paryatan bhoogol

vaasko di gaama kaaleekat, Bhaarat ke tat par 20 May 1498.

paryatan bhoogol ya bhoo-paryatan, maanav bhoogol ki ek pramukh shaakha hain. is shaakha mein paryatan evam yaatraaon se sambandhit tatvon ka adhyayan, bhaugolik pahaluon ko dhyaan me rakhakar kiya jaata hai. national jiyogrefik ki ek paribhaasha ke anusaar kisi sthaan aur uske nivaasiyon ki sanskruti, suruchi, parampara, jalavaayu, paryaavaran aur vikaas ke svaroop ka vistrut gyaan praapt karne aur uske vikaas mein sahayog karne vaale paryatan ko "paryatan bhoogol" kaha jaata hai.[1] bhoo paryatan ke anek laabh hain. kisi sthal ka saakshaatkaar hone ke kaaran tatha usase sambandhit jaankaari anubhav dvaara praapt hone ke kaaran paryatak aur nivaasi donon ka anek prakaar se vikaas hota hain. paryatan sthal par anek prakaar ke saamaajik tatha vyaapaarik samooh milkar kaam karte hain jisse paryatak aur nivaasi donon ke anubhav adhik praamaanik aur mahattvapoorn ban jaate hai. bhoo paryatan paraspar ek doosare ko soochana, gyaan, sanskaar aur paranparaaon ke aadaan-pradaan mein sahaayak hota hai, isse donon ko hi vyaapaar aur aarthik vikaas ke avsar milte hain, sthaaneeya vastuon kalaaon aur utpaad ko nae baajaar milte hain aur maanavata ke vikaas ki dishaaeain khulati hain saath hi bachchon aur parijanon ke liye sachchi kahaaniyaaain, chitr aur filmein bhi milti hain jo paryatak apni yaatra ke dauraan banaate hain.[2] paryatan bhoogol ke vikaas ya kshaya mein paryatan sthal ke raajanaitik, saamaajik aur praakrutik kaaranon ka bahut mahattv hota hai aur iske vishay mein jaankaari ke maanachitr aadi kuchh upakaranon ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

anukram

paryatan ka bhaugolik praarambh

kolambas ki yaatraaon sein sambandhit yeh maanachitr 1490 mein banaaya gaya tha

bhoogol aur paryatan ka sambandh bahut puraana hai, lekin paryatan ka bhaugolik praarambh dheere-dheere hua. praacheen kaal se hi log ek sthaan se doosare sthaan ko gamanaagaman karte the. anek prajaatiyon jaise mangolaayad prajaati, neegroids ityaadi ne antaramahaadveepeeya sthaanaantaran kiya, kintu ye palaayan keval jeevan ke star par aadhaarit tha aur yeh maanav basaav ki sthaayi prakriya thi ataev iska koi paryatan mahatva naheen maana ja sakta. jab khoj ka yug aaya to Portugal aur cheen jaise deshon ke yaatriyon ne aarthik kaaranon, dhaarmik kaaranon evam doosari sanskrutiyon ko jaanane aur samajhne ki jijnyaaasa ke saath anek agyaat sthaanon ki khoj karne ki shuruaat ki. is samay parivhan ka saadhan keval samudri maarg evam paidal yaatra the. yaheen se paryatan ko ek alag roop evam mahattv milna praarambh hua. bhoogol ne paryatan ko vikaas ka raasta dikhaaya aur isi raaste par chalakar paryatan ne bhoogol ke liye aavashyak tathya ekatrit kiye. aamerigo vespoochi, frdinaand maigalan, kristofr kolambas, vaasko da gaama aur Francis drek jaise himmati yaatriyon ne bhoogol ka aadhaar lekar samudri raaston se anajaan sthaanon ki khoj praarambh ki aur yahi se bhoogol ne paryatan ko ek praathamik roop pradaan kiya. anek sanskrutiyon, dharmon aur maanyataaon ka vikaas paryatan bhoogol ke dvaara hi sambhav hua. vishv ke vikaas aur nirmaan mein paryatan bhoogol ka atyadhik mahattv hai. iski paribhaasha karte hue kaha bhi gaya hai ki khoj ka jaadui aakarshan hi paryatan bhoogol ka aadhaar hai aur swayam sampark mein aakar praapt kiya gaya praamaanik anubhav iski shakti hai.[3] aajkal bhoo paryatan ka paridhi bhoo paar kar antariksh ki or badh chali hai.[4]

bhaugolik vichaaradhaaraaon me paryatan

praacheen evam madhya kaal mein kai prasiddh bhoogolavettaaon ne anek sthaanon ki yaatraaeain ki. kuchh prasiddh bhoogolavettaaon dvaara diye paryatan sambandhi vichaar nimnalikhit hain.

yoonaani vichaaradhaara praacheen yoonaani vidvaanon ne bhoogol ka bahut vikaas kiya. yeh vah kaal tha jab sansaar keval Asia, Europe aur afreeka tak hi seemit maana jaata tha. anegjeemendar, ne anek sthaanon ki yaatraaeain keen. use sansaar ka sarvapratham maanachitr nirmaata bataaya gaya hai.[5] iraitosthanij ne pruthvi ki paridhi naapane ke liye misr ke aasvaan kshetr mein saaine naamak sthaan ko apna prayogasthal banaaya, jo aaj bhi paryatakon ke liye aakarshan ka kendra hai.

kolambas ki yaatraaeain

isi prakaar posidoniys ne bhi apne shaastron mein bhautik bhoogol par bal diya, doosari taraf usane geleshiya ke logon ka bhi varnan kiya. klaadiys taulami ne anek granthon evam maanachitron ki rachana ki. ek badi rochak ghatna taulami ke banaae maanachitron se judi hai, posidoniys ke maap ko lekar taulami ne apne maanachitr banaaai the, lekin usamein yeh dosh raha ki usamein pruthvi ka aakaar chhota tha. taulami ke maanachitron ke is dosh ka prabhaav kolambas ki yaatraaon par pada, kyonki usane in maanachitron ka anusaran karte hue America ko Asia samjha.

roman vichaaradhaara straibo, pomponiys mela aur plini ne anek kshetron ki yaatraaen keen. straibo ne likha ki "bhoogol ke dvaara samast sansaar ke nivaasiyon se parichay hota hai. bhoogolavetta ek aisa daarshanik hota hai, jo maanaveeya jeevan ko sukhi banaane aur khojo mein sanlagn rahata hai."[6] pomponiys mela ke granth kausmograafi mein vishv ka sankshipt varnan milta hai.

arab vichaaradhaara pramukh arab vidvaan al-idareesi ne keval paryatan ke uddeshya se hi ek granth likha- uske liye jo manoranjan ke liye vishv bhraman ki ichha rakhata hai. iske saath usane ek maanachitraavali bhi prakaashit ki. al-baruni, al-masoodi, ibn-batoota aadi arab bhoogolavettaaon ne bhi anek yaatraaeain kar kshetreeya bhoogol ke antargat paryatan ko badhaava diya.

bhaarateeya vichaaradhaara bhaarateeya parampara mein parivraajak ka sthaan praacheen kaal se hi hai. sannyaasi ko kisi sthaan vishesh se moh na ho, isliye parivraajak ke roop mein paryatan karte rahana hota hai. gyaan ke vistaar ke liye anek yaatraaeain ki jaati theen. aadi shankar aur svaami vivekaanand ki prasiddh Bhaarat yaatraaeain isi uddeshya se huin. bauddh dharm ke aagaman par Gautam buddh ke sandesh ko anya deshon mein pahuainchaane ke liye anek bhikshuon ne lambi yaatraaeain keen. ashok ne apne putr Mahendra aur putri sanghamitra ko isi uddeshya se Sri Lanka bheja. saamaanyajan ke liye gyaan ke vistaar aur saamoohik vikaas ke liye teerth yaatraaon ki vyavastha bhi praacheen bhooparyatan ka hi ek roop tha.

bhaugolik tatvon ka paryatan mein mahattv

paryaavaraneeya mahattv

Australia ke ek maarg par kangaaroo ke kshetr ko pradarshit karta chinh
niyaagra jal prapaat jise dekhne ke liye prativrsh laakhon paryatak yahaan pahuchate hain

paryaavaran ke antargat jaivik tatv paryatan par prabhaav daalte hai. sthaaneeya jaiv sanpada aadhaarit vibhinnta tatha paaristhitik tantr paryatakon ko aakarshit karte hain. iske antargat sthaaneeya ped-paudhe evam pashu-pakshi mahattvapoorn sthaan rakhate hain. Australia me paaya jaane wala jantu kangaaroo yahaaain ek pramukh sthaan rakhata hai. vishv mein kangaaroo hi Australia ki pehchaan hai. yahain tak ki Australia ke raashtreeya chinh me ise chitrit kiya jaata hai. vishv mein anek desh apne yahaaain ke jangali jaanvaron ke aavaas ko praathamikta dete hain. Bhaarat ke anek vanya jeev sanrakshan pariyojanaaeain iska jvalant udaaharan hain. iske atirikt Bhaarat mein anek raashtreeya udyaan hain jo vishv ke paryatakon ko apni or aakarshit karte hain.

bhaugolik drushyon ka aakarshan

sthaaneeya sthalaakruti ka gaharaai ke aadhaar par bhautik bhoogol mein adhyayan kiya jaata hai. paryatan bhoogol mein iska adhyayan keval un kshetron tak seemit hota hai jo apni vishesh sthalaakruti ke kaaran anoothe hote hain. ye visheshataaen nirjan aur aabaadi rahit pahaadi pradeshon mein bhi ho sakti hain aur svaasthyavardhak jalavaayu vaale pahaadi pradeshon mein bhi, udaaharan ke liye Bhaarat mein Shimla aur mount Abu. doosari taraf nadi-ghaatiyaaain, saagar, jharane, sookhe maroosthal aur bhaugolik kaarakon jaise paani, pavan, him aadi dvaara utpann aparadit evam banaai gayi sthalaakrutiyaaain bhi paryatakon ko apni or aakarshit karti hain. sanyukt raajya America aur Australia ke anek paryatan kshetr iska udaaharan hain. jvaalaamukhi bhi paryatakon ke aakarshan ka kendra samajhe jaate hain.[7] lekin prakruti ke inheen aakarshanon ke bhayankar roop dhaaran karne par paryatan ko haani bhi pahuainchati hai. vartamaan samay mein jab bhoo paryatan ek vyavasaaya ka roop le chuka hai anek desh apne aakarshak bhaugolik drushyon vaale sthalon ke chitraatmak web site banaakar logon ko is or aakarshit karte hain.[8]

mausami mahattv

mausami kaaran jaise taapamaan, pavan, aardrata, varsha, tatha ritu paryatan se seedhe sanbandh rakhate hain. is kaaran sabhi pramukh paryatan sthalon ki websiton par mausam ke vishay mein paryaapt jaankaari di jaati hai.[9][10] paryatak kaheen ghoomane jaane se pehle us sthaan ki jalavaayu ke vishay mein jaankaari praapt karte hain. ham jaante hain ki mausami kaaran maanav svaasthya par prabhaav daalte hai. dekhne mein aaya hai ki kuchh khaas varg ke paryatak jinmein tanaavagrast karmachaari aur vruddh paryatak adhik hote hain, jalavaayu parivartan ko svaasthya laabh ki drushti se dekhte hain. chikitsak bhi apni chikitsa-paddhati ke dauraan mareejon ko anek baar hava-paani badalne par jor dete hain. chikitsak ka taatparya mareej ko manovaigyaanik evam bhaugolik roop mein svaasthya laabh pahuainchaana hota hai. ise vartamaan mein svaasthya paryatan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. December-February ke maheenon mein jab America aur Europe me sardiyaaain adhik ho jaati hai to in deshon ke paryatak Bhaarat ke Goa jaise raajya jahaaain sardi apekshaakrut kam hoti hai, mein aakar saagar kinaare ret par soorya snaan karte hue din bitaana adhik upayukt samajhte hain. doosari taraf May-June ke maheenon mein jab Bhaarat ke sabhi bhaagon mein bheeshan garmi hoti hai to paryatakon ka aana bhi kam ho jaata hai.

