piyaano

Steinway Vienna 011.JPG
vartamaan samay ka mahaavaadya

mahaavaadya ya piyaano taaravaala vaadyayantr hai. iska aavishkaar 10veen shataabdi mein hua tha aur dheere-dheere yeh apne vartamaan roop mein viksit hua hai. aarambh mein iski aakruti aadhunik piyaanon se bhinn thi. usamein ek gril hoti thi, jise ghumaane se teen-taar ek saath pahiye par dhvani paida karte the.

anukram

itihaas

"veemar vaandar bak" (Wemor Wander Buck) naamak pustak mein, jiska rachanaakaal 1440 E. hai, piyaanon ka ek chitr hai, jismein aath chhoti aur 16 badi kunjiyaaain (keys) hain. chitrakaar ne ek aayataakaar chitr mein 12 taar dikhaae hain. piyaanon jaise ek yantr ka chitr patthar par bana hua mila hai, jise reegal kehte hain.

aadhunik piyaano ka aavishkaar baartolomiyo kristaafari ne kiya tha. iska varnan "giyornale the letaraati the itailiya" naamak pustak mein hai, jise maarkeej sopiyoni maifi ne likha tha tatha jise apaastalo jeno ne san 1711 mein chhapavaaya tha, yeh pustak saubhaagya se upalabdh hai. kristefar ne do piyaano ka aavishkaar kiya. ek ka san 1720 mein tatha doosare ka san 1726 mein. inmein aadhunik piyaanon ke sabhi mukhya bhaag hain. sepiyoni maifi ki pustak ka koning ne 1725 E. mein jarman bhaasha mein anuvaad kiya tatha uske mitr geet fraaid ne, jo us samay ke pramukh piyaani bajaanevaalon mein se ek tha, yeh pustak padhi. tab usane do piyaanon banaae, jo uske shishya agrikola ke anusaar bahut achhe naheen the. is vishay mein ek aur charcha bhi hai ki silvamain ko iske bajaane ka utsaah shautar se mila, jo 1721 E. mein sabse achha piyaano bajaanevaala tha. Christopher ke piyaano aur uske pahalevaale piyaano mein yeh antar tha ki puraane piyaano ke taaron ko pankh (quill) se maarate the, parantu Christopher ke piyaano ke taaron par chhote-chhote hathaudon se chot karte the. England mein piyaano 1760 E. mein aaya aur vahaaain san 1766 mein piyaano banaanevaale ek jarman ne ek piyaano banaaya.

banaavat

mahaavaadya mein 88 svar haate hain, jo ashtakon mein vibhkt hote hain. unachaasavaaain svar pitch A kahalaata hai aur usaki aavrutti 440 prati second hoti hai. amareeka ki Britain mein is svar ko praamaanik svar maana jaata hai tatha shesh svaron ko iski sahaayata se theek kiya jaata hai. taaron ki lanbaai gunottar shreni (jyometrikl progreshan) mein hoti hai aur Germany mein shreni ka anupaat 1.875, parantu Britain mein 1.89 liya jaata hai.

88vein taar ki lanbaai 5 tatha 5.5 seinteemeetar ke beech hoti hai. is taar ke hisaab se hi anya taaron ki lanbaai, motaai tatha bhaar nishchit kiya jaata hai. mahaavaadya ke taar vishesh prakaar ke ispaat se banaae jaate hain aur 150 tan prati varg inch ka khinchaav sahan kar sakte hain.

dhvaniptt

jab taar jhankrut hote hain tab ve setu par khinchaav paida karte hain. yeh setu dhvaniptt se sanlagn hota hai, jisse sampoorn dhvaniptt kanpan karne lagta hai. isse nikat ki vaayu mein dhvanitrangein utpann hoti hain. dhvaniptt peesiya ekselsa naamak lakdi ka bana hota hai, jo bahut halaki hoti hai.

taar aur setu ka paraspar sanbadh drudh karne ke liye, taar ke donon siron ke staron se setu ko ooaincha rakha jaata hai. isse dhvaniptt par vaanchhit dabaav paida hota hai. piyaano banaane mein yahi sabse adhik kathin kaam hai. setu par se jaanevaala taar praaya: aadhaar se degree ka kon banaata hai.

svar

piyaano ka pratyek svar mishrit hota hai. pratyek svar mool svar aur sannaadi svaron ke mel se banta hai. mool svar aur uske sannaadi svaron ka anupaat lagbhag 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 aadi hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, madhya svar si k mein mool svar ki aavrutti 261.6 hoti hai aur uske sannaadi svaron ki avruttiyaaain kram se 523.25, 783.99, 1046.5, 1318.57, 1567.9 aadi hoti hain. in svaron ko yadi ek saath chheda jaae, to unka prabhaav karnapriya hota hai. haaain, saatavein aur navein svar iske apavaad hain.

taar ko yadi ek sire se aage, lanbaai ke aathavein bhaag par, chheda jaae, to sarvonttam svar utpann hota hai. yeh baat 51vein svar tak satya hai, parantu iske baad anek kaaranon se niktatar binduon par chhedne se vaanchhit svar nikalte hain.

yadi koi taar ek second mein 1,000 kanpan kare, to ek kanpan vah second mein karega. prayogon dvaara yeh maaloom kiya gaya hai ki vaanchhit dhvani utpann karne ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki hathauda aur taar ka sampark ek kanpan ke liye aavashyak kaal ke aadhe tak rahe, arthaat second tak rahe.

uttolak

hathaude taaron se 2 inch ke faasale par hote hain. ye hathaude ek vishesh prakaar ke uttolakon (leevaron) ki sahaayata se chalte hain. jab kunji (key) dabaai jaati hain, tab yeh doori keval inch rah jaati hai. iska fal yeh hota hai ki hathaude taaron par jaldi-jaldi chot karte hain. jin uttolakon ki sahaayata se ye hathaude chalte hain, unhein aikshan kehte hain.

sparsh

kunji 9 mileemeetar tak neeche jaati hai. is baat ko sansaar ke sab piyaano nirmaata dhyaan mein rakhate hain. kunji ko ek vishesh doori par keelit (pivoted) karte hain, taaki jab use dabaaya jaae to vah doosari or se chhah mileemeetar oopar uthe. sarvottam sparsh vah hota hai jab kunji saamaanya avastha mein peechhe ki or (bajaanevaale ke doosari or) jhuki ho aur jab aadhi dabaai jaae tab vah kshaitij sthiti mein ho jaae, yaani kunji ke donon sire ek star par ho jaaeain. jab kunji is kshaitij sthiti mein aati hai, tab usapar avamandak (damper) ka bojh padta hai, parantu chooainki kunji vegayukt hoti hai isliye vah bojh ko sambhaalne mein samarth hoti hai.

piyaano ka dhaaaincha lohe ka hota hai. ispar 220 taaron ke khinchaav ka dabaav padta hai.

padik (pedals)

svaron ka niyantran do padikon se hota hai. baain or ke padik ko dabaane se hathaude taaron ke paas jaate hain aur is prakaar chot ki teevrata kam hoti hai. daaeain padik ko dabaakar sab avamadakon ko ichhaanusaar taaron se oopar uthaate hain. amareeka mein ek padik beech mein bhi hota hai. ise saastenyooto kehte hain aur yeh sab ko uthaane ke bajaae keval un avamandakon ko uthaata hai jo pehle se hi uthe hote hain.

sab deshon mein piyaanon banaane ki vidhi aur piyaano ka aakaar praaya: ek samaan hota hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ki sabhi piyaano ke liye bahut si baaton ki aavashyakataaeain ek-si hoti hain, jaise dhvaniptt, farsh se ooainchaai, ghutanon ke liye jagah, padikon ki sthiti tatha ve praakrutik niyam jo khinche hue taaron ke kanpanon par laagoo hote hain.