plaajma (bhautiki)

plaajma deep

bhautiki aur rasaayan shaastr mein, plaajma aanshik roop se aayaneekrut ek gas hai, jismein ilektraunon ka ek nishchit anupaat kisi parmaanu ya anu ke saath bandhe hone ke bajaay svatantr hota hai. plaajma mein dhanaavesh aur rinaavesh ki svatantr roop se gaman karne ki kshamata plaajma ko vidyut chaalak banaati hai jiske parinaamasvaroop yeh drudhta se vidyut chumbakeeya kshetron se pratikriya kar paata hai.

plaajma ke gun thos, drav ya gas ke gunon se kaafi vipreet hain aur isliye ise padaarth ki ek bhinn avastha maana jaata hai. plaajma aamtaur par, ek tatasth-gas ke baadalon ka roop le leta hai, jaise sitaaron mein. gas ki tarah plaajma ka koi nishchit aakaar ya nishchit aayatan naheen hota jab tak ise kisi paatr mein band na kar diya jaae lekin gas ke vipreet kisi chunbakeeya kshetr ke prabhaav mein yeh ek filaameint, punj ya dohari parat jaisi sanrachanaaon ka nirmaan karta hai.

plaajma globe ek sajaavati vastu hoti hai, jismein ek kaanch ke gole mein kai gaison ke mishran mein ilektrod dvaara gole tak kai rangon ki kirnein chalti dikhaai deti hain.

plaajma ki pehchaan sabse pehle ek krooks nali mein 1879 me sar William krooks dvaara ki gayi thi unhonne ise “achamakate padaartha” ka naam diya tha. krooks nali ki prakruti "kaithod re" ki pehchaan iske baad british bhautik vigyaani sar J J thaumasan dvaara 1897 mein dvaara ki gayi. 1928 mein iraving laingamyuir ne ise plaajma naam diya,[1] shaayad isne unhein rakt plaavika (plaajma) ki yaad dilaai thi.

plaajma ke pairaameetaron ki paraas (Ranges)

plaajma ke pairaameetaron ke parimaan ki koti mein bahut antar ho sakta hai. isaliye nimnalikhit saarani mein keval paramparaagat paramaanaveeya plaajma (conventional atomic plasmas) ke pairaameetaron ke maan diye gaye hain.

plaajma ki paraas. ghanatv upar ki or badh raha hai; taap daahini or badh raha hai. kisi dhaatu mein vidyamaan mukt elektraanon ko elektraan plaajma ke roop mein samjha ja sakta hai.[2]
plaajma ke pairaameetaron ki saamaanya paraas: parimaan ki koti
gunadharm terestiyl plaajma brahmaandeeya (Cosmic) plaajma
aakaar
(mi mein)
10−6 m (prayogashaaleeya plaajma) se
102 m (tadit) (~8 koti)
10−6 m (spacecraft sheath) to
1025 m (intergalactic nebula) (~31 OOM)
jeevanakaal
(sekend mein)
10−12 s (lejar-janit plaajma) se
107 s (fluorescent lights) (~19 OOM)
101 s (solar flares) to
1017 s (intergalactic plasma) (~16 OOM)
ghanatv
(kan/ghan mi mein)
107 m−3 to
1032 m−3 (inertial confinement plasma)
1 m−3 (intergalactic medium) to
1030 m−3 (stellar core)
taapamaan
(kelvin mein)
~0 K (crystalline non-neutral plasma[3]) to
108 K (magnetic fusion plasma)
102 K (aurora) to
107 K (solar core)
chumbakeeya kshetr
(tesla mein)
10−4 T (lab plasma) to
103 T (pulsed-power plasma)
10−12 T (intergalactic medium) to
1011 T (near neutron stars)

inhein bhi dekhein

  • plaajma anusandhaan sansthaan
  • tokaamaak

sandarbh

  1. I. Langmuir (1928). "Oscillations in ionized gases". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S. 14: 628. doi:10.1073/pnas.14.8.627.
  2. Peratt, A. L. (1966). "Advances in Numerical Modeling of Astrophysical and Space Plasmas". Astrophysics and Space Science 242: 93–163. doi:10.1007/BF00645112. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996Ap&SS.242...93P.
  3. See The Nonneutral Plasma Group at the University of California, San Diego