parivhan vyavastha ka paryatan mein mahattv

ek suvyavasthit parivhan vyavastha kisi bhi paryatan kshetr ki reedh kahi ja sakti hain. paryatak chaahata hai ki usaka paryatan-kaal sabhi prakaar ki pareshaaniyon se mukt ho. paryatak apne mool sthaan se gantavya-sthal tak aasaani se ja sakein aur iske uparaant vaapas apne mool sthaan par aa sake. koi bhi desh apne paryatan-sthal ko viksit karne ke baad parivhan ki vyavastha par adhik bal deta hai. paryatan ke saath parivhan vyavastha is prakaar jud gayi hai ki anek sarkaaron aur sansthaaon ne paryatan aur parivhan naam se alag vibhaag ya mantraalaya banaae hain.[11] parivhan vyavastha antarraashtreeya aur sthaaneeya dono roopon mein hoti hai. parivhan ke prakaar is tarah hain-

  1. sadak maarg, 2. rel maarg, 3. havaai maarg, 4. jal maarg

ab to antariksh paryatan praarambh ho gaya hai jo unnt takaneeko ke saath poornataya parivhan vyavastha par hi nirbhar hain. sanyukt raajya America ke denis teeto sarvapratham antariksh paryatak bane. unhone 28 April 2006 se 06 May 2006 ke beech antariksh mein rahakar yeh keertimaan sthaapit kiya.

paryatan ke saanskrutik kaaran

afreeka ke desh yugaanda mein apni ek yaatra ke dauraan William klintan
videsho mein holi khelte hue bhaarateeya logo ke saath sthaaneeya nivaasi
saanba parade dekhte hue hue paryatak

vishv mein maanav anek samoohon aur samudaayon mein bainta hai. pratyek maanav-samooh ke reeti-rivaaj aur sanskaar alag-alag hain. sabhi apne dhang se apne dharmon, panthon, tyohaaron, bhaashaaon aur paarivaarik aacharanon ka paalan karte hain. isi vividhta ka adhyayan saanskrutik bhoogol mein kiya jaata hai. yeh vividhta hi paryatakon ko aakarshit karti hai.

shiksha hetu paryatan

yeh un paryatakon ke liye hai jo paryatak doosari sanskruti ko jaanane va samajhne ke ichhuk hote hain. ye paryatak shodh athva anusandhaan ke uddeshya se paryatak ki shreni mein aate hain. mukhyat: ye chhote-chhote samoohon mein vibhinn prajaatiyon aur jaatiyon ka adhyayan karte hain. yahaaain paryatak maanav ke sandarbh mein sthaaneeya roop se janm-mrutyu dar, svaasthya, aavaas, dharm, tyauhaar, reeti-rivaaj, shiksha, bhojan, maanav bastiyon ki banaavat aadi sanbandhit aaainkadon ko ekatrit karte hain. vibhinn schoolon, vishvavidyaalayon evam samaaj sevi sansthaaon dvaara isi prakaar ki yaatraaeain aayojit karavaai jaati hain.

manoranjan hetu paryatan

yeh un paryatakon ke liye hai jo doosari sanskruti ko jaanane ke saath hi manoranjan ki bhi kaamna karte hain. udaaharan ke kiye Bhaarat mein jahaaain yeh vibhinnta pai jaati hai. yahaaain March ke maheene mein holi naamak tyohaar ati harshollaas se manaaya jaata hai. is samay yahaaain ka taapamaan bhi anukool hota hai. isi samay ka upayog karte hue hajaaron ki sankhya mein videshi paryatak yahaaain pahuainch jaate hain. ve bhaarateeya logon ke saath is rangon se yukt tyohaar ka aanand lete hain. is prakaar se ve yaatra ke saath-saath Bhaarat ke saanskrutik roop se bhi parichit hote hain. yahaaain yeh bhi ullekh karna aavashyak hoga ki sthaaneeya shaasan bhi is samay paryatakon ko aakarshit karne ke liye anek yojanaaeain kriyaanvit karta hai. nai Delhi mein Delhi sarkaar dvaara laagoo ki gayi atithi devo bhav isi prakaar ki ek safal yojana hai. bhaugolik kaarak bhi paryatakon ke manoranjan ka kaaran bante hain. kyonki din pruthvi par sabse pehle poorv disha se hi niklata hai, isliye nae saal ka aanand lene ke liye hajaaron ki sankhya mein paryatak duniya ke poorvi chhor par chale jaate hain. nyoojeelaind aur Australia mein 31 December ko hajaaron paryatak apni upasthiti darj karaate hain. doosari taraf braajeel ki saanba parade ko dekhne aur usaki mauj-masti mein shaamil hone ke liye har saal laakhon paryatak braajeel pahuainchate hain. isi prakaar Spain ka saand yuddh aue tamaatar yuddh[12] paryatakon dvaara bahut pasand kiya jaata hai. vishv paryatakon ko aakarshit karne ke liye anek deshon ne apni praacheen saanskrutik dharoharon ko sanrakshit karna praarambh kar diya hai. is prakaar ki sthaaneeya saanskrutik gatividhiyaaain apni romaanchak prakruti aur vilgata ke kaaran vishv bha‍aar mein paryatakon ke liye aakarshan ka kendra ban jaati hain.

mool desh evam apne poorvajo ke prati apanaapan

aaj jis sansaar ko ham dekh rahe hai vah bahut badla hua hai. vartamaan samay mein hamein vibhinn deshon ke saamaaj mein mishrit maanav samoohon ke darshan hote hain. anek saal pehle kuchh logon ke samooh dhaarmik, aarthik aur saamaajik kaaranon se apne mool sthaan se sthaanaantarit ho kar hajaaro kilometer door ke sthaanon par chale gaye the. vahaaain jaakar ve vaheen sthaayi roop se bas gaye aur mool sthaan se sampark samaapt ho gaya. udaaharan ke liye afreeka mahaadveep se neegroid nivaasiyon ko gulaam banaakar sanyukt raajya America laaya gaya. Bhaarat se gayaana, maureeshas, dakshin afreeka, Malaysia aadi sthaanon mein log rojagaar ki talaash mein gaye. aaj anek saal baad unki peedhiyaaain aarthik roop me samruddh hokar apne mool sthaan mein ghoomane aati hain. ye pravaasi apne poorvajon ki janmabhoomi dekhne aate hain. Bhaarat mein to aise pravaasiyon ka vishesh svaagat kiya jaata hai.

paryatan mein sahaayak vastueain

al-idareesi ka 1154 mein banaaya vishv maanachitr, dakshin disha ko uttar mein dikhaaya gaya hain

paryatak anek prakaar ke bhaugolik maanachitron, upakaranon va pustakon ka prayog karte hain. ek sahi bhaugolik maanachitraavali, kisi bhi paryatak ke liye sarvapratham aur mukhya saadhan hai. maanachitron mein akshaansh rekhaaeain evam deshaantar rekhaaeain di hui hoti hain jinki sahaayata se kisi bhi sthal ke laghu roop ka kaagaj par satahi nireekshan kiya ja sakta hai. maanachitraavali mein paryatan pustika, paryatan keindron ya vibhinn sthaanon ke paryatan vibhaagon ke vivran jahaaain se aaspaas ke paryatan sthalon ke vivran aur atithigruhon ke vivran aasaani se maaloom ho sakein, dishaasoochak ya kutubanuma, vibhinn prakaar ke aaainkade ityaadi hote hain. iske atirikt paryatan pustika, kisi bhi paryatak ke liye bahut mahattvapoorn hoti hai. mukhyat: ismein paryatak ke liye darshaneeya-sthal ke chitron ki sahaayata se sthal ki aitihaasik aur bhaugolik jaankaari ko bataaya jaata hai. paryatan pustika, paryatak ko ghoomane ki yojana banaane mein sahaayata pradaan karti hai. sthaaneeya prashaasan mahattvapoorn maargon evam sthaanon par sthaan nideshak soochakon ka nirmaan karaate hain. is prakaar ke soochak paryatakon ke saath-saath baahari pradeshon se aa rahe vaahan chaalakon ke liye bhi laabhadaayak hote hain. diksoochak ya kutubanuma paryatak ko disha sambandhi soochana pradaan karta hai. jaagruk aur sajag paryatakon ke liye diksoochak bahut aavashyak yantr maana jaata hai. gaaid bhi kisi sthaan ka avlokan karaate samay paryatakon ko disha sambandhi jaankaari dena nahi bhoolate hain. diksoochak mukhyat: do prakaar ke paryatakon ke liye adhik upayukt hai -

  1. shodh evam anusandhaan karne vaale paryatak jo vaigyaanik pahaluon ka adhik dhyaan rakhate hain.
  2. bina kisi poorv yojana ke ghoomane nikal padne wala manamauji paryatak jo har prakaar ki taiyaari pehle se naheen karte hain.

is prakaar ke paryatakon ko praay: khojakarta ya romaanch ko pasand karne vaalon ki shreni mein rakha jaata hai. iske atirikt maanachitran prastutikran jismein upagrahon ke maadhyam se pruthvi ke trivim aayaami maanachitron ka nirmaan kiya jaata hai aur aakaash se tasveerein lekar sansaar ke bade se bade aur chhote se chhote bhaag ka sateek maanachitr taiyaar kar diya jaata hai. paryatak aasaani se apni jeb mein rakh sakta hai. in maanachitron mein rudh chinh diye hote hai jis kaaran inhein samajhna aasaan hota hai. anek prakaar ke saankhyikeeya aaainkadon ke niroopan paryatan ke anek pahaluon ka adhyayan karne mein sahaayak sidgh hote hain.

paryatan ke avarodhi bhaugolik kaaran

paryatan ko badhaane aur viksit karne mein vibhinn bhaugolik tattvon ka bahut adhik yogadaan hota hai. saath hi kuchh bhaugolik vinaashakaari ghatnaaon ke kaaran paryatan udyog ko aisa dhakka pahuainchata hai ki kisi vishesh sthaan par paryatan kuchh samay ke liye poori tarah samaapt sa ho jaata hai. ye bhaugolik ghatnaaen is prakaar hain -

jvaalaamukhi

jvaalaamukhi ke visfot mein nikli gaison aur amleeya varsha ko dikhaata chitr

yeh ek bhaugolik ghatna hai, jismein pruthvi ke bheetar ka garm laava, gas, raakh aadi bhayankar visfot ke saath baahar aa jaate hai. is prakriya mein pruthvi ke garbh se nikla laava itna garm hota hai ki jo bhi vastu iske sampark mein aa jaati hai tatkaal nasht ho jaati hain. is garm laave ke atirikt jvaalaamukhi se nikli hui gas aur raakh bhi sthaaneeya paryaavaran ke liye atyadhik haanikaarak hote hain. jvaalaamukhi se nikli gas jisme anek haanikaarak gaisein hoti hai jaise kaarban daaiaaksaaid, salfar daaiaaksaaid, haaidrojan salfaaid aadi aur raakh aasmaan mein chha jaate hain. ye itne saghan hote hai ki kabhi-kabhi to hafton tak soorya ki kirnein pruthvi tak naheen pahuainch paateen. taduparaant varsha hone ke samay ye haanikaarak gaisein aur raakh pruthvi satah par aa kar vyaapak roop se tabaahi macha deti hain. is prakaar jvaalaamukhi udgagaar ke saath hi sthaan vishesh par hajaaron varg meter tak ki satah par insaan to kya poore jaivamandal ke liye jeene aur viksit hone ke liye kuchh samay tak anukool vaataavaran nahi ban paata. yadi kisi sthaan par jvaalaamukhi fat pade to vahaaain paryatakon ki kami ho sakti hai. doosari or anek aise supt aur jeevit jvaalaamukhi hain jo paryatakon ke aakarshan ka kendra hain, udaaharan ke liye havaai ke jvaalaamukhi national park.[13]

bhookamp

yeh bhi ek pramukh vinaashakaari bhaugolik ghatna hai. bhoogarbhik halchalon ke kaaran pruthvi ki oopari satah ke hilne ko bhookamp kehte hain. bhookamp praay: naveen valit parvat shrunkhalaaon aur plate vivrtiniki kshetron ke kinaare vaale bhaagon mein adhik aate hain. is vinaashakaari bhaugolik ghatna ke kaaran bhaari jan-dhan ki haani hoti hai. bhookamp ke kaaran bhoo-skhalan bhi hota hain. Japan mein to sthaaneeya shaasan dvaara aise sthaanon par chetaavani pattikaaeain bhi lagaai jaati hain. ek anumaan ke anusaar bhookamp prabhaavit kshetro mein apekshaakrut kam paryatak aate hain.[14] kabhi kabhi to bhookamp ke kaaran kisi paryatan sthal mein poori tarah sannaata chha jaata hai,[15] jisse usaki arth vyavastha bhi prabhaavit hoti hai.

sunaami

2004 mein hind mahaasaagar mein I sunaami aapada ki prakriya ko darshaata chitr

samudra ke tat paryatakon ki soochi mein sada vareeyata par rahe hain. aaj bhi inki lokapriyta mein koi kami naheen. jahaajaraani udyog paryatakon ko saagar ki romaanchak sair karva raha hai. saagar ke reteele tat paryatakon se pate pade hain, lekin yahaaain bhi ek vinaashakaari bhaugolik ghatna apni taakat se sthaaneeya shaasan, paryatakon aur is udyog se jude logon ke man mein dar ki sihran paida kar deti hai aur vah hai sunaami. ise Japani mein tsunaami kehte hain, yaani bandargaah ke nikat ki prachand saagareeya lahar. samudra ke bheetar achaanak jab badi tej halachal hone lagti hai to usamein ufaan uthata hai jisse aisi lambi aur bahut ooainchi laharon ka rela uthana shuroo ho jaata hai jo zabardast aaveg ke saath aage badhta hai. yeh atyadhik vinaashakaari hota hai. ullekhaneeya hai ki 26 December 2004 ko I sunaami laharon se Bhaarat sahit 13 deshon mein do lakh se adhik log maare gaye the. keval Bhaarat mein iske kaaran 10 hajaar se adhik logon ki maut hui thi aur paryatan ko khaasa nuksaan pahuaincha tha.[16] hind mahaasaagar ke alaava kaireebiyaai dweep samoohon aur maiditereniyn kshetron mein bhi sunaami ka aatank dekha gaya hai. iski bhayaavahata ka andaaja isi baat se lagaaya ja sakta hai ki sanyukt raashtra ki vaigyaanik evam saanskrutik shaakha (yoonesko) ne vishv ke anek bhaagon mein sunaami ki chetaavani dene waali pranaali lagaai hai.

bhoomandaleeya ooshmeekaran

yeh kaarak uparyukt bhaugolik kaarakon ki bhaaainti na to poori tarah bhaugolik hai aur na hi bahut teji se vidhvans karta hai, lekin iska prabhaav kshetr kuchh kilometer ka na hokar hajaaron kilometer tak hota hai. audyogeekaran va vanon ke vinaash se paryaavaran mein kaarban daai aaksaaid ki maatra badhti ja rahi hai, jisne green house prabhaav ko janm diya hai. vaayumandal mein kaarban daai aaksaaid ki ek chaadar jaisi parat bani hain jiske kaaran soorya ke prakaash ke saath pruthvi par I infraared radio ektiv kirnein poornataya vaapas naheen ho paateen aur kaarban daai aaksaaid mein mil jaati hain. is taapeeya oorja ke vaayumandal main kaid ho jaane se dharati ke ausat taapamaan mein vruddhi hoti hain, jo bhoomandaleeya ooshmeekaran ka kaaran banti hai. iska prabhaav him kshetron mein teji se pighlati him ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai. mausam mein teji se parivartan ho rahe hain aur saagar tat ke sameepavarti kshetr teji se doob rahe hain. skeindineviya praayadveep ke anek Europeeya desh apne anek aise taton ko gavaaain chuke hain, jo pehle paryatako ke liye svarg hua karte the.[17] aaj paryatak kaheen par ghoomane se pehle apni vareeyata soochi mein un sthaanon ko pasand karte hain jahaaain ka bhaugolik vaataavaran sukhad ho aur paryaavaran pradooshan se mukt ho.[18]

yeh bhi dekhein

chitr deergha

bhautik bhoogol ke kaarak : aap dekhna chaaheinge

maanav bhoogol ke kaarak : aap samajhna chaaheinge

sandarbh

  1. "About Geotourism" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). national jiyogrefik. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/sustainable/about_geotourism.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  2. "Vermont's Northeast Kingdom" (angreji mein) (echateeem). traiveladakingadam.com. http://www.travelthekingdom.com/geotourism/aboutgeotourism.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  3. "a new dimension in environmental tourism" (angreji mein) (eesapi). aaltaranetiv grees. http://www.alternativegreece.gr/WebForms/CategoryDisplay.aspx?ID=8. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  4. "Tito the spaceman" (angreji mein) (esateeem). BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1297924.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  5. Raise, F : The History of Maps, General Cartography, op,cit,p.8
  6. Strabo: Book I, English Translation by H.L. Jones, Harward University press, 1927, pp. 1-5
  7. "13 active volcanoes that are tourist attractions" (angreji mein). seinsalist. http://senselist.com/2006/07/31/13-active-volcanoes-that-are-tourist-attractions. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  8. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (angreji mein). Bhaarat sarkaar. http://tourism.gov.in/. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  9. "weather" (angreji mein). maai svitjralaind. http://www.myswitzerland.com/en.cfm/about_switzerland/weather. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  10. "weather end klaaimet" (angreji mein) (eesapeeeks). western Australia. http://www.westernaustralia.com/en/About_Western_Australia/Weather_and_Climate/Pages/Climate_Weather.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  11. "transport end toorijm diveejan" (angreji mein) (eesapi). United nations iskaip (ISCAP). http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/index.asp. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  12. "Spain ke tamaatar yuddh mahotsav mein 40 hajaar se adhik logon ne hissa liya" (echateeem). hindi nest. http://samachar.boloji.com/200708/08306.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  13. "havaai vaulakenoj national park" (angreji mein) (echateeem). national park service. http://www.nps.gov/havo/planyourvisit/directions.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  14. "Earthquake effects on tourism in central Italy" (angreji mein). science daayarekt. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7Y-43NT3GM-C&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a76eaf077d76bf587f0528dece5c2886. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  15. "Peru tourist haven desolate after earthquake" (angreji mein) (eesapeeeks). news.sawf.org. http://news.sawf.org/Travel/41293.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  16. "Thailand's tsunami-hit tourism" (angreji mein) (esateeem). BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4375815.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  17. "If the global warming continues ... Croatia Will Become Barren Desert" (angreji mein) (esateeemael). kroeshiya world network. http://www.croatia.org/crown/articles/9129/1/If-the-global-warming-continues--Croatia-Will-Become-Barren-Desert.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  18. "Global warming threatens tourism" (angreji mein) (esateeem). BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/431935.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008.

granth soochi

  1. Raise, F : The History of Maps, General Cartography, op,cit,p. 8
  2. Strabo: Book I, English Translation by H.L. Jones, Harward University press, 1927, pp. 1–5

baahari kadiyaan