peshava

darabaariyon ke saath peshava

maraatha saamraajya ke pradhaanamantriyon ko peshava (maraathi: peshava) kehte the. ye raaja ke salaahakaar parishad ashtapradhaan ke sabse pramukh hote the. raaja ke baad inheen ka sthaan aata tha. shivaaji ke ashtapradhaan mantrimandal mein pradhaan mantri athva vajeer ka paryaayavaachi pad tha. 'peshava' faarasi shabd hai jiska arth 'agrani' hai.

peshava ka pad vanshaanugat naheen tha. aarambh mein, sambhavat: peshava maryaada mein anya sadasyon ke baraabar hi maana jaata tha. chhatrapati raajaaraam ke samay mein pant-pratinidhi ka navanirmit pad, raaja ka pratinidhi hone ke naate peshava se jyeshth thaharaaya gaya tha. peshavaai satta ke vaastavik sansthaapan ka, tatha peshava pad ko vanshaparanparaagat roop dene ka shreya aitihaasik kram se saatavein peshava, Balaji vishvanaath ko hai. kintu, yeh parivartan chhatrapati shaahoo ke sahayog aur sahamati dvaara hi sampann hua, usaki asamarthata ke kaaran naheen. yadyapi Balaji vishvanaath ke uttaraadhikaari baajeeraav ne maraatha saamraajya ke seemaavistaar ke saath saath apni satta ko bhi sarvopari bana diya, tathaapi vaidhaanik roop se peshava ki sthiti mein kraantikaari parivartan shaahoo ki mrutyu ke baad, baajeeraav ke putr Balaji ke samay mein hua. alpavayask chhatrapati raamaraaja ki ayogyata ke kaaran samast raajakeeya shakti sangola ke samjhaute (25 September 1750) ke anusaar, peshava ko hastaantarit ho gayi, tatha shaasakeeya kendra saataara ki apeksha Pune nirdhaarit kiya gaya. kintu peshava maadhavaraav ke mrutyuparaant jaisa saataara raajavansh ke saath hua, vaisa hi peshava vansh ke saath hua. maadhavaraaj ke uttaraadhikaariyon ki nitaant ayogyata ke kaaran raajakeeya satta unke abhibhaavak naana fadnavees ke haathon mein keindrit ho gayi. kintu aaaingl shakti ke utkarsh ke kaaran is sthiti mein bhi sheegra hi mahaan parivartan hua. antim peshava baajeeraav dviteeya ko vasai ki sandhi ke anusaar (31 December 1802) angrejon ka prabhutv sveekaar karna pada; 13 June 1817, ki sandhi ke anusaar maraatha sangh par use apna adhikaar chhodna pada; tatha ant mein truteeya aangl maraatha yuddh ki samaapti par, maraatha saamraajya ke visrjan ke baad, padachyut hokar angrejon ki peinshan grahan karne ke liye vivsh hona pada.

peshavaaon ka shaasanakaal-
  • Balaji vishvanaath peshava (1714-1720)
  • pratham baajeeraav peshava (1720-1740)
  • Balaji baajeeraav peshava oorf naanaasaaheb peshava (1740-1761)
  • maadhavaraav ballaal peshava oorf thorale maadhavaraav peshava (1761-1772)
  • naaraayanaraav peshava (1772-1774)
  • raghunaatharaav peshava (alpakaal)
  • savaai maadhavaraav peshava (1774-1795)
  • doosare baajeeraav peshava (1796-1818)
  • doosare naanaasaaheb peshava (sinhaasan par naheen baith paae)

anukram

Balaji vishvanaath

peshavaaon ke kram mein saatavein peshava kintu peshavaai satta tatha peshavaavansh ke vaastavik sansthaapak, chitpaavan braahman, Balaji vishvanaath ka janm 1660 E. ke aaspaas shreevardhan naamak gaaainv mein hua tha. uske poorvaj shreevardhan gaaainv ke mauroosi Deshmukh the. seediyon ke aatank se Balaji vishvanaath ko kishoraavastha mein hi janmasthaan chhodna pada, kintu apni pratibha se usane uttarottar unnati ki tatha saath mein amit anubhav bhi sanchaya kiya. aurangajeb ke bandeegah se mukti pa raajyaarohan ke dhyeya se jab mahaaraaja shaahoo ne Maharashtra mein padaarpan kiya, tab Balaji vishvanaath ne usaka paksh grahan kar usaki prabal pratidvandvini taaraabaai tatha pramukh shatru chandrasen jaaghav, oodaaji chhavaan aur daamaaji yorat ko paraast kar na keval shaahoo ko sinhaasan kiya, varan usaki sthiti sudrudh kar Maharashtra ko paarasparik sangharsh se dhvast hone se bacha liya. falat: krutajnya shaahoo ne 1713 mein Balaji vishvanaath ko peshava niyukt kiya. tadanantar, peshava ne sashakt potanaayak kaanhoji aangre se samjhauta kar (1714) shaahoo ki maryaada tatha raajya ki abhivruddhi ki. usaka sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn kaarya mugalon se sandhisthaapan tha, jiske parinaamasvaroop maraathon ko dakkhin mein chauth tatha saradeshamukhi ke adhikaar praapt hue (1719). isi silsile mein peshava ki Delhi yaatra ke avsar par mugal vaibhav ke khokhalepan ki anubhooti ho jaane par mahaaraashtreeya saamraajyavaadi neeti ka bhi beejaaropan hua. Balaji vishvanaath ki asandigdh mahaanata ke baavajood, Maharashtra sangh ke shaithilya aur trutipoorn aarthik vyavastha ka usapar doshaaropan kiya jaata hai. adbhut kootaneetijnyaata usaki visheshata maani jaati hai.

baajeeraav pratham

janm 1700 E. : mrutyu1740. jab mahaaraaj shaahoo ne 1720 mein Balaji vishvanaath ke mrutyooparaant uske 19 varsheeya jyeshthaputr baajeeraav ko peshava niyukt kiya to peshava pad vanshaparanparaagat ban gaya. alpavyask hote hue bhi baajeeraav ne asaadhaaran yogyata pradarshit ki. usaka vyaktitv atyant prabhaavashaali tha; tatha usamein janmajaat netrutvashakti thi. apne adbhut ranakaushal, adamya saahas aur apoorv sanlagnata se, tatha pratibhaasanpann anuj chimaaji appa ke sahayog dvaara sheegra hi usane maraatha saamraajya ko Bhaarat mein sarvashaktimaan bana diya. shakaraledala (Shakarkhedla) mein usane mubaarijkhaaain ko paraast kiya. (1724). maalava tatha Karnataka par prabhutv sthaapit kiya (1724-26). paalakhed mein Maharashtra ke param shatru nijaamaulamulk ko paraajit kar (1728) usase chauth tatha saradeshamukhi vasooli. fir maalava aur bundelakhand par aakraman kar mugal senaanaayak girdharabahaadur tatha dayaabahaadur par vijay praapt ki (1728). tadanantar muhammad khaaain bangash (Bangash) ko paraast kiya (1729). dabhoi mein trinbakaraav ko natamastak kar (1731) usane aantarik virodh ka daman kiya. seedi, aangriya tatha purtagaaliyon ko bhi vijit kiya. Delhi ka abhiyaan (1737) usaki sainyashakti ka charamotkarsh tha. usi varsh Bhopal mein usane firse nijaam ko paraajaya di. antat: 1739 mein usane naasirjang par vijay praapt ki. apne yashosoorya ke madhyhraakaal mein hi 28 April 1740 ko achaanak rog ke kaaran usaki asaamayik mrutyu hui. mastaani naamak musalmaan stri se uske patneesanbandh ke prati virodhapradarshan ke kaaran uske antim din kleshamaya beete. uske nirantar abhiyaanon ke parinaamasvaroop nissandeh, maraatha shaasan ko atyaadhik bhaar vahan karna pada, maraatha saamraajya seemateet vistrut hone ke kaaran asangathit rah gaya, maraatha sangh mein vyaktigat mahatvaakaankshaaeain prasfutit hui, tatha maraatha senaaeain vijit pradeshon mein asantushtikaarak pramaanit hui; tathaapi baajeeraav ki lauh lekhani ne nishchaya hi mahaaraashtreeya itihaas ka gauravapoorn parichhed racha.Bajirav mastani

Balaji baajeeraav urf naana saaheb

janm 1721 E. mrutyu 1761. baajeeraav ka jyeshth putr naana saaheb 1740 mein peshava niyukt hua. vah apne pita se bhinn prakruti ka tha. vah daksh shaasak tatha kushal kootneetigya to tha; kintu susanskrut, mrudubhaashi tatha lokapriya hote hue bhi vah drudhnishchayi na tha. uske aalasi aur vaibhavapriya pada. paarasparik vigrah, visheshat: sindhiya tatha holkar ke sangharsh ko niyantrit karne mein, vah asafal raha. Delhi raajaneeti par aavashyakta se adhik dhyaan keindrit karne ke kaaran usane ahamadashaah durraani se anaavashyak shatruta mol li. usane aangl shakti ke gatyavarodh ka koi prayatn naheen kiya aur in donon hi kaaranon se Maharashtra saamraajya par visham aaghaat pahuaincha.

naana saaheb ke padaaseen hone ke samay shaahoo ke rogagrast hone ke kaaran aantarik vigrah ko protsaahan mila. in kuchakron se prabhaavit ho shaahoo ne naana saaheb ko padachyut kar diya. (1747), yadyapi turant hi usaki punarniyukti kar shaahoo ne svabhaavajanya buddhimtta ka bhi parichay diya. 15 December 1749 mein shaahoo ki mrutyu ke kaaran maraatha shaasanavidhaan ke raajyadhikron mein nai maanyata sthaapit hui. raamaraaja ki ayogyata ke kaaran raajakeeya satta peshava ke haathon mein keindrit ho gayi. sataara ki satta samaapt hokar poona shaasanakeindr ban gaya.

naana saaheb ki sainik vijyon ka adhikaansh shreya peshava ke chachere bhaai sadaashivraav bhaaoo ki hai. is kaal mugalon se maalava praapt hua (1741); maraathon ne Bengal par nirantar aakraman kiye (1742-51), bhaaoo ne pashchimi Karnataka par prabhutv sthaapit kiya (1749) tatha yaamaaji ravidev ko paraajit kar sangola mein kraantikaari vaidhaanik vyavastha sthaapit ki (1750) jisse sataara ki apeksha peshava ka nivaasasthal poona shaasakeeya kendra bana. bhaaoo na oodagir mein nijaamaali ko poorn paraajaya di (1760). kintu ahamadashaah durraani ke Bhaarat aakraman par bhayankar anisht ki poorv soochana ke roop mein dattaaji sighinya ki haar hui (1760). tadanantar, Panipat ke ranakshetr par maraathon ki bheeshan paraajaya hui (1761). is marmaatak aaghaat ko sahan na kar sakane ke kaaran peshava ki mrutyu ho gayi.

maadhavaraav pratham

mrutyu 1772. Balaji baajeeraav ke jyeshth putr maadhavaraav ne solah varsh ki alpaavastha mein peshavaapad grahan kiya; tatha sattaais varsh ki aayu mein vah divangat hua. Panipat ki paraajaya ke marmaantak aaghaat se peedit Maharashtra mein maadhavaraav ke gyaarah varsheeya shaasan mein do varsh gruhayuddh mein beete, tatha antim varsh yakshma ke ghaatak rog mein vyateet hua. svatantr roop se sakriya hone ke keval aath varsh use mile. itne samay mein usane saamraajya ka vistaar kiya, tatha shaasanavyavastha susangathit ki. isi kaaran vah peshvaaon mein sarvotkrusht gina jaata hai.

charitra mein maadhavaraav dhaarmik, shuddhaacharan sahishnu, nishkapat, kartavyanishth, tatha janakalyaan ki bhaavana se anupraanit tha. usaka vyaktigat jeevan nirdosh tha. usaki pratibha janmajaat thi. vah safal raajaneetijnya, daksh senaani tatha kushal vyavasthaapak tha. usamein baala ji vishvanaath ki dooradarshita, baajeeraav ki netrutvashakti tatha sanlagnata evam apne pita ko shaasakeeya kshamata thi. chaaritrik uchchaadarsh mein vah teenon se shreshth tha.

maadhavaraav ke padaaseen hone par usaki alpaavastha se laabh uthaane ke dhyeya se nijaam ne Maharashtra par aakraman kiya. maadhav ke mahatvaakaankshi kintu svaarthi chaacha raghunaatharaav ne apne bhateeje ko apne adheen rakhane ke dhyeya se maraathon ke paramashatru nijaam se gathabandhan kar, maadhavaraav ko aalegaaainv mein paraant kar (12 November 1762) use bandi bana liya kintu vah maadhavaraav ka gatyavarodh karne mein asafal raha. peshava ne rakshaabhavan mein nijaam ko poornataya paraajit kiya (1763). yuddhakshetr se lautakar usane apne abhibhaavak raghunaatharaav ke prabhutv se apne se mukt kiya. raghunaatharaav tatha jaanoji bhonsale ke virodh ka daman kar usane aantarik shaanti ki sthaapana ki. haidaraali, jiske shaurya aur ranachaaturya se angarej senaanaayak bhi ghaatankit hue the, chaar abhiyaanon mein maadhavaraaj dvaara paraast hua. maalava tatha bundelakand par maraathon ka prabhutv sthaapit hua. rajput raaja vijit hue. jaat tatha ruhelon ka daman hua. maraatha sena ne Delhi tak abhiyaan kar mugal samraat shaahaaalam ko pun: sinhaasanaaseen kiya. is prakaar jaise Panipat ke yuddh ke poorv vaise hi is baar bhi, maraatha saamraajya Bhaarat mein sarvashaktishaali pramaanit hua. kintu maadhavaraav ki asaamayik mrutyu sachmuch hi Maharashtra ke liye Panipat ki paraajaya se kam ghaatak naheen saabit hui. maadhavaraaj ke pashchaat Maharashtra saamraajaya patanonmukh hota gaya.

peshava naaraayanaraav

janm, 1755 E. : mrutyu 1773. maadhav Rao ke nissantaan hone ke kaaran, usaki mrutyu par, usaka anuj naaraayanaraav peshava ghoshit hua (13 December 1772). vah prakruti se asthir, uddhat tatha vilaasi tha. ek to usaka mahatvaakaankshi chaacha raghunaatharaav bandi hone ke kaaran apni paristhiti se asantusht tha, doosare, usaki vakr buddhi patni aanandeebaai tatha peshava ki maata gopikaabaai mein ghor vaimanasya tha. at: apni patni se protsaahit ho raghunaatharaav ne peshava ke viruddh shadyantr aayojit kiya. sambhavat: aarambh mein usaka dhyeya keval peshava ko bandi banaane ka tha. kintu 30 August 1773 ke madhyaahn mein peshavaamahal mein naaraayanaraav ke ghere jaane par, sambhavat: aanandeebaai ke hi ishaare par, raghunaatharaav ke anuyaayiyon ne usaki hatya kar di.

raghunaath urf raaghoba

janm 1734 : mrutyu 1784. peshava Balaji baajeeraav ka anuj raghunaatharaav mahatvaakaankshi tatha saahasi to tha; kintu saath hi svaarthi, laalachi aur danbhi bhi tha. baalaajeeraav ke samay mein raaghoba ke netrutv mein uttari Bhaarat ke do sainik abhiyaanon ki asafalata, Panipat ke yuddh ki prushthabhoomi ke roop mein, Maharashtra ke liye badi anishtakaarak pramaanit hui. alpavyask kintu pratibhaasanpann maadhavaraav ke padaaseen hone par use apne prabhutv mein rakhane ke dhyeya se raaghoba ne maraathon ke param shatru nijaam se samjhauta kar, aalegaaainv me maadhavaraav ko paraajit kar (1762), use bandi bana liya. kintu maadhavaraav ne sheegra hi apni poorn satta sthaapit kar li (1763). raaghoba ko bade anushaasan mein rahana pada. maadhavaraaj ke mrutyuparaant naaraayanaraav ke peshava banane par raaghova ne uske viruddh shadyantr aayojit kiya, jisse usaki hatya ho gayi (1773). ab raaghoba ka peshava ghoshit hone ka svapn saarthak hua (10 October 1773). kintu tatkaal hi naaraayanaraav ki vidhva ke putr hone par naanaafadnavees ke netrutv mein raaghova ke viruddh safal virodh uth khada hua. raaghoba ne aaingrejon ki sahaayata se padaaseen hone ke uddeshya se unase soorat ki sanghi ki (1775) jisse aaaingl-maraatha-yuddh ka sootrapaat hua, kintu vah aaingrejon kathaputali maatr bana raha. antat: yuddh ki samaapti par saalabaai ki sandhi (1782) ke anusaar peshava darbaar dvaara raaghoba ko pachchees hajaar roopae maasik peinshan pradaan ki gayi. bhagnahrudaya raaghova ki 48 varsh ki aayu mein mrutyu ho gayi.

maadhavaraav dviteeya

janm 1774 : mrutyu 1795. naaraayanaraav ki hatya ke baad raaghoba apne ko peshava ghoshit karne mein safal hua. kintu tatkaal hi naaraayanaraav ki vidhva ke putr utpann ho jaane par (18 April 1774) janamat ke sahayog se-------- ne raaghova ko padachyut kar ek maheene atthaarah din ke baalak maadhavaraav dviteeya ko padaaseen kiya (28 May). samast raajakeeya satta ab peshava ke abhibhaavak naana fadanavees ke haathon mein keindrit ho gayi. shaktilolup naana ne maadhavaraav ka vyaktitv viksit na hone diya. na to usaki shiksha deeksha hi santoshajanak ho saki aur kuchh na vah kuchh anubhav hi sanchaya kar saka. nijaam ke viruddh kharada ke yuddh mein (1795) vah keval kuchh kshanon ke liye hi upasthit tha. aakasmik roop se ho, apne mahal ke chhajje se girne ke kaaran usaki mrutyu ho gayi.

chimnaaji appa

janm, 1784 E. : mrutyu 1830. maadhavaraav dviteeya ki aakasmik mrutyu ke baad Maharashtra mein avyavastha teevratar ho uthi. praaya: saat maheene tak uttaraadhikaari ka prashn samasya bana raha. maadhavaraav ke nissantaan hone ke kaaran vaastav mein raajyaadhikaar raaghoba ke jyeshth putr baajeeraav dviteeya ka tha. kintu naanaafadnavees uske vipaksh me tha. at: naana ne baajeeraav ke anuj chimnaaji ko usaki asveekruti par bhi padaaseen karne ka nishchaya kiya. usaki niyukti vaidh thaharane ke liye prathamat: use aadhavaraav ki vidhva yashodaabaai se god livaaya gaya (25 May 1796). tadanantar 2 June ko usaka padaarohan hua. kintu tatkaal hi aantarik vigrah se prabhaavit ho naana fadnavees ne baajeeraav ke paksh mein tatha chimnaaji ke viruddh shadyantr aayojit kiya. falat: chimnaaji bandi hua, baajeeraav peshava niyukt hua. (6 December 1796). antim aaaingl-maraatha-yuddh ki samaapti par jab baajeeraav ne angrejon ke sammukh aatmasamarpan kiya, chimnaaji banaaras jaakar rahane laga, jahaaain 1830 mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi.

baajeeraav dviteeya

janm 1775 E. : mrutyu 1851. raghunaath Rao tatha maraatha darbaar ke abhibhaavak naana Phadnavis mein teevr manomaalinya tha. at: maadhavaraav dviteeya ki mrutyu par naana ne baajeeraav ki apeksha uske anuj chimnaaji appa ko peshava ghoshit kiya (2 June 1796) kintu aantarik daaainv pechon se prabhaavit ho, naana ne turant hi chimnaaji ko padachyut kar baajeeraav ko peshava ghoshit kiya. (6 December 1796). baajeeraav ka adhikaansh jeevan bandeegruh mein vyateet hone ke kaaran usaki shiksha deeksha nitaant adhuri rahi. usaki prakruti bhi katu aur vikrut ho gayi. ayogya tatha anubhavaheen hone ke atirikt vah svabhaav se durmati tatha vishvavaasaghaati tha. apne upakaari naana ke viruddh shadyantr rachakar usane uske atim diwas kashtaprad kar diye. 1800 mein naana ki mrutyu se baajeeraav par rahaasaha niyantran hat jaane par baajeeraav ke durvyavahaar tatha Maharashtra ki vichhrunkhala mein vruddhi hone lagi. peshava dvaara vithoji holkar ki hatya (1801) ne yashavantaraav holkar ko peshava kar aakraman karne ke liye uttejit yashavantaraav holkar ki hatya (1801) ne yashavantaraav holkar ko peshava par aakraman karne ke liye uttejit kiya. peshava tatha sindhiya ki paraajaya hui. peshava ki aaingarejon se beseen ki sandhi (1802) ke uparaant baajeeraav pun: Pune pahuncha. iski kram mein dviteeya aangl-maraatha yuddh chhid gaya. parinaamasvaroop baajeeraav ko aaingarejon ka prabhutv sveekaar karna pada, tatha Maharashtra ki svatantrata bhi samaapt ho gayi. antim aaaingl-maraatha-yuddh mein aaingarejon ne pun: baajeeraav ko sandhi ke liye vivsh kiya (5 November 1817) jisse use maraatha sangh par apna raajyaadhikaar tyakt karna pada. antat: yuddh ki samaapti par maraatha saamraajya hi aaingrejon ke adhikaar mein ho gaya. baajeeraav aaingarejon ki peinshan grahan kar vitoor (uttar pradesh) jaakar nivaas karne laga.

naana saaheb dviteeya

1857 ke svatantrata sangraam mein aaingarejon ke viruddh lade.

sandarbh granth

  • (1) graant daf : history ov the maraathaaj;
  • (2) ji. S. saradesaai : history ov the maraathaaj;
  • (3) dau॰ jatunaath sarkaar faal ov the mugal enpaaer;
  • (4) dau॰ vi. ji. dighe : peshava baajeeraav aind maraatha ekspeinshan;
  • (5) anilchandr bainarji : peshava maadhavaraav pratham;
  • (6) dau॰ aar. di. chokse : the laast frej ;
  • (7) H. N. sinha : raaij ov the peshavaaj;
  • (8) keinbrij history ov India, jild 5;
  • (9) dau॰ suredranaath sen : aidaministretiv system ov the maraathaaj.