pathaan

Pashtun
پaaښaaتaaاaaنaaه
Paṣǎatun
Sher Shah Suri by Breshna-cropped.jpg
shair shaah soori
Dost Mohammad Khan, Nawab of Bhopal-cropped.jpg
dost muhammad Khan (Bhopal ka navaab)
Shah Mahmud Hotak of Afghanistan.jpg
Mehmood hotaki
Portrait miniature of Ahmad Shah Durrani-cropped.jpg
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Dost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan-cropped.jpg
Lithograph of Akbar Khan in 1842-cropped.jpg
Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan-cropped.jpg
Abdur Rahman Khan
MohammadAyoubKhan-cropped.jpg
Mohammad Ayub Khan
King Amanullah of Afghanistan-cropped.jpg
Amanullah Khan
Queen Soraya of Afghanistan-cropped.jpg
Soraya Tarzi
King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan in 1963-cropped.jpg
Zahir Shah
Abdul Ghaffar Khan-cropped.jpg
Bacha Khan
Madhubala in the 1949 film Dulari-cropped.jpg
Madhubala
Younus Khan 2010.jpg
Younus Khan
KaderKhan-cropped.jpg
Kader Khan
Shahrukh Khan CE.jpg
Shah Rukh Khan
Muhammad Ayub Khan.JPG
Ayub Khan[1]
Karzai in June 2014-cropped.jpg
Hamid Karzai
Z Khalilzad-cropped.jpg
Zalmay Khalilzad
Konferenz Pakistan und der Westen - Imran Khan (4155877864) cropped.jpg
Imran Khan
Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai in July 2011-cropped.jpg
Ashraf Ghani
Shahid Afridi 2010-cropped.jpg
Shahid Afridi
Malala Yousafzai at Girl Summit 2014-cropped.jpg
Malala Yousafzai
kul janasankhya

Approx. 50 million (2011)[2]

khaas aavaas kshetr
Flag of पाकिस्तान Pakistan 29,342,892 (2012) [3]
Flag of अफ़्गानिस्तान afgaanistaan 12,776,369 (2012) [4]
Flag of भारत Bhaarat Over 6,000 families [5]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg UAE 338,315 (2009) [6]
Flag of the United States sanyukt raajya 138,554 (2010) [7]
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 110,000 (1993) [8]
Flag of the United Kingdom UK 100,000 (2009) [9]
Flag of जर्मनी Germany 37,800 (2012) [10]
Flag of कनाडा Canada 26,000 (2006) [11]
Flag of रूस roos 9,800 (2002) [12]
Flag of ऑस्ट्रेलिया Australia 8,154 (2006) [13]
Flag of मलेशिया Malaysia 5,500 (2008)
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan 4,000 (1970) [8]
bhaashaaeain
pashto
dharm
islaam



afgaanistaan aur Pakistan ke nakshe mein pashtoon kshetr (naarangi rang mein)
Khan abdul gffaar Khan ek pashtoon the
afgaanistaan ke khost praant mein pashtoon bachche
ameer sher Ali Khan apne putr Rajkumar abdullaah jaan aur saradaaron ke saath (san 1869 E mein kheenchi gayi)

pashtoon, pakhtoon (pashto: پaaښaaتaaاaaنaaه, pashtaana) ya pathaan (urdoo:پaaٹaaھaaاaaن) dakshin Asia mein basane waali ek lok-jaati hai. ve mukhya roop mein afgaanistaan mein hindu kush parvaton aur Pakistan mein sindhu nadi ke daramiyaani kshetr mein rahate hain haalaanki pashtoon samudaaya afgaanistaan, Pakistan aur Bhaarat ke anya kshetron mein bhi rahate hain. pashtoonon ki pehchaan mein pashto bhaasha, pashtoonavaali maryaada ka paalan aur kisi gyaat pashtoon kbeele ki sadasyata shaamil hain.[14][15]

pathaan jaati ki jade kahaaain thi is baat ka itihaasakaaron ko gyaan naheen lekin sanskrut aur yoonaani sroton ke anusaar unke vartamaan ilaakon mein kabhi pakta naamak jaati raha karti thi jo sanbhavat: pathaanon ke poorvaj rahein hon. san 1979 ke baad afgaanistaan mein asuraksha ke kaaran janaganana naheen ho pai hai lekin ऍthanolaug ke anusaar pashtoon ki janasainkhya 5 karod ke aaspaas anumaanit ki gayi hai. pashtoon kbeelon aur khaanadaanon ka bhi shumaar karne ki koshish ki gayi hai aur anumaan lagaaya jaata hai ki vishv mein lagbhag 350 se 400 pathaan kbeele aur upakbeele hain. pashtoon jaati afgaanistaan ka sabse bada samudaaya hai.

anukram

vivran

pashtoon itihaas 5 hajaar saal se bhi puraana hai aur yeh alikhit tarike se peedhi-dar-peedhi chala aa raha hai. pakhtoon lok-maanyata ke anusaar yeh jaati 'bani israael' yaani yahoodi vansh ki hai. is katha ke anusaar pashchimi Asia mein aseeriyn saamraajya ke samay par lagbhag 2,800 saal pehle bani israael ke das kabeelon ko desh nikaala de diya gaya tha aur yahi kabeele pakhtoon hain. riagved ke chauthe khand ke 44ve shlok mein bhi pakhtoonon ka varnan 'paktyaakaya' naam se milta hai. isi tarah teesare khand ka 91vaaain shlok aafreedi kbeele ka zikr 'aaparyataya' ke naam se karta hai.

bani israael hone ke baare mein likhaaiyaaain

pakhtoonon ke bani israael (arth - israayal ki santaan) hone ki baat satrahaveen sadi isavi mein jahaangeer ke kaal mein likhi gayi kitaab “amagajaane afgaanee” mein bhi milti hai. angrej lekhak aur yaatri alekjeindar barns ne apni bukhaara ki yaatraaon ke baare mein san 1835 mein bhi pakhtoonon dvaara khud ko bani israael maanane ke baare mein likha hai. haalaanki pakhtoon khud ko bani israael to kehte hain lekin dhaarmik roop se vah musalmaan hain, yahoodi naheen. alekjeindar barn ne hi pun: 1837 mein likha ki jab usane us samay ke afgaan raaja dost mohammad se iske baare mein poochha to usaka javaab tha ki usaki praja bani israael hai ismein sandeh naheen lekin ismein bhi sandeh naheen ki ve log musalmaan hain evam aadhunik yahoodiyon ka samarthan naheen kareinge. William moorakraaft ne bhi 1819 va 1825 ke beech Bhaarat, Punjab aur afgaanistaan samet kai deshon ke yaatra-varnan mein likha ki pakhtoonon ka rang, naak-naksh, shareer aadi sabhi yahoodiyon jaisa hai. J bi frejr ne apni 1834 ki 'faaras aur afgaanistaan ka aitihaasik aur varnanakaari vruttaant' naamak kitaab mein kaha ki pakhtoon khud ko bani israael maanate hain aur islaam apnaane se pehle bhi unhonne apni dhaarmik shuddhata ko barkaraar rakha tha.[16] josef fiyere feriyer ne 1858 mein apni afgaan itihaas ke baare mein likhi kitaab mein kaha ki vah pakhtoonon ko beni israael maanane par us samay majaboor ho gaya jab use yeh jaankaari mili ki naadirshaah Bhaarat-vijay se pehle jab peshaavar se gujra to yoosufji kabeele ke pradhaan ne use ibraani bhaasha (heebroo) mein likhi hui baaibil va praacheen upaasana mein upayog kiye jaane vaale kai lekh saath bheint kiye. inhein uske kheme me maujood yahoodiyon ne turant pehchaan liya.

manihaar

pathaano ki ek nasl manihaar ke naam se jaani jaati hai jo choodiyau va bisaatakhaane ka saamaan bechne afagaanistaan se Bhaarat jaaya krate the dheere-dheere ye vahi bas gye mugl kaal me ye topakhaane me bharti kiye gye inaki veerata se khush hokr baadashaaho ne inhe jameedaar taalukedaar banaaya ye apne naam ke aage mirja beg aadi lagaate hai.

pashtoon kbeele

pashtoon lok-maanyataaon ke anusaar saare pashtoon chaar guton mein vibhaajit hain: sarabaani (سaaرaaبaaاaaنaaی, Sarbani), baitaani (بaaتaaاaaنaaی, Baitani), gragshti (غaaرaaغaaوaaشaaتaaی, Gharghashti) aur karalaani (کaaرaaلaaاaaنaaی, Karlani). maukhik parampara ke anusaar yeh kais abdul rasheed jo samast pakhtoono ke mool pita maane jaate hain unke chaar beton ke naam se yeh chaar kbeele bane the. in guton mein bahut se kbeele aur upakbeele aate hain aur maana jaata hai ki kul milaakar pashtoonon ke 350 se 400 kbeele hain.[17][18] pakhtoon kbeele kai staro par vibhaajit rahate hain. ttaahar (kbeela) kai khel arajoi ya jaai se mil kar bana hota hai. khel kai plaareenaaon se mil kar bana hota hai. plaareena kai parivaaron se mil kar bana hota hai, jinhein kahol kaha jaata hai. ek bade kbeele mein aksar kai darjan up kbeele hote hain ve khud ko ek doosare se juda hua maanate hain. apne parivaar ke vansh vraksh mein unase sanbandh bataate hain yeh is upakbeele se sahayog, pratispardha, athva takaraav par nirbhar karta hai. pakhtoo kbeelaai vyavastha mein kaahol sabse chhoti ikaai hoti hai. ismein 1- jman (bete) 2- imaasi (pote) 3- khvaasi (par pote) 4- khvaadi (par-par pote) hote hain. teesari peedhi ka janm hote hi parivaar ko kohal ka darja mil jaata hai. mukhya pakhtoon kbeele is prakaar hain:

  • sarbaani kbeele :-

1. Sheranai shernaai 2. Jalwaanai jalaanaai 3. Barais (Barech) barechh 4. Baayer baayaar 5. Oormar ooramar 6. Tareen (Tarin) taareen (up kbeele tor taareen, speen, raaijaani va khetraani yeh kbeele brahyi va baloochi jbaan bolte hain pashtu naheen) [Subtribes: Tor Tarin, Spin Tarin] { Raisani & Khetran are also Tarin. Currently these Tribes are speaking Brahvi & Balochi respectively } 7. Gharshin grasheen 8. Lawaanai laavaanaai 9. Popalzai popalajaai 10. Baamizai baameejaai 11. Sadozai sadojaai 12. Alikozai aaleekojaai 13. Barakzai barakajaai 14. Mohammad zai (Zeerak) jeeraaki 15. Achakzai (Assakzai) ajjaakjaai 16. Noorzai noorajaai 17. Alizai aleejaai 18. Saakzai saakajaai 19. Maako maakoo 20. Khoogyanai khoogjaai 21. Yousufzai yusufjaai 22. Atmaanzai (Utmanzai) aatmaanajaai 23. Raanizai raaneejaai 24. Mandan moondan 25. Tarklaanai tarklaanaai 26. Khalil khleel 27. Babar baabar 28. Daudzai daaoodajaai 29. Zamaryanai jmaryanjaai 30. Zeranai jeraanaai 31. Mohmand mohammad 32. Kheshgai (Khaishagi) khaishagi 33. Mohammad Zai (Zamand) mohammedjaai 34. Kaasi kaasi 35. Shinwarai shinvaaraai 36. Gagyanai gyanaai 37. Salarzaisalaarjaai 38. Malgoorai malguraai

  • grgsht kbeele :-

3- Babai baabai 4- Mandokhail mandookhail 5- Kakar kaakar 6- Nagharnagr 7- Panee (Panri) paani (khajjaak looni margjaani dehapaal barojaai majaari aadi.Khajjak, Luni, Marghazani, Dehpal, Barozai, Mzari etc.) 8- Dawi daavi 9- Hamar hamaar 10- Doomar (Dumarr) dhoomar 11- Khondai khundaai 12- Gadoon (Jadun) garum jaadon 13- Masakhel (Musakhail) masakhail 14- Sapai or Safai (Safi) sapaai 15- Mashwanai mashawanaai 16- Zmarai (Mzarai) Zamaaraai 17- Shalman shalamon 18- Eisoot (Isot) isot

  • khralaani kbeele :-

1. Mangal mangal 2. Kakai kaakai 3. Torai (Turi) toraai 4. Hanee Honey 5. Wardak (Verdag) vardak 6. Aurakzai (Orakzai) auraakjaai 7. Apridee or Afridi aafreedi 8. Khattak khattaak 9. Sheetak sheetaak 10. Bolaaq balaak 11. Zadran (Jadran) jradaan 12. Wazir vajeer 13. Masid (Mahsood) maseed 14. Daur (Dawar) daavar 15. Sataryanai satyaanaai 16. Gaaraig raai 17. Bangash bangash 18. Banosee (Banuchi) banuchi 19. Zazai (Jaji) jjaai 20. Gorbuz grbooj 21. Tanai (Tani) tanaai 22. Khostwaa khostava l 23. Atmaankhel (Utmankhail) utmaanakhail 24. Samkanai (Chamkani) samakaanaai 25. Muqbal mukabal 26. manihaar

  • baitaani kbeele :-

1. Sahaak sahaak 2. Tarakai taraakajaai 3. Tookhi tookhi 4. Andar andhar 5. SuleimanKhail (Slaimaankhel) sulaimaanakhail 6. Hotak hotak 7. Akakhail akakhail 8. Nasar naasar 9. Kharotai khrotaai 10. Bakhtiar bakhtiyaar 11. Marwat maarvaat 12. Ahmadzai ahamadajaai 13. Tarai taraai 14. Dotanai dotaani (Dotani) 15. Taran taaran 16. Lodhi lodhi 17. Niazai naaijaai 18. Soor soor 19. Sarwanai sarvaanaai 20. Gandapur gandhaapuri 21. Daulat Khail daulat khel 22. Kundi Ali Khail kundhi Ali khail 23. Dasoo Khail daasoo khail 24. Jaafar jaafr 25. Ostranai (Ustarana) ostraanaai 26. Loohanai loohaanaai 27. Miankhail mainakhail 28. Betani (Baitanee) bhaitaani 29. Khasoor khsoor

yeh sabhi kbeele bhi kai kai ttaabaron, kailon, plaareenaaon, va kaahoolon mein bante hue hain. yahi kbeelaai sanrachana Bhaarat ke pathaanon dvaara bhi apnaai ja rahi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Jaffrelot, Christophe (2004). A history of Pakistan and its origins. Anthem Press. pa॰ 69. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-1-84331-149-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=Q9sI_Y2CKAcC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA69#v=onepage&q&f=false. abhigman tithi: 22 August 2010.
  2. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Ethnologue naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; CIA-Pak-pop naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  4. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; CIA-Afghan-pop naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  5. The History, Antiquities, Topography, and Statistics of Eastern India: In Relation to Their Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, Agriculture, Commerce, Manufactures, Fine Arts, Population, Religion, Education, Statistics, Etc., by Robert Montgomery Martin, Cambridge University Press. [1], pg. 145. "Of the Pathans, there are above 6,000 families, chiefly settled in Nawada, Sheykhpura, and Patna." Link here
  6. "United Arab Emirates: Demography". britainika vishvakosh World Data. britainika vishvakosh Online. http://www.britannica.com/new-multimedia/pdf/wordat207.pdf. abhigman tithi: 15 March 2008.
  7. 42% of 200,000 Afghan-Americans = 84,000 and 15% of 363,699 Pakistani-Americans = 54,554. Total Afghan and Pakistani Pashtuns in USA = 138,554.
  8. a aa "Ethnologue report for Southern Pashto: Iran (1993)". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pbt. abhigman tithi: 5 May 2012.
  9. Maclean, William (10 June 2009). "Support for Taliban dives among British Pashtuns". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL861250. abhigman tithi: 6 August 2009.
  10. Relations between Afghanistan and Germany: Germany is now home to almost 90,000 people of Afghan origin. 42% of 90,000 = 37,800
  11. "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada". 2.statcan.ca. 2006. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000. abhigman tithi: 17 April 2010.
  12. "Perepis.ru" (ru mein). perepis2002.ru. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/TOM_04_P1.doc.
  13. "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?breadcrumb=POLTD&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&subaction=-1&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&documentproductno=0&textversion=false&documenttype=Details&collection=Census&javascript=true&topic=Ancestry&action=404&productlabel=Ancestry%20(full%20classification%20list)%20by%20Sex&order=1&period=2006&tabname=Details&areacode=0&navmapdisplayed=true&. abhigman tithi: 2 June 2008. Total responses: 25,451,383 for total count of persons: 19,855,288.
  14. The Pathan Borderland, James William Spain, Mouton, ... The most familiar name in the west is Pathan, a Hindi term adopted by the British, which is usally applied only to the people living east of the Durand ...
  15. Afghanistan: Glossary, British Library, ... Comes to mean 'Pathans' residing in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Divided into two main groups, the Abdalis (qv) and the Ghilzais (qv) ...
  16. An historical and descriptive account of Persia ... including a description of Afghanistan and Beloochistan, James Baillie Fraser, Oliver a. Boyd, 1834, ... According to their own traditions they believe themselves descended from the Jews ...
  17. A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan, Amy Romano, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8239-3863-6
  18. Profiles of Pakistan's Seven Tribal Agencies, Syed Saleem Shahzad