patrakaarita

patrakaarita (angreji : journalism) aadhunik sabhyata ka ek pramukh vyavasaaya hai jismein samaachaaron ka ekatreekaran, likhna, jaankaari ekatrit karke pahuainchaana, sampaadit karna aur samyak prastuteekaran aadi sammilit hain. aaj ke yug mein patrakaarita ke bhi anek maadhyam ho gaye hain; jaise - akhbaar, patrikaayein, radio, dooradarshan, web-patrakaarita aadi.

anukram

paribhaasha

patrakaarita shabd angreji ke "jarnalijm"(Journalism) ka hindi roopaantar hai. shabdaarth ki drushti se "jarnalijm" shabd 'journal' se nirmit hai aur iska aashay hai 'dainik' . arthaat jismein dainik kaaryon va sarkaari baithakon ka vivran ho. aaj jarnal shabd 'maigajeen' ka dhotak ho chala hai . yaani, dainik, dainik samaachaar-patra ya doosare prakaashan, koi sarvaadhik prakaashan jismein kisi vishisht kshetr ke samaachaar ho . ( Dr. harimohan evam harishankar Joshi- khoji patrakaarita, takshashila prakaashan )

patrakaarita lokatantr ka avibhaajya ang hai. pratipaal parivrtit honevaale jeevan aur jagat ka darshan patrakaarita dvaara hi sanbhanv hai. paristhitiyon ke adhyayan, chintan-manan aur aatmaabhivyakti ki pravrutti aur doosaron ka kalyaan arthaat lokamangal ki bhaavana ne hi patrakaarita ko janm diya.

si. ji. moolar ne bilkul sahi kaha hai ki-

saamaayik gyaan ka vyavasaaya hi patrakaarita hai. ismein tathyon ki praapti unka moolyaankan evam theek-thaak prastuteekaran hota hai.
(Journilism is business of timely knowledge the business of obtaining the necessary facts, of evaluating them carefully and of presenting them fully and of acting on them wisely.)

Dr. arjun tivaari ke kathaanaanusaar-

gyaan aur vichaaron ko sameekshaatmak tippaniyon ke saath shabd, dhvani tatha chitron ke maadhyam se jan-jan tak pahuainchaana hi patrakaarita hai. yeh vah vidya hai jismein sabhi prakaar ke patrakaaron ke kaaryo, kartavyon aur lakshyon ka vivechan hota hai. patrakaarita samay ke saath samaaj ki digdarshika aur niyaamika hai.

patrakaarita ka svaroop aur visheshataayein

saamaajik sarokaaron tatha saarvajanik hit se judkar hi patrakaarita saarthak banti hai. saamaajik sarokaaron ko vyavastha ki dahaleej tak pahuainchaane aur prashaasan ki janahitkaari neetiyon tatha yojanaaaaein ko samaaj ke sabse nichle tabake tak le jaane ke daayitv ka nirvaah hi saarthak patrakaarita hai.

patrakaarita ko lokatantr ka chautha paaya (stambh) bhi kaha jaata hai. patrakaarita ne lokatantr mein yeh mahattvapoorn sthaan apne aap naheen haasil kiya hai balki saamaajik sarokaaron ke prati patrakaarita ke daayitvon ke mahattv ko dekhte hue samaaj ne hi darja diya hai. koi bhi lokatantr tabhi sashakt hai jab patrakaarita saamaajik sarokaaron ke prati apni saarthak bhoomika nibhaati rahe. saarthak patrakaarita ka uddeshya hi yeh hona chaahiye ki vah prashaasan aur samaaj ke beech ek mahattvapoorn kadi ki bhoomika apnaaye.

patrakaarita ke itihaas par najar daale to svatantrata ke poorv patrakaarita ka mukhya uddeshya svatantrata praapti ka lakshya tha. svatantrata ke liye chale aandolan aur sveedheenata sangraam mein patrakaarita ne aham aur saarthak bhoomika nibhaai. us daur mein patrakaarita ne poore desh ko ekta ke sootr mein pirone ke saath-saath poore samaaj ko svaadheenata ki praapti ke lakshya se jode rakha.

Internet aur soochana ke aadhikaar (aar.ti.I.) ne aaj ki patrakaarita ko bahuaayaami aur anant bana diya hai. aaj koi bhi jaankaari palak jhapakte upalabdh ki aur karaai ja sakti hai. media aaj kaabhi sashakt, svatantr aur prabhaavakaari ho gaya hai. patrakaarita ki pahuainch aur aabhivyakti ki svatantrata ka vyaapak istemaal aamtaur par saamaajik sarokaaron aur bhalaai se hi juda hai, kintu kabhi kabhaar iska durapayog bhi hone laga hai.

sanchaar kraanti tatha soochana ke aadhikaar ke alaava aarthik udaareekaran ne patrakaarita ke chehare ko poori tarah badalkar rakh diya hai. vijnyaaapanon se honevaali athaah kamaai ne patrakaarita ko kaafi hadd tak vyaavasaayik bana diya hai. media ka lakshya aaj aadhik se aadhik kamaai ka ho chala hai. media ke isi vyaavasaayik drushtikon ka nateeja hai ki usaka dhyaan saamaajik sarokaaron se kaheen bhatak gaya hai. muddon par aadhaarit patrakaarita ke bajaay aaj infotemeint hi media ki surkhiyon mein rahata hai.

Internet ki vyaapakata aur us tak saarvajanik pahuainch ke kaaran usaka dushprayog bhi hone laga hai. Internet ke upayogakarta niji bhadaas nikaalne aur atanrgatatatha aapattijanak pralaap karne ke liye is upayogi saadhan ka galat istemaal karne lage hain. yahi kaaran hai ki yada-kada media ke in bahupayogi saadhanon par ankush lagaane ki bahas bhi chhid jaati hai. ganeemat hai ki yeh bahas sujhaavon aur shikaayaton tak hi seemit rahati hai. us par amal ki naubat naheen aane paati. lokatantr ke hit mein yahi hai ki jahaaain tak ho sake patrakaarita ho svatantr aur nirbaadh rahane diya jaae, aur patrakaarita ka apna hit ismein hai ki vah aabhivyakti ki svatantrata ka upayog samaaj aur saamaajik sarokaaronke prati apne daayitvon ke imaandaar nivrhan ke liye karti rahe.

itihaas

patrakaarita ke pramukh prakaar

khoji patrakaarita

manushya svabhaav se hi jijnyaaasu hota hai. use vah sab jaanana achha lagta hai jo saarvajanik naheen ho athva jise chhipaane ki koshish ki ja rahi ho. manushya yadi patrakaar ho to usaki yahi koshish rahati hai ki vah aisi goodh baatein ya sach ujaagar kare jo rahasya ki gaharaaiyon mein kaid ho. sach ki tah tak jaakar use satah par laane ya ujaagar karne tak jaakar use satah par laane ya ujaagar karne ko hi ham anveshi ya khoji patrakaarita kehte hain.

khoji patrakaarita ek tarah se jaasoosi ka hi doosra roop hai jismein jokhim bhi bahut hai. yeh saamaanya patrakaarita se kai maayanon mein alag aur aadhik shramasaadhya hai. ismein ek-ek tathya aur kadiyon ko ek doosare se jodna hota hai tab kaheen jaakar vaanchhit lakshya ki praapti hoti hai. kai baar to patrakaaron dvaara ki gayi kadi mehnat aur khoj ko beech mein hi chhod dena padta hai, kyonki aage ke raaste band ho chuke hote hain. patrakaarita se judi puraani ghatanaaaaein par najar daudaayein to maai laai code, vaataraget kaand, Jack endarsan ka Pentagon pepars jaise aantararaashtreeya kaand tatha cement ghotaala kaand, bofors kaand, taaboot ghotaala kaand tatha jaise raashtreeya ghotaale khoji patrakaarita ke charchit udaaharan hain. ye ghatanaayein khoji patrakaarita ke us daur ki hain jab sanchaar kraanti, Internet ya soochana ka aadhikaar (aar.ti.I) jaise prabhaavashaali astr patrakaaron ke paas naheen the. in prabhaavashaali hathiyaaron ke aastitv mein aane ke baad to ghotaale ujaagar hone ka jaise ek daur hi shur ho gaya haal ke kuchh charchit ghotaalon mein 2ji spectrum ghotaala, Commonwealth gems ghotaala, aadarsh ghotaala, taaj kaareedor ghotaala aadi ullekhaneeya hain. jaane-maane patrakaar juliyn asaanj ke 'vikeeliks' ne to aise-aise rahasyodghaatan kiye jinse kai deshon ki sarkaarein tak hil gayi.

Internet aur soochana ke aadhikaar ne patrakaaron aur patrakaarita ki dhaar ko atyant paina bana diya lekin iska doosra pahaloo yeh bhi hai ki patrakaarita ki aad mein in hathiyaaron ka istemaal 'blaikameling' jaise galat uddeshya ke liye bhi hone laga hai. samay-samay par huye kuchh 'sting operation' aur kai bahucharchit si. di. kaand iske udaaharan hain.

sting patrakaarita ke sandarbh mein photo jarnalijm ya photo patrakaarita se jude jaasooson jinhein 'paapaaraatsi' (Paparazzi) kehte hain, ki charcha bhi jarari hai. prinses daayana ki maut ke jimmedaar 'paidaraaja' hi the. samaaj ki behatari aur usaki bhalaai ke liye khoji patrakaarita ka ek aavashyak ang jarar hai, lekin ise bhi apni maryaadaaaaein ke ghere mein rahana chaahiye. khoji patrakaarita saahasik tak to theek hai, lekin iska dussaahas na to patrakaarita ke hit mein hai aur na hi samaaj ke.

khel patrakaarita

khel keval manoranjan ka saadhan naheen balki vah achhe svaasthya, shaareerik damakham aur bauddhik kshamata ka bhi prateek hai. yahi kaaran hai kin poori duniya mein aati praacheenakaal se khelon ka prachalan raha hai. mall-yuddh, teerandaaji, ghudsavaari, tairaaki, gulli danda, polo rassaakashi, malakhanbh, Wall gems, jaise aautador ya maidaani khelon ke alaava chaupad, chausar ya shataranj jaise indor khel praacheenakaal se hi lokapriya rahe hain. aadhunik kaal mein in puraane khelon ke alaava inse milte julate khelon tatha anya aadhunik spardhaatmak khelon ne poori duniya mein apna varchasv kaayam kar rakha hai. khel aadhunik hon ya praacheen, khelon mein honevaale adbhut kaaranaamon ko jagajaahir karne tatha usaka vyaapak prachaar-prasaar karne mein khel patrakaarita ka mahattvapoorn yogadaan raha hai. aaj poori duniya mein khel yadi lokapriyta ke shikhar par hain to usaka kaafi kuchh shreya khel patrakaarita ko bhi hai.

aaj sthiti yeh hai ki samaachaar patron ya patrikaaaaein ke alaava kisi bhi electronic media ka skarap tab tak paripoorn naheen maana jaata jab tak usamein khelon ka bharpoor coverage naheen ho. khelon ke prati media ka yeh rujhaan 'demand' aur 'saplaai' par aadhaarit hai. aaj Bhaarat hi naheen poori duniya mein aabaadi ka ek bada hissa yuva varg ka hai jiski pehli pasand vibhinn khel spardhaayein hain, shaayad yahi kaaran hai ki patra-patrikaaaaein mein agar sabse aadhik koi panne padh jaate hain to vah khel se sambandhit hote hai. print media ke alaava ti. vi. channelon ka bhi ek bada hissa khelon prasaaran se juda hota hai. khel channel to chaubeeson ghante koi na koi khel lekar haajir hi rahate hain. live coverage ya seedha prasaaran ki baat to chhodiye rikaurded puraane maichon ke prati bhi darshakon ka rajhaan kaheen kam naheen dikhaai deta. paathakon aur darshakon ki khelon ke prati deevanagi ka hi nateeja hai ki aaj khel ki duniya mein akoot dhan baras raha hai. dhan, jo vigyaapan ke rap mein ho chaahe puraskaar raashi ke rap mein na lutaanevaalon ki kami hai na paanevaalon ki. yeh sthiti aaj ki hai. lekin ek samay aisa bhi tha jab khelon mein dhanadaulat ko koi naamonishaan naheen tha. praacheen olympic khelon jaisi vikhyaat khel spardha mein bhi vijeta ko jaitoon ki pattiyon ke mukut ka puraskaar diya jaata tha lekin vah taaj bhi anmol hua karta tha.

khelon mein dhan-varsha ka praarambh kaarporet jagat ke ismein pravesh se hua. kaarporet jagat ke protsaahan se kai khel aur khilaadi profeshanal hone-lage aur khel-spardhaaaaein se laakhon karodo kamaane lage. aaj tennis, football, basket baul, boxing, skvaash, golf jaise khelon mein paisonki barasaat ho rahi hai.

khelon ki lokapriyta aur khilaadiyon ki kamaai ki baat karein to aaj cricket ne, jo duniya ke gine-chune hi deshon mein khela jaata hai, lokapriyta ki nai ooainchaaiyaaain haasil ki hain. kikret mein corporate jagat ke rajhaan ke kaaran navodit cricketer bhi anya khilaadiyon ki tulana mein achhi khaasi kamaai kar rahe hain.

khelon mein dhan ki barasaat mein koi buraai naheen hai. isse khelon aur khilaadiyon ke star mein sudhaar hi hota hai, lekin usaka badasoorat pahaloo yeh bhi hai ki khelon mein galaakaat spardha ke kaaran ismein fixing aur doping jaisi buraaiyon ka prachalan bhi badhne laga hai. fixing aur doping jaisi buraaiyaaain na khilaadiyon ke hit mein hain aur na khalon ke. khel-patrakaarita ki yeh jimmedaari hai ki vah khelon mein panap rahi un buraaiyon ke kirdhd lagaataar aavaaj uthaati rahe. khelon mein khel bhaavana ki raksha har keemat par honi chaahiye. khel patrakaarita se yeh ummeed bhi ki jaani chaahiye ki aam logon se jude khelon ko bhi utana hi mahattv aur protsaahan mile jitna anya lokapriya khelon ko mil raha hai.

mahila patrakaarita

patrakaarita jaise vyaapak aur vishd vishay mein mahila patrakaarita ki avadhaarana bhale hi kuchh atapati lagti hai, kintu naari svaatantrya aur samaanata ke is yug mein bhi aadhi duniya se jude aise anek pahaloo hain jinke mahattv ko dekhte hue mahila patrakaarita ki alag vidhaaki aavashyakta mahasoos hoti hai.

purush aur naari ke bhed ka sabse bada aadhaar to unki alag shaareerik sanrachana hai. prakruti ne furash ko ek saanche mein dhaala hai to naari ko usase alag. ek samay tha jab samaaj furash pradhaan hua tha. furash pradhaan samaaj ne apni suvidhaanusaar naari ko abala banaakar ghar ki chaaradeevaari tak seemit kar diya tha. vikaas ke nirantar tej gati se badalate daur ne mahilaaaaein ko pragati ka samaan avsar diya aur mahilaaaaein ne apni pratibha aur lagan ke balaboote par samaaj ke har kshetr mein apni aamit chhaap chhodne ka jo silsila shur kiya vah lagaataar jaari hai. aaj ke daur mein koi bhi aisa kshetr naheen jahaaain mahilaaaaein ki sashakt upasthiti naheen mahasoos ki ja rahi ho. vartamaan daur mein raajaneeti, prashaasan, sena, shikshan, chikitsa, vigyaan, takaneek, udyog, vyaapaar, samaajaseva aadi pramukh kshetron mein mahilaaaaein ne apni pratibha aur kshamata ke aadhaar par apni raah khud banaai hai. kai kshetron mein to kadi spardha aur kathin chunauti ke baavajood mahilaaaaein ne apna sheersh mukaam banaaya hai. Bhaarat ki indira nooi, nainaalaal kidvaai, chanda kochar aadi mahilaaaaein ne safalta ke jis shikhar ko chhuaa hai ve sabhi kadi spardhaavaale kshetr maane jaate hain.

teji se badalate saamaajik parivesh tatha mahila furash samaanata ke is daur mein mahilaaeain ab ghar ki dahaleej laaainghakar baahar aa chuki hain. praay: har kshetr mein mahilaaaaein ki upasthiti aur bhaageedaari najar aati hai. shiksha ne mahilaaaaein ko apne aadhikaaron ke prati jaagarak banaaya hai. ab mahilaayein bhi apne career ke prati sachet hain. mahila jaagaran ki is navachetana ke saath-saath mahilaaaaein ke prati atyaachaar aur aparaadh ke maamale bhi badhe hain. mahilaaaaein ki saamaajik suraksha sunishchit karne ke liye bahut saare kaanoon bane hain aur aavashyakataanusaar usamein samay-samay par sanshedhan bhi kiye jaate rahe hain. mahilaaaaein ko saamaajik suraksha dilaane mein mahila patrakaarita ki aham bhoomika rahi hai. mahila patrakaarita ki aaj alag se jararat hi isliye hai ki usamein mahilaaaaein se jude har pahaloo par gaur kiya jaae aur mahilaaaaein ke sarvaangeen vikaas mein yeh mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibha sake. mahila patrakaarita ki saarthakata mahila sashaktikran ke uddeshya se judi hai.

kuchh pramukh mahila patrakaar: mrunaal Pande, vimla Patil, barakha datt, seema mustafa, tavaleen Singh, meenal bahol, satya sharan, deena vakeel, suneeta airan, kumud sanghavi chaavare aadi.

baal-patrakaarita

baal-man svabhaavat: jijnyaaasu aur saral hota hai. jeevan ki yeh vah avastha hai jismein bachcha apne maata-pita, shikshak aur chaaro taraf ke parivesh se hi seekhata hai. yahi vah umr hoti hai jismein bachche ke maastishk par kisi bhi ghatna ya soochana ki aamit chhaap pad jaati hai. bachche ke aas-paas ki parivesh uske vyaktitv nirmaan mein mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai.

ek samay tha jab bachchon ko pareekathaaon, lokakathaaaaein, pauraanik, aitihaasik, dhaarmik kathaaaaein ke maadhyamase bahalaane-fusalaane ke saath-saath unka jnyaaanavardhdan kiya jaata tha. in kathaaaaein ka bachchon ke chaaritrik vikaas par bhi gahra prabhaav hota tha.

aaj sanchaar kraanti ke is yug mein bachchon ke liye soochanaatantr kaafi vistrut aur anant ho gaya hai. kannpyootar aur Internet tak unki pahuainch ne unki jijnyaaas ko aseemit bana diya hai. aise mein is baat ki bhi aashanka aur gunjaaish bani rahati hai ki bachchon tak ve soochanaayein bhi pahuainch sakti hain, jisse unke baalaman ke bhatakaav ya vikruti bhi sambhav hai. aisi sthiti mein baal patrakaarita ki saarthak soch aur disha bachchon ko sahi disha ki or agrasar kar sakti hai. baal patrakaarita ki disha mein print aur vijual media (ddashya-maadhyam) ke saath-saath Internet ki bhi aham aur jimmedaar bhoomika ho sakti hai.

aarthik patrakaarita

koi bhi aisa vyaapaarik ya aarthik vyavahaar jo vyaktiyon, sansthaanon, raajyon ya deshon ke beech hota hai, vah aarthik patrakaarita ke sarokaaron mein shaamil hai.

aarthik patrakaarita aarthik vyavahaar ya arth-vyavastha ke vyaapak gun-doshon ki sameeksha aur vivechana ki dhuri par keindrit hai. jis prakaar patrakaarita ka uddadeshya kisi bhi vyavastha ke gun-doshon ko vyaapak aadhaar par prachaarit prasaarit karna hai, usi prakaar aarthik patrakaarita ki bhoomika tabhi saarthak hai jab vah arth vyavastha ke har pahaloo par sookshm najar rakhate hue usaka vishleshan kare aur samaaj par padne vaale uske prabhaavon ka prachaar-prasaar karne mein saksham ho. arth-vyavastha ke maamale mein aarthik patrakaarita vyavastha aur upabhokta ke beech setu ka kaam karne ke saath-saath ek sajag prahari ki bhoomika bhi nibhaati hai.

aarthik udaareekaran aur vibhinn deshon ke aapasi vyaapaarik sambandhon ne poori duniya ke aarthik pariddashya ko bahut vyaapak bana diya hai. aaj kisi bhi desh ki arth-vyavastha bahut kuchh aantararaashtreeya vyaapaar sambandhon par nirbhar ho gayi hai. duniya ke kisi kone mein machi aarthik halachal ya uthal-puthal anya deshon ki arth-vyavastha ko prabhaavit karne lagi hai. sone aur chaandi jaisi bahumoolya dhaatuaaein tatha kachche tel ki keematon ke utaar-chadhaav se aaj duniya ki koi bhi arth vyavastha achhooti naheen rahi.

Euro, dollar, paand, yen jaisi mudraayein tatha sona, chaaaindi aur kachcha tel aaj duniya ki pramukh arth vyavasthaaaaein ki nabj ban chuki hain. kehne ka taatparya yeh ki aaj bhale hi sabhi desh apni arthavyavasthaaaaein ke niyaamak aur niyantrak hon kintu vishv ki aarthik halchalon se ve achhoote naheenhain. ham kah sakte hain ki aarthik pariddashya par poora vishv vyaapak taur par ek baajaar najar aata hai. sabhi deshon ki arth vyavasthaayein aaj isi vaishvik baajaar ki gatividhiyon se nirdhaarit hoti hain. majaboot arthavyavastha vaale deshon mein honevaale mahattvapoorn aarthik parivrtanon se duniya ke pramukh desh bhi prabhaavit hote hai. aarthik patrakaarita ke liye vishv ka aarthik parivesh ek chunauti hai. aarthik patrakaarita ka yeh daayitv hai ki vishv ki arthavyavastha ko pabhaavit karanevaale vibhinn kaarakon ka vishleshan vah lagaataar karti rahe tatha unke gun-doshon ke aadhaar par ehatiyaati upayon ki charcha aarthik patrakaarita ka vyaapak hissa bane.

aarthik patrakaarita ke samaksh ek badi chunauti karavanchana, kaalaadhan aur jaali noton ki samasya hai. kaalaadhan aaj viksit aur vikaasasheel deshon ke liye ek badi samasya bana hua hai. kaala dhan bhrashtaachaar se upajata hai aur bhrashtaachaar ko hi badhaata hai. bhrashtaachaar ki vyaapakata antat: desh ke vikaas mein baadhak banti hai. kaalaadhan aur aarthik aparaadhon ko ujaagar karanevaali khabaron ke vyaapak prachaar prasaar ki jimmedaari bhi aarthik patrakaarita ka hissa hai.

Bhaarat jaise krushi pradhaan desh mein hamaari arth vyavastha kaafi kuchh krushi aur krushi utpaadon par nirbhar hai. Bhaarat mein teji se viksit ho rahe nagaron aur mahaanagaron ke baavajood aaj bhi desh ki lagbhag 70 pratishat aabaadi gaaainvon mein hi basati hai. desh ke bajat praavadhaanon ka ek bada hissa krushi evam graameen vikaas ke mad mein kharch hota hai. aarthik patrakaarita ka ek mahattvapoorn aayaam krushi evam krushi aadhaarit yojanaaaaein tatha graameen vikaas ke kaaryakramon ka coverage bhi hai. graameen vikaas ke bina desh ka vikaas aur aarthik patrakaarita ka uddadeshya adhoora hi rahega. vyaapaar ke paramparaagat kshetron ke alaava retail, beema, sanchaar, vigyaan evam takaneek jaise vyaapaar ke aadhunik kshetron ne aarthik patrakaarita ko vyaapak kshitij aur naya aayaam diya hai. desh ki arthavyavastha ko sahi disha dekar use suchaar aur suddadh banaana aarthik patrakaarita ke liye chunauti to hai hi usaki saarthakata bhi isi mein nihit hai.

pramukh patra-patrikaaeain:

ikaunaumik taaims, financial express, business staindard, business line, mani control, ikaunaamik velth, mint, vyaapaar aadi

patrakaarita ke anya roop

  • graameen patrakaarita
  • vyaakhyaatmak patrakaarita
  • vikaas patrakaarita
  • sandarbh patrakaarita
  • sansadeeya patrakaarita
  • radio patrakaarita
  • dooradarshan patrakaarita
  • photo patrakaarita
  • vidhi patrakaarita
  • antariksh patrakaarita
  • sarvaadaya patrakaarita
  • chitrapat patrakaarita

inhein bhi dekhein

  • hindi patrakaarita
  • bhaarateeya press parishad
  • bhaarateeya bhaashaai samaachaarapatr sangathan (ilana)

baahari kadiyaaain