paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl)

paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl), jo "nyootrishn" (poshan) aur "faarmaasyutikl" (dava/aushadh) shabdon se milkar bana hai, ek khaadya ya khaadya utpaad hai jo beemaari ki rokathaam evam upachaar sahit svaasthya evam chikitseeya laabh pradaan karta hai. aise utpaad pruthakkrut poshak tatvon, aahaar poorakon aur vishesh aahaaron se lekar aanuvanshik roop se taiyaar kiye gaye khaadya padaarth, jadi-booti sambandhi utpaad aur anaaj, soop, evam peya padaarth jaise prasanskrut khaadya padaarthon ho sakte hain. haal hi mein koshikeeya-stareeya paushtik-aushadheeya padaarthon ke mahatvapoorn khojon ke maadhyam se shodhakarta, evam chikitsak prashansaatmak evam vaikalpik chikitsaaon ke sambandh mein naidaanik adhyayanon se praapt jaankaari ko uttaradaayi chikitsa kaaryapranaali ke roop mein sanghatit karne aur usaka moolyaankan karne ke liye namoone viksit kar rahe hain.[1] paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) shabd ko vaastav mein new jersey ke krauford sthit foundation of innoveshan medisin (efaaaiem (FIM)) ke sansthaapak evam adhyaksh dau॰ Stefan L. deefelis ne paribhaashit kiya tha.[2] choonki shabd ki rachana dau॰ Stefan L. deefelis ke dvaara ki gayi thi, iske arth mein helth Canada ke dvaara parivartan kiya gaya jo paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) ko: khaadya padaarthon se pruthak ya parishkrut ek utpaad ke roop mein paribhaashit karta hai, jise saamaanya roop se aushadheeya roop mein becha jaata hai aur jo aam taur par bhojan se iska koi sambandh naheen hota hai aur jo ek shaareerik laabh pradaan karne ki kshamata rakhata hai ya ek chirkaalik beemaari ke viruddh suraksha pradaan karta hai. udaaharan: beeta-kairoteen, laaisopeen.[3] meriym-vebstar dikshanari ke naveenatam sanskaran mein paayi jaane waali paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) ki paribhaasha nimnaankit hai: ek khaadya padaarth (ek paushtik bhojan ya ek aahaar poorak ke roop mein) jo svaasthya laabh pradaan karta hai.[4] paushtik-aushadheeya khaadya padaarth aushadheeya davaaiyon ki tarah ek samaan pareekshan aur viniymon ke adheen naheen hota hai.[2] upabhokta ko shikshit karne, utpaadon evam nirmaataaon ke liye audyogik evam vaigyaanik maanakon ko viksit karne aur anya upabhokta sanrakshan sambandhi bhoomikaaon mein American nyootraasyutikl association (ameriki paushtik-aushadh sangh) food end drag edaministreshan (khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan) ke saath milkar kaam karta hai. efadeee (FDA) apne utpaadon ke baare mein chetaavani patra praapt karne waali aahaar poorak companiyon ki ek soochi pradaan karta hai.[5]

anukram

baajaar aur maang

lagbhag do tihaai ameriki kam se kam ek prakaar ka paushtik-aushadheeya svaasthya utpaad to lete hi hain. anya chikitseeya abhikaarakon ki tulana mein kam paarshv-prabhaav wala vaanchhit chikitseeya parinaam praapt karne ke ek prayaas ke roop mein paushtik-audhaadheeya padaarthon ke upayog se apaar aarthik safalta praapt hui hai. davaaiyon ki tulana mein paushtik-aushadheeya padaarthon ke khoj aur utpaadan ki praathamikta aushadhi-nirmaan aur jaiv-praudyogiki companiyon mein bhali-bhaanti dekhi jaati hai. paushtik-aushadhiyon ki khoj karne ke liye vyaapak sansaadhanon ka upayog karne waali aushadhi-nirmaan aur jaiv-praudyogiki sambandhi companiyon mein monasainto (Monsant) (seint luis, emao (MO)), American hom prodakts (American Home Products) (maidisn, new jersey), dyoopaunt (Dupont) (vilmingtan, deei (DE)), ebaut leboretareej (Abbott Laboratories) (ebaut park, aaiel (IL)), vaarnar-laimbart (Warner-Lambert) (mauris plens, new jersey), jaunsan end jaunsan (Johnson & Johnson) (new broonsavik, new jersey), novaartis (Novartis) (Bessel, svitjralaind), metaabauleks (Metabolex) (Hayward, CA (CA)), jenajaaim traansajenik, peepeeel (PPL) theraapyootiks, end intaranyooraun (Genzyme Transgenic,PPL Therapeutics, and Interneuron) (leksingatan, kevaai (KY)).[6] America mein paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) udyog lagbhag 86 arab dollar ka hai. Europe mein yeh aankada thoda adhik hai, Japan mein, yeh unke 6 billion dollar ki kul vaarshik khaadya bikri ke lagbhag ek chauthaai ko darshaata hai - Japan ki 47% janasankhya paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) ka khapat karti hai.[7] vishisht vitteeya aankadon ke bina bhi, vyaapaar sambandhi report nirantar yeh sujhaav dete hain ki baajaar ke aakaar mein nirantar vruddhi ho rahi hai.

sanyukt raajya America mein paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) ke vikaas ka ek sambhaavit kaaran ejing baby boomar janasankhya hai. choonki naagrikon ke ausat umr mein nirantar vruddhi ho rahi hai, isliye janasankhya svaasthya aur tandurusti par apna dhyaan adhik keindrit karti hai. lagbhag 400 million naagrikon ki anumaanit janasankhya ke aadhaar par 21 veen sadi ke madhya tak, 50 varsh se adhik ki umr ke ameriki vyaktiyon ki sankhya lagbhag 142 million ho sakti hai.[8]

yadyapi baajaar mein saamaanya utpaadon ke aane se kuchh paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) ke daam mein kami ho sakti hai, in utpaadon par logon ki nirbharata aur unki badhti huyi upalabdhata yeh sujhaav deti hai ki baajaar ka vikaas sthir bana rahega.

aushadhi ke roop mein khaadya padaarth

 A sculpture of the father of Western medicine, Hippocrates.Hippocrates.
pashchimi chikitsa ke janak maane jaane vaale hippokrets ne khaadya ke upachaaraatmak prabhaavon ki vakaalat ki.

misr, cheen aur sumer ki sabhyataaen bas kuchh aisi sabhyataaen hain jinhonne yeh sujhaav dete hue iske pramaan prastut kiye hain ki beemaari ka upachaar aur rokathaam karne ke liye khaadya padaarthon ka upayog prabhaavashaali dhang se aushadhi ke roop mein kiya ja sakta hai. dastaavejon se is baat ka sanket milta hai ki hajaaron varshon tak khaadya ke aushadheeya laabhon ki khoj ki gayi hai.[8] hippokrets, jinhein kuchh logon ke dvaara paashchaatya aushadhi ka pita kaha jaata hai, ne kaha ki logon ko "bhojan (khaadya padaarth) ko apni aushadhi banane dena chaahiye".

1980 ke dashak ke dauraan Japan mein aadhunik paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) baajaar viksit hone laga. sampoorn Asia mein sadiyon se lokaparanparaagat aushadhi ke roop mein prayog ki ja rahi praakrutik jadi-bootiyon aur masaalon ke vipreet, aadhunik praudyogiki ke saath-saath paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) udyog ka vikaas hua hai.[9]

khaadya vaigyaaniko ke beech kiya gaya naya anusandhaan yeh darshaata hai ki jitna ek-do dashak pehle samjha jaata tha, khaadya vigyaan mein aur bhi bahut kuchh hai.[9] bas kuchh din pehle tak, bhojan (khaadya padaarth) ka vishleshan bhojan ke gandh (samvedi svaad aur rachana) aur iske poshan moolya (carbohydrate, vasa, proteen, jal, vitaamin aur khanij lavanon ki rachana) tak hi seemit tha. haalaanki, is baat ke badhte hue pramaan hain ki bhojan ke anya avayav bhojan evam svaasthya ke beech sampark sthaapit karne mein ek abhinn bhoomika nibha sakte hain.

