pijin

ise kabootar ke liye angreji mein prayukt shabd Pigeon (pijin) na samjha jaae. tatkaal sandesh klaayant ke liye dekhein Pidgin (sauftaveyar).

pijin (Pidgin) (uchchaarit/ˈaapɪaadʒaaɪaan/) ek aisi saral mishrit bhaasha hai, jo aise do ya adhik samoohon ke beech sanchaar ke saadhan ke roop mein viksit hoti hai jinke beech koi aam bhaasha na ho. yeh aam taur par vyaapaar ya aisi paristhitiyon mein prayukt hoti hai, jahaan do samooh apne desh ki bhaasha se alag bhaashaaon ko bolte hon (par jahaan samoohon ke beech koi aam bhaasha maujood na ho). mool roop mein, pijin (mishrit bhaasha) bhaashaai sanchaar ka ek saraleekrut saadhan hai, jo samudaayon ke logon ke beech tatkaal nirmit hota hai. pijin kisi baatcheet karne vaale samudaaya ki desheeya bhaasha naheen hai, balki dviteeya bhaasha ke roop mein seekhi gayi bhaasha hai.[1][2] pijin ka nirmaan vividh anya bhaasha aur sanskrutiyon ke shabdon, dhvaniyon ya sanket bhaashaaon se ho sakta hai. aam taur par anya bhaashaaon ki tulana mein pijin ki pratishtha kam hai.[3]

bhaasha ke sabhi saraleekrut ya "khandit" roop (ashikshiton ki bhaasha) pijin naheen hain. pratyek pijin ke upayog sambandhi maanadand alag hain jinhein pijin mein praveenata haasil karne ke liye seekhana zaroori hai.[4]

anukram

shabd-vyutpatti

shabd pidgin (pijin) ke mool ke baare mein anishchitta hai. pehli baar pidgin shabd 1850 mein mudrit hua tha aur shabd ki vyutpatti ke baare mein anek srot maujood hain. udahaaran ke liye:

  • angreji shabd business (bijnes) ka cheeni uchchaaran.[5]
  • angreji pigeon (kabootar), ek pakshi jiska upayog kabhi-kabhi sankshipt likhit sandesh le jaane ke liye kiya jaata tha, vishesh roop se aadhunik doorasanchaar ke viksit hone se pehle vaale jmaane mein.[6]

paaribhaashik shabdaavali

shabd pidgin jise pehle pigion vartani ke saath bhi uchcharit kiya jaata raha hai,[5] jo mool roop se cheeni pijin angreji ko varnit karne ke liye prayukt hota tha, baad mein kisi bhi pijin (mishrit bhaasha) ko nirdisht karne ke liye lokapriya hua.[7] pijin ka upayog sthaaneeya pijin (mishrit) ya kriyol (creole) (sankar bhaasha) ke liye vishisht naam ke roop mein nirdisht ki ja sakti hai, jahaan vah boli jaati hai. udaaharan ke liye, tok pisin (Tok Pisin) naam angreji shabd talk pidgin se vyutpann hai. isko bolne vaale aam taur par angreji bolte samay iska ullekh bas "pidgin" (pijin) ke roop mein karte hain.[tathya vaanchhit]

shabd jargon (khaas boli) ka bhi upayog pijin ko varnit karne ke liye hota hai aur kuchh pijinon ke naamon mein bhi paaya gaya hai, jaise ki chinook jaargan (Chinook Jargon). is sandarbh mein, aajkal bhaashaavid jargon (khaas boli) ka upayog visheshat: alpaviksit prakaar ke pijin ko niroopit karne ke liye karte hain;[8] haalaanki, yeh prayog praay: durlabh hai aur shabd jargon (khaas boli) aksar kisi peshe ke vishisht shabdon ko sandarbhit karta hai.

pijin Tok Pisin (tok pisin) jaise vyaapaar ki bhaasha ke roop shuroo ho sakte hain ya ban sakte hain. vyaapaarik bhaashaaen apne aap mein aksar svaahili, faarasi ya angreji jaisi viksit bhaashaaen ho sakti hai.[tathya vaanchhit] vyaapaar ki bhaashaaen "yaaneeya bhaashaaon" ki or abhimukh hoti hain, jabki pijin deshi bhaasha ke roop mein viksit hoti hain.[tathya vaanchhit]

pijin bhaashaaon ke beech aam lakshan

choonki pijin bhaasha maulik roop se sanchaar ka saral roop hai, aam taur par jahaan tak sambhav ho usaka vyaakaran aur svar-vigyaan saral hota hai aur saamaanyat: ismein shaamil hote hain:

  • saral vaakya sanrachana (jaise, koi embeded vaakya aadi naheen)
  • akshar sanketon ki kami ya vilopan
  • vyanjan samoohon ki katauti ya madhyaagam dvaara unka vightan
  • mool svar, jaise ki/a, e, i, o, u/
  • svaron ki anupasthiti, jaisa ki pashchim afreeki aur Asiaee bhaashaaon mein paae jaate hain.
  • kaal ko ingit karne ke liye alag shabdon ka upayog, jo aam taur par kriya se pehle hote hain
  • bahuvachan, atishyokti aur anya shabdabhed ka pratinidhitv karne ke liye punaraavrutti ka prayog jo avadhaarana ki vruddhi ko niroopit karte hain
  • roopaatmak-dhvanigraamiki bhinnata ki kami

pijin vikaas

pijin ke nirmaan mein aam taur par nimn ki aavashyakta hoti hai:

  • lambe samay tak, vibhinn bhaashaai samudaayon ke beech niyamit sampark
  • donon ke beech samvaad ki zaroorat
  • ek vyaapak, sulabh antarbhaasha ki anupasthiti (ya vyaapak praveenata ki anupasthiti)

iske alaava, keeth vheenom (saaaincha:Harvcoltxt mein) sujhaav dete hain ki pijin ke nirmaan ke liye teen bhaashaaon ki zaroorat hai, jismein ek (uchchastareeya) spasht roop se anya se prabhaavi ho.

aksar yeh maana jaata hai ki jab pijin bolne vaale maata-pita ki ek peedhi apne bachchon ko use pratham bhaasha ke roop mein sikhaati hai, to pijin kriyol bhaasha ban jaati hai. uske baad kriyol samudaaya ki deshi bhaasha banane ke liye vartamaan bhaashaaon ke mishran ki jagah le leti hai (jaise ki siyera Leon mein kriyo aur paapuaa new gini mein tok pisin). tathaapi, sabhi pijin kriyol bhaashaaen naheen banti hain; is charan se pehle hi pijin samaapt ho sakti hai (uda. bhoomadhyasaagareeya lok bhaasha).

saalikoko mafvene jaise anya vidvaan tark dete hain ki pijin aur kriyol bhinn paristhitiyon mein svatantr roop se ubharati hain aur zaroori naheen ki kriyol se pehle hamesha hi pijin ho aur na hi pijin se kriyol viksit hoti hain. mafvene ke anusaar, pijin vyaapaar kauloniyon ke "dainandin paarasparik kriya ke liye apni deshi boli ko sanrakshit karne vaale prayoktaaon" ke beech ubhari. is beech, kriyol upanivesh kauloniyon mein viksit hui jahaan Europeeya bhaasha bolne vaale, aksar maanak se kam bhaashaai star vaale anubandhit karmachaari, gair-Europeeya daason ke saath vyaapak roop se paraspar baatcheet karte the, jismein gulaamon ke gair-Europeeya deshi bhaashaaon ke kuchh shabd aur visheshataaen aatmasaat ho jaate the, jiske parinaamasvaroop mool bhaasha ka bhaari kramik-parivrtit sanskaran saamane aa jaata hai. ye sevak aur gulaam, na keval uchchastareeya bhaasha bolne vaale ke saath sampark ki zaroorat padne par hi naheen, balki apni dainandin sthaaneeya boli ke roop mein kriyol ka upayog karne lagte hain.[9]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • baask-aaisalaindik pijin
  • beyaralaachaas
  • kriyol bhaasha
  • vikriyoleekaran
  • delaaveyar bhaashaaen#vyutpann bhaashaaen
  • ingarish ya chinglish
  • havaaiyan pijin
  • antarraashtreeya sanket
  • jamaikaai kriyol
  • aam bhaasha
  • angreji aadhaarit pijinon ki soochi
  • bhoomadhyasaagareeya saamaanya bhaasha ya saabir
  • mishrit bhaasha
  • naaijeeriyaai pijin
  • vyaapaar anchal

not

  1. dekhein saaaincha:Harvcoltxt
  2. dekhein saaaincha:Harvcoltxt
  3. saaaincha:Harvcoltxt
  4. saaaincha:Harvcoltxt
  5. a aa Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=pidgin
  6. pidgin, Cambridge University Press, 1997
  7. saaaincha:Harvcoltxt
  8. saaaincha:Harvcoltxt
  9. "Salikoko Mufwene: "Pidgin and Creole Languages"". Humanities.uchicago.edu. http://humanities.uchicago.edu/faculty/mufwene/pidginCreoleLanguage.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-24.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain