pashto bhaasha

pashto
saaaincha:Nastaliq pashto
Pashto.svg
pashto ka naam jo pashto lipi mein likha gaya hai
uchchaaran: uchchaaran: [ˈaapəaaʂaat̪aaoː], [ˈaapəaaçaat̪aaoː], [ˈaapʊaaxt̪aaoː]
bolne ka sthaan: afgaanistaan, Pakistan
suruvaat: 2009
samudaaya: pashtoon log
maatrubhaashaaprayogakarta: 4–6 karod
bhaasha parivaar:
hind-Europeeya
  • Indo-Iranian
    • Iranian
      • Eastern Iranian
        • pashto
Standard forms
Central Pashto (Ghilzai)
yisufjya (northan)
kandahaari (Southern)
shaakha bhaasha: 17 dialects
lipi arabi lipi
raajabhaasha maanyata
aupachaarik maanyata: Flag of Afghanistan.svg afgaanistaan[1]
Recognised minority language in Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan[3]
niyntrak sanstha: Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy (Pakistan)[2]
bhaasha code:
aaiesao 639-1 ps
aaiesao 639-2 pus
aaiesao 639-3 pus – Macrolanguage
individual codes:
pst – [[Central Pashto]]
pbu – Northern Pashto
pbt – Southern Pashto
wne – [[Waneci]]
bhaashaavedhashaala 58-ABD-a
Pashtun Language Location Map.svg
Map of Pashto-speaking regions (orange)


malang jaan Baba (1917-1957) ek prasiddh pashto kavi the

pashto (پaaښaaتaaو), jise pakhto ya afgaani bhi kaha jaata hai, afgaanistaan aur Pakistan mein rahane vaale pathaan samudaaya ki mukhya bhaasha hai. yeh kendreeya aur dakshini afgaanistaan aur uttar-pashchimi Pakistan ke khaibar-pakhtoonakhva praant ke vaasi hain. bhaugolik drushti se yeh aamoo dariya se dakshin aur sindhu nadi se pashchim ke kshetron mein rahate hain. pashto hind-Irani bhaasha-parivaar ki Irani upashaakha ki sadasya hai aur Irani bhaashaaoain mein ise ek poorvi Irani bhaasha maana jaata hai.[4] anumaan kiya jaata hai ki vishv-bhar mein kreeb 5-6 karod log pashto apni maatrubhaasha ke roop mein bolte hain.[5] afgaanistaan ke samvidhaan ne dari (faarasi) ke saath-saath pashto ko bhi ek raajabhaasha hone ka darja diya hai.[1]

anukram

likhaai

pashto bhi urdoo aur sindhi ki tarah arabi-faarasi lipi ka prayog karti hai, lekin usamein kuchh badlaav laae gaye hain taaki 't' jaisi prachalit dhvaniyaaain (jo bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein to pai jaati hain lekin Iran mein naheen) likhi ja sakein. dhyaan rahe ki urdoo ke liye bhi aise badlaav kiye gaye hain, lekin urdoo mein alag tarah se parivrtikran hua jis se pashto aur urdoo lipiyon mein kuchh antar hai.

pashto akshar ا ب پ ت ټ ث ج ځ چ څ ح خ د ډ ړ ژ ږ س ش ښ ص ض
naagari akshar a b p t t s j dj ch ts h kh1 the d za r d za jh2 jh/ya3, g s sh kh, sh, ts s za
a॰adha॰ava॰ ɑ, ə b p ʈ s d͡aaʒ d͡aaz t͡aaʃ t͡aas h x ɖ z r ɻ z ʒ ʐ, ʝ, ɡ s ʃ x, ʂ, ç s z
pashto akshar ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك, ک ګ ل م ن ڼ و ه ۀ ي ى ۍ ئ
naagari akshar t za a g4 f k5 k g l m na n va, oo, O, au h, a, aa a ya, E ya, aai ai ai
a॰adha॰ava॰ z ɑ, ə, ʔ ɣ f q k g l m n ɳ w, u, o h, a, ə ə j, i j, ai əaai əaai
1. krupaya 'kh' ke uchchaaran par dhyaan dein - yeh 'kh' se bhinn hai
2. krupaya 'jh' ke uchchaaran par dhyaan dein - yeh 'jh' aur 'za' donon se bhinn hai
3. yeh punjabi se milta-julata hai jiski kuchh upabhaashaaoain mein jh aur ya ki aapasi sahasvaaniki hoti hai
4. krupaya 'g' ke uchchaaran par dhyaan dein - yeh 'g' se bhinn hai
5. krupaya 'k' ke uchchaaran par dhyaan dein - yeh 'k' se thodi bhinn hai