ye raasaayanik avayav paudhe, bhojan aur sookshmajaivik sroton se praapt hote hain aur deerghakaaleen svaasthya ke liye mahatvapoorn aushadheeya laabh pradaan karte hain. in paushtik-aushadheeya rasaayanon ke udaaharanon mein probaayotiks, okseekaran rodhi aur faaitokemikls shaamil hain.

paushtik-aushadheeya utpaadon ko kai varshon tak vaikalpik aushadhi maana jaata tha. paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) aahaar ke adhik mukhya poorak ho gaye hain, jiske baare mein ab anusandhaan ne yeh pramaan darshaana shuroo kiya hai ki bhojan mein paae jaane vaale ye raasaayanik padaarth prabhaavashaali dhang se prasanskrut kiye jaane evam sahi dhang se beche jaane par kaaragar hote hain.

paushtik-aushadheeya padaarthon ka vargeekaran

nyootraasyutikls (paushtik-aushadheeya padaarth) ek vyaapak chhatr shabd (ambrela tarm) hai jiska prayog khaadya sroton se praapt kisi utpaad ka varnan karne ke liye kiya jaata hai jo bhojan mein paae jaane vaale moolabhoot poshan sambandhi moolyon ke atirikt svaasthya sambandhi atirikt laabh pradaan karta hai. ye utpaad aam taur par puraani beemaariyon ki rokathaam karne, svaasthya mein sudhaar karne, umr badhne ki prakriya mein vilamb karne aur jeevan pratyaasha mein vruddhi karne ka daava karte hain.[10]

is sambandh mein bahut alpatam niyam hain ki kin utpaadon ko apne lebalon par paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) shabd pradarshit karne ki anumati pradaan ki jaati hai. is vajah se, is shabd ka prayog aksar badalti upayogitaaon aur prabhaavakaarita vaale utpaadon ko bechne ke liye kiya jaata hai. paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) aur sambandhit utpaadon ki paribhaasha aksar srot par nirbhar karti hai. chikitsa samudaaya ke sadasyon ki ichha hai ki utpaadon ki vyaapak kismon ke beech antar bataane ke liye paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) shabd ko adhik spasht roop se sthaapit kiya jaae.[6] paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) ki shreni mein vividh prakaar ke kai utpaad aate hain.

aahaar poorak

A vitamin B supplment
oopar darshaae gaye vitaamin bi poorak jaise aahaarik poorak padaarth aam taur par goliyon ke roop mein beche jaate hain.

ek aahaar poorak utpaad ek aisa utpaad hai jismein khaadya utpaadon se praapt poshak tatv hote hain jo drav ya kaipsool ke roop mein sankeindrit hote hain. 1994 ke aahaar poorak svaasthya aur shiksha adhiniyam (deeesaechaie/DSHEA) ne yeh paribhaashit kiya ki aam taur par aahaar poorak mein kya-kya hota hai. "ek aahaar poorak utpaad munh se liya jaane wala ek utpaad hai jismein ek "aahaareeya ghatak" hota hai jiska uddeshya aahaar ko poora karna hai. in utpaadon mein "aahaareeya ghatakon" mein vitaamin, khanij lavan, jadi-bootiyaan ya anya vaanaspatik padaarth, ameeno aml aur enjaaims, ang ootak, granthiyaan, chayaapachayi padaarth jaise padaarth shaamil ho sakte hain. aahaar-sambandhi poorak saar tatv ya sankeindrit padaarth bhi ho sakte hain aur ve tikiya, kaipsool, sauft jail, jelakaip, drav padaarth, ya paaudar ho sakte hain.[11]

aahaareeya poorakon ko baajaar mein bechne se pehle ameriki khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan (efadeee/FDA) se anumodan praapt naheen karna padta hai. haalaanki ye poorak padaarth svaasthya sambandhi laabhon ko pradaan karne ka daava karte hain, in utpaadon mein aam taur par ek lebal laga hota hai jis par likha hota hai: "in kathanon ka moolyaankan khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan ke dvaara naheen kiya gaya hai. is utpaad ka uddeshya rog ki pehchaan karna, upachaar karna, ya kisi prakaar ki beemaari ko rokana hai."

kaaryaatmak khaadya padaarth

kaaryaatmak khaadya padaarthon ka uddeshya drav ya kaipsool roop mein nirmit aahaar sambandhi poorakon ko lene ke bajaay upabhoktaaon ko khaadya padaarthon ko unki praakrutik sthiti ke samaan avastha vaale samruddh bhojan karne ki anumati pradaan karna hai. kaaryaatmak khaadya padaarth ya to samruddh ya drudheekrut hote hain, yeh ek prakriya hai jise poshaneekaran kaha jaata hai. yeh kaaryapranaali bhojan ke prasanskrut kiye jaane se pehle bhojan mein samaan star vaale poshak padaarth ki maatra ko vaapas lautaati hai. kabhi-kabhi, atirikt sanpoorak poshak tatv, jaise - doodh mein vitaamin di, milaaye jaate hain.

helth Canada kaaryaatmak khaadya padaarthon ko nimn prakaar se paribhaashit karta hai, "kaaryaatmak khaadya padaarth vah saamaanya khaadya padaarth hai jise poorn roop se poshan sambandhi prabhaav ke atirikt chikitseeya ya shaareerik laabh pradaan karne ke liye usamein avayavon ya ghatakon ko milaaya jaata hai".[3] Japan mein, sabhi kaaryaatmak khaadya padaarthon ko teen nirdhaarit aavashyakataaon ko avashya poora karna chaahiye: khaadya padaarthon ko (1) ek kaipsool, tikiya, ya choorn ki bajaay apne praakrutik roop se utpann roop mein upasthit hona chaahiye; (2) aahaar mein lagbhag pratidin lena chaahiye; aur (3) beemaari ki rokathaam ya niyantran karne ki aasha mein ek jaivik prakriya ko niyantrit karni chaahiye.[12]

chikitseeya khaadya padaarth

medical food
ek chaturth pol par chikitsa khaadya ki ek tasveer.

upabhoktaaon ko chikitseeya khaadya padaarth bina nuskhe ke praapt naheen hota hai.[13] efadeee (FDA) ka vichaar hai ki khaadya padaarthon ko "chikitsak ki dekh-rekh mein aatanrik roop se upayog mein laane ya prayog karne ke liye taiyaar kiya jaata hai aur jiska uddeshya kisi bimaari ya sthiti ka vishisht aahaar sambandhi prabandhan hai jiske liye chikitseeya moolyaankan ke dvaara, maanya vaigyaanik siddhaanton ke aadhaar par, vishisht poshan sambandhi aavashyakataaen sthaapit ki jaati hain".[12]

chikitseeya khaadya padaarthon ko mukh ya nali sanbharan ke maadhyam se antargrahan kiya ja sakta hai. aksar in khaadya padaarthon ka uddeshya vishisht beemaariyon ka nidaan kiye jaane vaale logon ki kuchh poshan sambandhi aavashyakataaon ko poora karna hota hai. chikitseeya khaadya padaarthon ki chikitseeya dekharekh ke dvaara saavadhaaneepoorvak nigraani ki jaati hai.

faarmaasyutikls

United states kaaaingres ke liye "egreekalchar: A glosari of tarms, prograams, end lodge" sheershak ke antargat likhe gaye ek report ke anusaar, "(faarmaasyutikls/Farmaceuticals) faarm (farm) evam faarmaasyutikls (pharmaceuticals) shabdon ka ek mishrit roop hai. yeh roopaantarit krushi fasalon ya pashuon (aamtaur par jaiv praudyogiki ke maadhyam se) se taiyaar kiya gaya chikitsaatmak roop se mahatvapoorn yaugikon ko soochit karta hai. samarthakon ka maanana hai ki fasalon evam sambhavat: pashuon ka bhi aushadhi ke kaarkhaanon ke roop mein istemaal karna paaramparik vidhiyon ki apeksha adhik kifaayati ho sakta hai (jaise ki sanlagn nirmaan suvidhaaon mein) aur isse krushi utpaadakon ko aur adhik aay praapt ho sakta hai.

"sanyukt raajya America mein yeh charcha ka vishay raha hai ki kya jaiv praudyogiki ke viniyman ke liye maujooda vyavastha nae ubharate hue anuprayogon, jaise ki faarmaasyutikls ki suraksha sunishchit karne (maanav, pashuon evam fasalon, tatha paryaavaran) ke liye paryaapt hai... krushi ke kshetron mein faarmaasyutikls shabd bahudha aanuvanshik abhiyaantriki dvaara utpann fasalon ya pashuon ke chikitseeya anuprayogon se juda hua hai".[14]

udaaharan

broccoli
adhyayan bataate hain ki brokoli se Cancer ki rokathaam mein madad mil sakti hai
Semillas de Chía.jpg

soochit aushadheeya mahatva vaale khaadya padaarthon ki ek apoorn soochi nimnaankit hai:

  • okseekaran-rodhi: laal angoor ke utpaadon se praapt resviraatraul; neeboo vansh ke falon, chai, sharaab aur gahre rang ke chaukaleti khaadya padaarthon ke andar paaya jaane wala flaivanauyad; jaamunon mein paae jaane vaale enthosaainins.
  • rakt mein kolestraul ki maatra kam karna:[15] ghulanasheel aahaareeya reshedaar utpaad, jaise ki saailiym ke beej ki bhoosi
  • Cancer ki rokathaam: brokoli (salforaafen)
  • dhamani ka behtar svaasthya: soya ya tiptiya (aaisoflaivanauyads)
  • hrudaya aur raktavaahini sambandhi rog ka kam jokhim: san ya chiya (chiyaa) ke beejon se praapt alfa-laainolenik aml

iske alaava, bahut se vaanaspatik evam jadi-booti sambandhi saar-tatv jaise ki jinseing, lahasun ka tel, aadi ko paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) ke roop mein viksit kiya gaya hai. paushtik-aushadhiyon ka upayog aksar poshak tatv sambandhi poorv mishranon ya bhojan mein poshak tatv sambandhi pranaaliyon aur aushadhi-nirmaan udyogon mein kiya jaata hai.

prabhaavakaarita aur suraksha

viniyman

raasaayanik padaarth sambandhi aushadhiyon ke vipreet, sanyukt raajya America mein, paushtik-aushadh (nyootraasyutikl) utpaad bhi "aahaar-sambandhi poorakon" ke samaan hi jaanch ke samaan star aur nigraani ke saath upalabdh hain. sangheeya khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan ke nireekshan ke antargat, kai anya deshon jaise Canada ke vipreet, "paushtik-aushadheeya padaarthon (nyootraasyutikls)" aur "aahaareeya poorak padaarthon" ke beech maanakon, kaarya evam prabhaavakaarita mein antar karne mein asangat vishvasaneeyata utpann karta hai. is aspasht viniyaamak nireekshan ke adheen, paushtik-aushadheeya padaarthon ka utpaadan karne waali vaidh companiyaan apne nirmaan sambandhi maanakon, utpaadon aur upabhokta sambandhi laabhon ko sahi saabit karne ke liye aur "aahaareeya poorak padaarthon" se apne utpaadon ka bhed bataane ke liye vishvasaneeya vaigyaanik anusandhaan pradaan karti hain.

udyog, vyaavasaayik sangathanon, shikshaavidon aur svaasthya niyaamak abhikranon ke bheetar paushtik-aushadh ki paribhaasha evam maanakon ke liye kaanooni aur vaigyaanik maapdand jodne ke liye ek vishisht antararaashtreeya aandolan ke baavajood, sanyukt raajya America ke bheetar yeh shabd efadeee (FDA) dvaara viniymit naheen hai. efadeee (FDA) abhi bhi sabhi padaarthon ke liye unki prabhaavotpaadakata, vinirmaan prakriya, sahaayak vaigyaanik anusandhaan aur badhe hue svaasthya sambandhi laabhon mein bhed kiye bina ek aam shabd "aahaareeya poorak" ka istemaal karta hai.

2005 mein, naishanal aikadameej (raashtreeya akaadamiyon) ke instityoot of medisin (chikitsa sansthaan) aur naishanal research kaaunsil (raashtreeya anusandhaan parishd) ne aahaar sambandhi poorakon ka moolyaankan karne ke liye sangheeya khaadya evam aushadhi prashaasan ke liye ek behtar dhaancha taiyaar karne hetu ek svatantr evam nishpaksh samiti (blue ribn committee) ki sthaapana ki. haalaanki sanshodhit dhaancha "paushtik-aushadhiyon (nyootraasyutikls)" aur "aahaar-sambandhi poorakon" ke beech antar karne mein vifal rahata hai. vyaapak paribhaasha ke nirantar upayog evam adhik se adhik kami ke saath, "aahaar-sambandhi poorakon" ke saath-saath antarraashtreeya roop se "paushtik-aushadhiyon (nyootraasyutikls)" ke roop mein maanya upabhokta sambandhi utpaadon ki suraksha sunishchit karne ke liye ek kifaayati evam vaigyaanik drushti se aadhaarit dhaanche ki aavashyakta thi.[16]

antarraashtreeya srot

vishv baajaar mein, utpaad ki gunavatta se sambandhit kai mahatvapoorn vishay hain.[17] antarraashtreeya baajaar mein paushtik-aushadhiyaan (nyootraasyutikls) kaarbanik ya videshaj ghatakon ke upayog karne ka daava kar sakte hain, fir bhi viniyman ki kami se utpaadon ki prabhaavakaarita aur suraksha jokhim mein pad sakti hai. vyaapak laabh seema ka nirmaan karne waali companiyaan kam gunavatta vaale aur aprabhaavakaari utpaadon ke saath videshon mein aniyantrit utpaadon ka nirmaan kar sakti hain.

jaiv upalabdhata

ek poorak utpaad ki "avashoshan dar" maani ja sakani waali jaiv upalabdhata prabhaavakaari paushtik-aushadheeya utpaad dhoondhne mein aane waali mukhya chunautiyon mein se ek hai. poshak tatvon ki jaiv upalabdhata praakrutik avastha mein khaae jaane vaale khaadya padaarthon mein adhik hota hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] aprasanskrut khaadya padaarthon mein bhi, sabhi khaadya padaarthon ka raasaayanik parivartan naheen hota hai aur prabhaavakaarik dhng se unka paachan naheen hota hai. bure shoshan daron vaale paushtik-aushadhiyon (nyootraasyutikls) ke parinaamasvaroop poshak tatv shareer ko kisi prakaar ka poshan sambandhi ya chikitsaatmak laabh pradaan kiye bina hi shareer se baahar nikal jaate hain.

kootabheshaj prabhaav ka parinaam

aushadheeya padaarthon (faarmaasyootikls) ke samaan hi, paushtik-aushadhiyon (nyootraasyutikls) ki prabhaavakaarita ka hissa kootabheshaj prabhaav ka kaaran bataaya jaata hai. paushtik-aushadhiyon (nyootraasyutikls) ka upayog karne vaale upabhokta apne dvaara paushtik-aushadhiyon (nyootraasyutikls) ke upayog ko beemaari se mukti ka shreya dete hain, jabki aksar shareer swayam hi changa ho sakta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • khaadya padaarthon ke lebalon par svaasthya sambandhi daave
  • aahaareeya poorak padaarth
  • poshaneekaran (urf khaadya sanvardhan ya sudrudheekaran)
  • khaadya poorak
  • khaadya yogaj
  • khaadya sudrudheekaran
  • aahaar poorak
  • khaadya prasanskaran
  • aushadheeya masharoom

sandarbh

  1. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462074
  2. a aa http://www.fimdefelice.org/archives/arc.fueling.html
  3. a aa http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/sr-sr/biotech/about-apropos/gloss-eng.php
  4. http://www.ana-jana.org/
  5. http://fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/Warningletters/default.htm
  6. a aa Kalra EK (2003). "Nutraceutical--definition and introduction". AAPS pharmSci 5 (3): E25. doi:10.1208/ps050325. PMC 2750935. PMID 14621960.
  7. http://www.clemson.edu/NNC/what_are_nutra.html
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