaav aur parvateeya nirmaan]. pp. 2. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=vx1oiTMOTRcC&lpg=PP1&dq=plate%20tectonics&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q=plate%20tectonics&f=false.
  7. Taylor, ef.bi. (1910). "Bearing of the tertiary mountain belt on the origin of the earth's plan [pruthvi ki yojana ke mool par truteeyak pahaad belt ke asar]" (angreji mein) (peedeeऍf). GSA Bulletin 21. doi:10.1130/1052-5173(2005)015[29b:WTCCA]2.0.CO;2. ftp://rock.geosociety.org/pub/GSAToday/gt0507.pdf. abhigman tithi: 11 January 2015.
  8. vegenar, alfred (1929). Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane [mahaadveepon aur mahaasaagaron ki utpatti)]" (jarman mein). jarman vikisors par. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Akt. Ges. pp. 4 ed. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 3-443-01056-3. https://de.wikisource.org/wiki/Die_Entstehung_der_Kontinente_und_Ozeane Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane.
  9. jarman mein "die Verschiebung der Kontinente" – 1922 mein angreji mein anoodit "Continental drift" - angreji se hindi mein anudit
  10. Wegener, Alfred (6 January 1912), ["Die Herausbildung der Grossformen der Erdrinde (Kontinente und Ozeane), auf geophysikalischer Grundlage", Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 63: 185–195, 253–256, 305–309.
  11. Earth Systems: Processes and Issues, Wallace Gary Ernst, pp. 82, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-521-47895-3, ... The idea of continental drift was proposed seriously approximately eighty years ago by Alfred Wegener; however, the concept was almost universally rejected by scientists and was ignored for nearly half a century ...
  12. Meissner, Rolf (2002). The Little Book of Planet Earth. New York: Copernicus Books. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-387-95258-1
  13. a aa i E u "Tectonic Plates and Plate Boundaries". http://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Learning/Science-Topics/Earthquakes/Earthquakes-at-a-Plate-Boundary/Tectonic-Plates-and-Plate-Boundaries. abhigman tithi: 2015.
  14. DEWEY, JOHN F.. "Plate Tectonics and the Evolution of the Alpine System". Bulletin, The Geological Society of America. http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/84/10/3137.short. abhigman tithi: 31 January 2015.
  15. Cela, A.M.. "Plate tectonics and orogenic research after 25 years: A Tethyan perspective". Earth-Science Reviews, elseviyr. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001282529090002D. abhigman tithi: 31 January 2015.