upabhaashaaeain

pashto ki do mukhya upabhaashaaeain hain: uttari aur dakshini. uttari pashto bolne vaale apni bhaasha ko "pakhto" bolte hain (ismein 'kh' ke uchchaaran par dhyaan dein) aur dakshini pashto bolne vaale apni bhaasha ko 'pashto' bolte hain. iske mukhya vibhaajan ke alaava bhi alag-alag sthaanon par shabdon ko alag lahajon mein bola jaata hai. alag-alag sthaanon ki upabhaashaaon mein kuchh chune hue shabd is prakaar hain:

kandhaar Quetta haranaai bannoo vaana khost tiraah gjni Kabul pishaavar hindi anuvaad
pashto pashto pashto paashte paashte paakhte paakhto pakhto pakhto pukhto pashto
var var var taamba taamba, vaar daada, vaar taamba, vaar var var var dwaar (daravaaja)
psha psha shpa, yadai psha psha pkha pkha pkha pkha khpa paaooain
lmaar lmaar mer myera starga yorama, myera starga myera starga myer, myera starga nmaar nmaar nvaar sooraj
haalak haalak chora vedka vedkai vedkai vodkai haalak haalak haalak ladka (chhora)
nyaili nyaili chuvaara vedkye jalkiye jalkiye vodkye, jalkiye nyaili jilkai jine ladki
ya​aao ya​aao yo ye yo ye yo ya​aao ya​aao ya​aao ek
tsalor tsalor chalor saaler tsaalaver tsaaler tsaalavor tsalor tsalor salor chaar
pindja pindja pinjha, pindja pinja pinja pindja pinja pindja pinja pinja paaainch
shpaajh shpaajh shpojh shpejh shpejh shpejh shpejh shpag shpag shpag chhah
tsok tsok chok sek tsek tsek tsok tsok tsok sok kaun
mujh mujh mush mijh mijh mig mujho mug mung mung ham
jma jma jma emo emo emo emo jma jma jma mera
sta sta sta eto eto eto eto sta sta sta tumhaara
der, jyaat der, jyaat tsaat pira, jyot pira, jyot der, jyot der, jyot der, jyaat der, jyaat der, jyaat bahut, zyaada, dher saara
lajh lajh lajh lashki lashki lag lag lag lag lag kam, chhota (sanskrut: laghu)
chshal chashal yavatal chashal chashal tsakhl tsakhl tsakhl tskal, chikhl skal peena
ho ho ho eya eya eya eya ho ho ao haaain
yam yam yam ya ya ya yam yam yam yam main hooain
jam jam jhm, drumam drima, s drima, ch drima, ch cham, drumam jam jm jm jaata hooain
jhba jhba jba jhba jhba jhba jhba jhba jhba jhba jihva, jbaan, bhaasha
kor kor kor ker ker ker kola kor kor kor ghar
bega bega bega vega vega vega vega bega bega bega shaam (sanskrut: vaikaal)
sta sta sta shta shta shta shta sta shta shta hai
yijh yijh yirj yijh yijh yig yig yig yig yig bhaaloo
plaar plaar pyaar plor plor plor plor plaar plaar plaar pita
kndaahaar kvetta haranai bannoo vaana khost tiraah gjni Kabul peshaavar hindi anuvaad

jaisa ki dekha ja sakta hai pashto ke bahut se shabd sanskrut ya hindi se milte-julate hain. is vajah se bahut se bhaashaavaijnyaaanikon ko pehle bhram ho gaya ki shaayad pashto bhi ek hind-aarya bhaasha hai, lekin vyaakaran jaaainchane se pata laga ki yeh ek Irani bhaasha hai jispar hind-aarya bhaashaaoain ka gahra prabhaav pada hai. vaise bhi Irani bhaashaaoain aur hind-aarya bhaashaaoain mein bahut se sajaateeya shabd hain jo roop aur arth mein milte hain.

pashto aur hindi ki samaanataaeain

pashto bhaasha aur hindi mein kaafi samaanataaeain pai jaati hai. aadhunik hindi aur urdoo par bhi pashto ka prabhaav hai. donon hindi aur pashto mein "n" paaya jaata hai haalaanki urdoo mein ye maujood nahi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. a aa Constitution of Afghanistan - Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
  2. Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 705.
  3. "Population by Mother Tongue". Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. http://www.census.gov.pk/MotherTongue.htm. abhigman tithi: 28 December 2011.
  4. Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
  5. Paul M. Lewis, san (2009). "Pashto, Northern". SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pbu. "Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries."