peetal

peetal (brass) ek pramukh mishraatu hai. yeh taanba evam jasta dhaatuon ke mishran se banaaya jaata hai. sanskrut mein 'peet' ka arth 'peela' hota hai. yeh iske rang (peelaapan liye safed) ka dyotak hai.

peetal se bana kunda

parichay

peetal mishr dhaatu hai, jo taaainbe aur jaste ke sanyog se banti hai. taaainbe mein jasta daalne se taaainbe ka saamarthya, chaumadpan aur kathorata badhti hai. yeh vruddhi 36 pratishat jaste tak niyamit roop se hoti hai, par baad mein keval saamarthya mein vruddhi adhik spasht dekhi jaati hai. peetal mein 2 se lekar 36 pratishat tak jasta rahata hai.

taaainba jaste ke saath do nishchit yaugik Cu2 Zn3) aur Cu Zn banaata hai aur do kism ke thos vilyan bante hain, jinhein ailfa-vilyan aur beeta-vilyan kehte hain.

peetal pradhaanataya do kism ke hote hain. ek mein taaainba 64 pratishat se adhik rahata hai. yeh samaavayav ailfaavilyan hota hai. doosare mein taaainba 55.64 pratishat rahata hai. ismein ailfa-aur beeta-donon vilyan rahate hain saadhaaranataya pehle kism ke peetal mein 70 pratishat taaainba aur 30 pratishat jasta aur doosare kism ke peetal mein 60 pratishat taaainba aur 40 pratishat jasta rahata hai.

gunadharm

peetal ke bartan evam sajaavati saamaan

taaainbe ki apeksha peetal adhik majaboot hota hai. peetal ka rang bhi adhik aakarshak hota hai. kuchh peetal safedi liye peele rang ke aur kuchh laali liye peele rang ke hote hain. anya dhaatuon ke rahane se rang aur cheemadpan bahut kuchh badal jaata hai. peetal tanya hota hai aur aasaani se peeta aur kharaada ja sakta hai. peetal par kalai bhi achhi chadhti hai.

vishesh vishesh kaamon ke liye peetal mein kuchh anya dhaatueain, jaise vang, seesa, ailyoominiym, mainganeej, loha aur nikal dhaatueain bhi milaai jaati hain. saamaanya peetal ki chaadaron mein do bhaag taaainba aur ek bhaag jasta rahata hai. kaaratoos peetal mein 70 bhaag taaainba aur 30 bhaag jasta rahata hai. nikal peetal mein 50 bhaag taaainba, 45 bhaag jasta aur 5 bhaag nikal rahata hai. aise peetal ki tanan kshamata ooainchi hoti hai. yadi jaste ki maatra 45 pratishat bhaag hi rakhi jaae, to 12 pratishat nikal tak tanan kshamata badhti jaati hai. 45 bhaag taaainba, 45 bhaag jasta aur 10 bhaag nikal wala peetal safed hota hain. ise nikal-peetal ya jarman silvar bhi kehte hain. aaikh (Aich) dhaatu mein 60 bhaag taaainba, 38 bhaag jasta aur 2 bhaag loha rahata hai. stero (sterro) dhaatu mein kuchh adhik loha rahata hai.

jis peetal mein taaainba 60-62 bhaag, jasta 40-38 bhaag aur seesa 2-3 bhaag rahata hai, usapar kharaad achhi chadhti hai. mainganeej kaaainsa mein 60 bhaag taaainba, 40 bhaag jasta aur alp mainganeej rahata hai. yadi mainganeej 2 pratishat rahe, to usaka rang chokolet ke rang-sa hota hai. yeh khidkiyon ke frem banaane ke liye achha samjha jaata hai. peetal ke sanghanitr nalon ko banaane ke liye 70 bhaag taaainba, 29 bhaag jasta aur 1 bhaag bangavaala peetal achha hota hai. kam jastevaale peetal ka rang sunahara hota hai. aise peetal pinchabek (dhuaindhala sunahara, 7-11 bhaag jasta), taubaink (sunahara, 10-18 bhaag jasta) athva gilding dhaatu (3-8 bhaag jasta) ke naamon se bikte hain.

upayog

peetal ka vyavahaar thaali, katore, gilaas, lote, gagare, hande, devataaon ko moortiyaaain, unke sinhaasan, ghate, anek prakaar ke vaadyayantr, taale, paani ki totiyaaain, makaanon mein laganevaale saamaan aur gareebon ke liye gahane banaane mein hota hai. lohe se peetal ki cheejein adhik tikaaoo aur aakarshak hoti hain.