peteint

anukram

bhoomika

bauddhik sampada adhikaar mastishk ki upaj hain aur iname sabse mahatvapoorn hain - peteint. peteinti, peteint ka ullanghan karne vaale tareeke ya utpaad ke nirmaan ko nyaayaalaya dvaara rookava sakta hai. bahut se log yeh kehte hain ki peteint takaneek ko aage badhaata hain par bahut se log yeh bhi kehte hain ki is yug mein peteint takaneek ki pragati par baadha pahuncha raha hai. isaliye ya‍aah jaroori hai ki ham peteint ko samajhein aur dekhein ki vah hamaare desh ki unnati mein baadha na bane.

itihaas ki drushti mein

'peteint' ka shabd, laitin ke shabd Lilterae Patents se aaya hai. peteint ka arth hai 'khula' aur Lilterae Patents ka shaabdik arth hai (Letters patents) ya khule patra. puraane jamaane mein shaasako ya sarkaaron ke dvaara padavee‚ haka‚ vishesh adhikaar patra ke dvaara diya jaata hai. yeh shaasakeeya dastaavej hota tha aur inhe choonki saarvajanik roop se diya jaata tha, isliye yeh hamesha 'khule' rahate the.

Europe mein 6veen shataab‍aadi mein se is tarah ke patra diye jaate the. yeh shaasak ki or se videshi bhoomi ki khoj tatha us par vijay ke liye jaari kiye jaate the. aajkal peteint shabd ka prayog aavishkaaron ke sambandh mein hota hai. is tarah ka prayog pehli baar 15veen shataabdi ke aas-paas aaya. sarvapratham, peteint kaanoon jaisa ise aaj samjha jaata hain, 14 March 1474 ko viyaana sinet (Venetian Senate) ke dvaara ko paarit kiya gaya.

peteint‚ aavishkaarakon ko ananya (Exclusive) adhikaar deta hai. yeh bahut jaldi Italy se Europe ke anya deshon tak fail gaya. jin deshon ke paas praudyogiki naheen thi, unhonne praudyogiki ko sthaapit karne ke liye videshi aavishkaarakon ko peteint dena shuroo kar diya. ingalaind mein pehle iski avadhi naheen thi par british sansad ne 1623 mein naya kaanoon banaakar ise 14 varsho tak seemit kar diya.

America ke samvidhaan ke anuchhed 1 anubhaag 8 ke antargat ameriki kaugres ko vigyaan aur kalaaon ki pragati ke liye kaanoon banaane ka adhikaar hai. is pariprekshya mein Congress ne 1790 mein pehla peteint kaanoon paarit kiya. fraans ne iske agale varsh peteint kaanoon banaaya. 19veen shataabdi ke ant tak anek deshon ne apna (jismein bhaaratavarsh bhi sammilit hai) peteint kaanoon banaaya.

bhaaratavarsh mein peteint kaanoon ka itihaas bhaaratavarsh mein pehla peteint sambandhit kaanoon, 1856 mein paarit adhiniyam tha. ise 25 faravaree‚ 1856 ko Governor general ki anumati praapt ho gayi thi par yeh kaanoon 1857 mein adhiniyam san. 9 ke dvaara isaliye khaarij kar diya gaya ki ise banaane ke poorv ingalaind ki mahaaraani ki manjoori naheen praapt ki gayi thi.

naye avishkaar ke utpaadakon ko protsaahit karne ke liye 1859 mein, adhiniyam san. 15 paarit kiya. baad mein yeh Inventions and Designs Act 1888 ke dvaara pratisthapit kar diya gaya. iske baad 1911 mein Indian Patents and Designs Act 1911 aaya. 1967 mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne parliament mein petaint bill pesh kiya jo Patent Act 1970 (peteint adhiniyam) ke roop mein paas hua. peteint adhiniyam ko teen baar sanshodhit kiya gaya hai. kuchh sanshodhan to trips ke mutaabik kaanoon banaane ke liye kiye gaye aur kuchh apne adhikaaron (jaise paramparaagat soochana) ko surakshit karne ke liye kiye gaye. yeh sanshodhan nimn hain,

  • sanshodhan adhiniyam san. 17, 1999 (1999 sanshodhan);
  • sanshodhan adhiniyam san. 38,2002 (2002 ka sanshodhan);
  • sanshodhan adhiniyam san. 15, 2005 (2005 ka sanshodhan).

peteint praapt karne ki prakriya ka saraleekaran

pratyek desh ka apna peteint kaanoon hai. saadhaaran taur par aavishkaarako ko pratyek desh mein peteint ke liye aavedan dena aavashyak hai, jahaan ve apne aavishkaaron ka prayog karna chaahate hain. har desh mein alag alag aavedan patra dena kathin kaarya hai. is prakriya ko aasaan banaane ke liye nimn antarraashtreeya prayaas kiye gaye hain.

  • deshon mein peteint sambandhi antaron ko kam karne ka pehla prayaas International Convention for the protection of Industrial Property tha. ise peris mein 1883 mein angeekaar kiya gaya hai. ise anek baar sanshodhit kiya gaya. isne aavishkaarakon ko kisi ek sadasya desh mein aavedan patra prastut karne ki pratham taareekh ka laabh anya sadasya raajyon mein aavedan patra daakhil karne ki tithi ke liye diya.
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty 1970 (P.C.T. ya pi.si.ti.) peteint ke liye aavedan patra prastut karne ki prakriya mein suvidha pradaan karti hai. yeh peteint ke liye aavedan patra ka maanakeekrut fauramait bataati hai aur iske saath unhe daakhil karne ki kendreeyakrut suvidha bhi deti hai. humne iske anuchhed 64 ke up anuchhed 5 ke alaavaa‚ ise7-12-98 ko sveekaar kiya hai.
  • European patent Convention, 1977 mein laagoo hua. iske dvaara ek yooropiyn peteint kaaryaalaya ki sthaapana hui. iske dvaara diya gaya peteint, aavedak dvaara naamit sadasya deshon mein peteint ka kaarya karta hai.
  • World Intellectual Property Organisation WIPO (vaaipo) ne Patent Law Treaty (PLT) (pi.L.ti.) banaayi hai. yeh 1 June 2000 ko angeekaar kar li gayi hai. humne is par abhi tak hastaakshar naheen kiye hain. pi.L.ti., pi.si.ti. ke adheen hai aur vibhinn deshon mein peteinto ko praapt karne ki prakriya ko aur saral banaati hai. yeh peteint ke Substantive Law ko prabhaavit naheen karti hai.
  • Substantive Patent Law ko ek laya mein laane ke liye vaaipo, Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT) (S.pi.L.ti.) ka aayojan kar rahi hai. bhaaratavarsh ismein bhaag naheen le raha hai. hamein ismein bhaag lekar apni baat kahani chaahiye.


aavishkaar

peteint aavishkaaron ke liye diya jaata hai. 'aavishkaar' ka arth us prakriya ya utpaad se hai, jo ki audyogik upayojan (Industrial application) ke yogya hai. avishkaar naveen evam upayogi hona chaahiye tatha isko us samay ki takaneek ki jaankaari mein agala kadam hona chaahiye. yeh aavishkaar us kala mein kushal vyakti ke liye spasht (Obvious) bhi naheen hona chaahiye.

aavishkaar ko peteint adhiniyam ki dhaara 3 ke prakaash mein bhi dekha jaana chaahiye. yeh dhaara paribhaashit karti hai ki kya aavishkaar naheen hote hain. kisi baat ko aavishkaar tab tak naheen kaha ja sakta hai jab tak vah naveen na ho. yadi kisi baat ka poorvaanumaan kisi prakaashit dastaavej ke dvaara kiya ja sakta tha ya peteint aavedan ke prastut karne ke poorv vishv mein aur kaheen prayog kiya ja sakta tha to ise naveen naheen kaha ja sakta. yadi koi baat saarvajanik kshetr mein hai ya poorv kala ke bhaag ki tarah upalabdh hai to use bhi aavishkaar naheen kaha ja sakta. hamaare desh mein parmaanu urja se sambandhit aavishkaaron ka petein‍aat naheen karaaya ja sakta hai.


peteinti ke adhikaar evam daayitv

peteint ek sampatti hai jo ki viraasat mein praapt ki ja sakti hai. peteinti use kisi aur ko de (assign) sakta hai, ya bandhak rakh sakta hai. yadi doosare logon ne yadi petein‍aati se license na liya ho to, peteinti unhein apne peteint ka prayog karne se ya usaka vikraya karne se rok sakta hai. use adhikaar hai ki vah license ke dvaara doosare logon ko yeh kaarya karne ke liye anumati de aur iske liye vah rauyalti bhi le sakta hai. yadi koi vyakti, peteinti se bina license liye ya uske peteint ka anaadhikrut prayog karta hai to peteinti us par harjaane ka mukadama ya injunction ka mukadama daayar kar uchit anutosh praapt kar sakta hai.

trips, trade mark ya kaupeeraait ke ullanghan ke maamalon mein daandik prakriyaaon evam shaastiyon ka praavadhaan banaane ke liye sadasyon ko kehta hai lekin peteint ke ullanghan ke liye naheen. humne bhi peteint ka ullanghan karne vaale ke liye daandik abhiyojan ka upabandh naheen kiya hai. haan jhooth bolakar peteint praapt karne par daandik abhiyojan ki baat avashya hai.

peteint se jude kuchh mudde vivaadaspad hain iname se kuchh nimnalikhit hain.

  1. peteint evam kamapyootar sauftaver

srotr