pavan oorja

pavan chakkiyaan

bahti vaayu se utpann ki gayi urja ko pavan oorja kehte hain. vaayu ek naveekaraneeya oorja srot hai. pavan oorja banaane ke liye havaadaar jagahon par pavan chakkiyon ko lagaaya jaata hai, jinke dvaara vaayu ki gatij urja, yaantrik urja mein parivrtit ho jaati hai. is yantrik oorja ko janitr ki madad se vidyut oorja mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai.

pavan oorja (wind energy) ka aashay vaayu se gatij oorja ko lekar use upayogi yaantriki athva vidyut oorja ke roop mein parivrtit karna hai.

anukram

itihaas

1888 mein banaaya gaya pavan chakki

iska upayog pehli baar Scotland mein July 1887 mein kiya gaya. jisse vidyut banaaya gaya. iske baad iska upayog vahaaain ki ek company ne 1888 se 1900 tak kiya. tab ise daainemo ke dvaara vidyut banaane ke liye upayog kiya jaata tha. lekin yeh keval kuchh oorja banaane ke hi kaarya mein aata tha. iske uparaant ise aur bhi bada banaaya gaya aur isse baitari ko aaveshit kar baad mein upayog ke liye banaaya gaya tha. jisse raat mein iska upayog kiya ja sake aur vidyut ki anya vidhi se bhi ismein laagat kam lagne ke kaaran bhi iska upayog kiya jaane laga. parantu iska upayog kuchh kam oorja banaane ke liye hi kiya ja sakta hai. isliye us samay ek nishchit jagah ke liye iska upayog kiya ja raha tha.

mool siddhaant

soorya prati second pachaas lakh tan padaarth ko oorja mein parivrtit karta hai. is oorja ka jo thoda sa ansh pruthvi par pahuainchata hai, vah yahaaain kai roopon mein praapt hota hai. saur vikirn sarvapratham pruthvi ki satah ya bhooprushth dvaara avashoshit kiya jaata hai, tatpashchaat vah vibhinn roopon mein aaspaas ke vaayumandal mein sthaanaantarit ho jaata hai. chooainki pruthvi ki satah ek saamaan ya samatal naheen hai, at: avashoshit oorja ki maatra bhi sthaan va samay ke anusaar bhinn bhinn hoti hai. iske parinaamasvaroop taapakram, ghanatv tatha dabaav sambandhi vibhinnataaen utpann hoti hai- jo fir aise balon ko utpann karti hain, jo vaayu ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par pravaahit hone ke liye vivsh kar deti hain. garm hone se vistaarit vaayu, jo garm hone se halaki ho jaati hai, oopar ki or uthati hai tatha oopar ki thandi vaayu neeche aakar usaka sthaan le leti hai, iske falasvaroop vaayumandal mein arddh-sthaayi paitarn utpann ho jaate hain. vaayu ka chalan, satah ke asamaan garm hone ke kaaran hota hai.

laabh

yeh saaf-suthari hai:-

vaayu ka oorja utpaadan karne hetu upayog karne mein na to kisi bhi prakaar ke pradooshan ki samasya, ya amleeya varsha ki samasya, ya khaanon ke apavaah ya vishaakt pradooshak padaartho jaisi koi samasya hai aur na hi iske kaaran hekteyaron tak faili bhoomi kshatigrast hoti hai. vaastav mein maanav ki paryaavaraneeya aavashyakataaon ki poorn aapoorti pavan oorja roopaantaran tantron dvaara ho jaati hai. kaarban - daaiaaksaaid ke utsarjan ko kam karne ke liye upalabdh kuchhek takaneeki vikalpon mein pavan oorja bhi ek hai. chooainki isame gaiseeya pradooshako ke utsarjan jaisi koi samasya naheen hai jo ki green house prabhaav ko utpann karke paryaavaraneeya samasyaaon ko badhaae, at: vidyut utpaadan hetu pavan oorja hi sabse adhik sveekrut sroton mein se ek hai. yeh naveekaran yogya oorja hi vishvavyaapi ushnata tatha amleeya varsha se sangharsh kar sakti hai.


yeh asamaapya hai:-

pavan athva vaayu sugamata se upalabdh hai tatha kabhi na samaapt hone waali hai, jab ki jeevaashmeeya indhan seemit hai. haalaanki aur adhik jeevaashmeeya indhanon ki khoj ki disha mein satat gaveshak kaarya chal raha hai, parantu vishv ke audyogik tatha vikaasasheel deshon ki nirantar badhti indhan ki aavashyakta nishchit roop se bhavishya mein in uchch shreni ke indhan sroton ko samaapt kar degi. is samasya se nipatne ke liye, pavan oorja hi ekamaatr sambhaavit vikalp hai, jo ki naveekrut bhi hota rahata hai. soorya keen vikirit oorja se pavan oorja satat roop se naveekrut hoti rahati hai aur iska dohan saralataapoorvak kiya ja sakta hai.


iski aapoorti aseemit hai:-

pavan nishulk tatha prachurata mein upalabdh hai, saralata se praapya hai, samaapt hone waali naheen hai tatha iski aapoorti bhi nirbaadh hai. pavan athva vaayu par kisi bhi desh ya vaanijyik pratishthaan ka ekaadhikaar naheen hai, jaisa ki jeevaashmeeya indhanon, yatha- tel, gas, ya naabhik indhanon- jaise Uranium aadi ke saath hai. chooainki oorja ki maang satat roop se badhti hi jaayegi, isliye kachche tel ke badhte hue moolyon ke saath nishchit roop se pavan oorja hi ekamaatr aakarshak vikalp prastut karti hai.


yeh surakshit hai:-

pavan oorja sanyatron ka parichaalan surakshit hai. aadhunik va unnat maaikroprosesars ke prayog se samast sanyantr poornat: svachaalit ho gaye hain tatha sanyantr ke parichaalan ke liye adhik shramikon ki aavashyakta bhi naheen rah gayi hai. nirmaan tatha rakharakhaav ki drushti se bhi yeh poornat: surakshit hai. yeh baat taapeeya oorja sanyantron athva naabhakeeya oorja sanyantron par laagoo naheen hoti. aadhunik pavan sanyantron mein prayukt prabhaavi suraksha yaantriki se yahaaain tak sambhav ho gaya hai ki inhein saarvajanik sthalon par bhi thodi si kshati athva bina kisi kshati ke sthaapit kiya ja sakta hai.


pavan pranaali ke liye adhik sthaan ki aavashyakta naheen :-

pavan chaalit pranaali ke liye tulanaatmak roop se kam sthaan ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur ise har us sthaan par, jahaaain bhi vaayu ki sthiti anukool ho, lagaaya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye ise pahaadi ke shikhar par, samatal sapaat bhoo - pradesh, vanon tatha marusthalon tak mein lagaaya ja sakta hai. sanyantr ko apatateeya kshetron tatha chhichhle paani mein bhi lagaaya ja sakta hai. yadi pavan sanyantron ko krushi bhoomi mein bhi lagaaya jaata hai to meenaar ke aadhaar sthaan tak kheti ki ja sakti hai.


inka sheegra nirmaan kiya ja sakta hai:-

pavan chakki shrrunkhalaaon mein anek apekshaakrut chhoti-chhoti ikaaiyaan hoti hain. inhein saralata va sheeghrata se samoohon mein banaaya ja sakta hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop inki yojana banaane mein lacheelaapan aa jaata hai. kisi bhi pavan chakki faarm ke poora hone ke pehle hi niveshit poonji sheeghrata se vaapas milne lagti hai. maang ke badhne ke saath-saath, jab bhi aavashyakta anubhav ho, nayi ikaaiyaan jodi ja sakti hai. inhein ek hi sthaan par, samooh ke roop mein ya sampoorn desh ke kshetron mein bikhra kar lagaaya ja sakta hai.


inmein rakharakhaav ki kam aavashyakta hoti hai:-

chooainki yeh pavan chaalit sanyantr saral va parichaalan mein aasaan hote hain, at: anya vikalpon ki tulana mein inke rakharakhaav ki aavashyakta kam hoti hai.


pavan oorja kam kharcheeli hai:-

chooainki vaayu bina moolya upalabdh hai, isliye ismein indhan ke moolyon mein vruddhi ke saath mudraasfeeti ka bhi koi jokham naheen hai. is prakaar pavan oorja dhan tatha indhan donon hi roopon mein bachat karti hai. at: pavan oorja moolyaprabhaavi hai. aaj vishv ke kai kshetron mein, jahaan vaayu ke srot kendrit hai, vahaan pavan oorja tel chaalit tatha naabhakeeya-shakti se utpaadit vidyut ko kadi chunauti de rahi hai, kyonki paramparaagat oorja sroton ke vikaas ki laagat jahaan din-pratidin badh rahi hai, vaheeain pavan oorja ki laagat teevrata se gir rahi hai. vaayu chaalit tarabaainon ki dinon-din badhti hui vishvasaneeyata se yeh siddh ho raha hai ki nikat bhavishya mein adhik se adhik kshetr oorja ke anya roopon ki apeksha pavan oorja ko sabse kam vyaya vaale aakarshak vikalp ke roop mein apanaaenge.

pavan oorja ke upayog ki seemaaen

pavan chaalit sanyantr mahange hai aur keval vaheen lagaae ja sakte hai jahaan aavashyakataanuroop vaayu upalabdh ho. uchch pavan gati vaale kshetr pahuainch se baahar ho sakte hain athva uchch volt kshamata waali paareshan laainon se door sthit ho sakte hain, jisse pavan oorja ke sanchaar mein samasya ho sakti hai. saath hi vidyut ki aavashyakta samay ke anusaar ghatati-badhti rahati hai tatha vidyut utpaadan ko maang chakr ke anusaar samaayojit karna hota hai. chooainki pavan-shakti ki maatra ya gati mein achaanak parivartan ho sakte hain, at: yeh bhi sambhav hai ki maang ya aavashyakta ke samay yeh upalabdh hi na ho. at: satat roop se ek hi maatra mein upalabdh na hone tatha avishvasaneeya aapoorti ke kaaran pavan oorja ki vyavahaarik asuvidha ne iske upayog ko, unheen kshetron tak seemit kar diya hai jahaaain ya to vidyut ki satat aapoorti ki aavashyakta naheen hai, ya aavashyakataanuroop aapoorti hetu ek anya sthaayi oorja vikalp upalabdh hai. vidyut oorja ka bhandaaran kathin evam mahainga bhi hai, isliye pavan oorja ka upayog kisi anya prakaar ki oorja ke saath saath athva gair-vaidyut bhandaaran ke saath kiya ja sakta hai. pavan oorja ka upayog jalavidyut oorja janitron ke saath karna adhik laabhaprad hai, kyonki jal ka upayog oorja bhandaaran ke strot ke roop mein prayukt kiya ja sakta hai aur bhoomigat sanpeedit vaayu ke bhandaaran ka upayog ek anya vikalp hai.

paryaavaraneeya samasyaaeain

vidyut chumbakeeya vyavadhaan --

pavan utpaadak sanyantr vidyut chunbakeeya sanket vaataavaran mein prasaarit kareinge. kshaitij aksh vaale pavan chaalit tarbaainon ke ghoomate hue falak (blade) dooradarshan sanketon ke drushya ansh viroopit karke niktavarteeya kshetron mein vyavadhaan utpann kar sakte hain. sanyantron se doori badhne ke saath saath yeh vyatikran kam ho sakta hai, fir bhi yeh para-uchch aavrutti (you H ef) channelon ko kai kilometer ki doori par bhi prabhaavit kar sakta hai. agar blade sthir bhi ho to bhi vaayu mein prasaarit sanket ' chhadm bimb ' (ghost imej) utpann kar sakte hai. is samasya ko samuchit sthal-chayan tatha sookshm tarang (maaikrovev) sampark ke beech ' drushti rekha ' ko badal kar tatha sanyantron ko prasaaran kendron se door laga kar kiya ja sakta hai.


shor --

anek viksit deshon mein ' shor ' ki samasya ko pavan oorja vikaas ke viruddh hathiyaar ke roop mein prastut kiya jaata hai. pavan chaalit sanyantr se shor utpann hone ke do pramukh strot hai: yaantriki shor jo ki ghoomate hue yaantrik evam vaidyutik ghatakon se utpann hota hai aur jise uchit giyr-pranaali ya dhvanirodhak aachhaadan lagaakar kam kiya ja sakta hai. doosra kaaran hai seeti jaisi vah aavaaj jo falakon ke oopar vaayu ke pravaahit hone se utpann vaayugatikeeya shor hai, jiski alag -alag aavruttiyaan hoti hain.


vanya jeev --

anek prakrutipremeeyon ya clubon ki yeh aashanka hai ki pavanachaalit sanyantron ki upasthiti pravaasi pakshiyon tatha saamaanya pakshiyon ko bhayabheet karti hai. parantu aankadon se yeh ab siddh ho chuka hai ki pakshi takaraane ki ghatnaaen nichli udaan ke star par hi hoti hai aur aise pakshiyon ki sankhya bahut hi kam hoti hai.


saundarya bodh --

nissandeh vaayu chaalit tarbaainon ka praakrutik drushyaavali par nishchit roop se kuchh dushprabhaav padta hai aur yeh drushya-pradooshan ko janm deta hai. jab badi-badi ooainchi meenaarein khadi ki jaati hai to ve nishchit roop se praakrutik drushyaavali ki suramyata ko prabhaavit karti hain (viksit desh is disha mein adhik jaagaruk hain, jabki vikaasasheel deshon mein adhiktar ise pragati ka chinh maana ja raha hai). in sabke atirikt, kam unchaai par vaayuyaan sanchaalan, radaar-prasaaranon tatha sanchaar ke anya maadhyamon par bhi iske dushprabhaav pad sakte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain