parvat

mount evarest, duniya ka sabse ooaincha parvat (daahini or). baaeain or ki choti nuptse hai.

parvat ya pahaad pruthvi ki bhoo-satah par praakrutik roop se ooaincha utha hua hissa hota hai, jo jyaadaatar aakasmik tareeke se ubhara hota hai aur pahaadi se bada hota hai. parvat jyaadaatar ek lagaataar samooh mein hote hain. parvat 4 prakar ke hote hai:

  1. valit parvat
  2. bhranshotth parvat ya block parvat
  3. jvaalaamukhi parvat
  4. avashisht parvat

valit parvat

ye tab bante hain jab pruthvi ki tektaunik chattaanein ek doosare se takaraati ya sikudti hain, jisse pruthvi ki satah mein mod ke kaaran ubhaar aa jaata hai. duniya ke lagbhag sabhi bade aur ooainche parvat yuva moddaar parvat hain. himaalaya, Europeeya aalps, uttari Amreeki rauki, dakshini Amreeki endeej, vagairah sabhi yuva arthaat naye parvat hain. ye duniya ke sabse naye parvat tatha sab se uchhe parvat hai

bhranshotth parvat ya block parvat

bhranshotth parvat ya block parvat nirmaan prithivi ke upari sataho me bhranshan ke dvaara bhubhaag ke upar uthane se hota hai jaise yurop ka blok parvat, haarj.

jvaalaamukhi parvat

jvaalaamukhi parvat ka nirmaan prthivi ke unadar se nikele laava ke udagaar ke jamaav se hota hai. jaise:- varma k maaunt popa, mauna lova, visuvias aadi.

anukram

avashisht parvat

avashisht parvat ka nirmaan vaahya duto ke malavo ke jamaav se hota hai. jaise Bihar ka paarasanaath.

ek pahaad ke ek bade sthaalaakruti ki ek seemit kshetr mein aaspaas ke bhoomi ke oopar faila hai, aam taur par ek choti ke roop mein hai. ek parvat aam taur par ek pahaadi se steeper hai. parvat vivrtanik balon ya jvaalaamukhi ke maadhyam se bante hain. in balon ko sthaaneeya roop se pruthvi ki satah badha sakte hain. parvat nadiyon, mausam ki sthiti, aur gleshiyron ki kaarravaai ke maadhyam se dheere dheere erode. kuchh pahaadon pruthak shikhar hain, lekin sabse badi parvat shrrunkhala mein hote hain.

pahaadon par uchch unnayan samudra tal se thanda mausam ka utpaadan. ye thanda mausam drudhta se pahaadon ki paaristhitik tantr ko prabhaavit: vibhinn ooainchaaiyon vibhinn paudhon aur jaanvaron ki hai. kam mehamaananavaaj ilaake aur jalavaayu ki vajah se, is tarah ke pahaadon parvat par chadhaai ke roop mein sansaadhan nishkarshan aur manoranjan ke liye krushi ke liye kam aur adhik istemaal hote hain.

pruthvi par uchchatam parvat Asia ke himaalaya mein mount evarest, jiska shikhar sammelan 8850 meter (29035 feet) oopar samudra tal hai. saur pranaali mein kisi bhi grah par sabse adhik jaana jaata pahaad 21171 meter (69459 feet) par mangal grah par olanpas mauns hai.

vishay vastu [chhipaaen] 1 paribhaasha 2 bhoovijnyaaan 2.1 jvaalaamukhi 2.2 guna pahaadon 2.3 block pahaadon 2.4 kataav 3 jalavaayu 4 paaristhitikeeya 5 samaaj mein 6 sarvotkrusht 7 inhein bhi dekhein 8 nots 9 sandarbh 10 baahari link paribhaasha

Matterhorn, Swiss aalps

mount kenya ki chotiyon vahaaain ek pahaad ka koi saarvabhaumik sveekaar kiye jaate paribhaasha hai. oonchaai, maatra, raahat, dhalavaaainpan, rikti aur nirantarata ek pahaad ko paribhaashit karne ke liye maapdand ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya hai. [2] Oxford english dikshanari mein ek pahaad ke roop mein "pruthvi ki satah ka ek praakrutik oonchaai aaspaas se achaanak kam ya jyaada badhti paribhaashit kiya gaya hai star aur oonchaai hai, jo apekshaakrut aasann padonnati ke liye, prabhaavashaali ya ullekhaneeya hai ko praapt karne. "[2]

chaahe ek sthaalaakruti kaha jaata hai ek pahaad sthaaneeya upayog par nirbhar ho sakta hai. sain Francisco, California mein uchchatam bindu mount devidsan kaha jaata hai, 300 meter (980 feet) ki oonchaai iski hote hue bhi, jo ameriki padanaam se ek parvat ke liye yeh nyoonatam se kam bees foot banaata hai. isi tarah, mount Scott ke baahar [prashasti patra ki jaroorat] lautan, oklaahoma apne uchchatam bindu ke liye apne base se keval 251 meter (823 feet) hai. bhautik bhoogol ki Whittow ki dikshanari [3] mein kaha gaya hai, "kuchh adhikaariyon 600 meter (2,000 foot) pahaadon ke roop mein oopar eminences ke sambandh mein, neeche un pahaadiyon ke roop mein bheja ja raha hai."

Britain aur Ireland ganaraajya mein, ek pahaad aamtaur par kisi bhi shikhar sammelan ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai kam se kam 2,000 foot (ya 610 meter) uchch, [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] jabki aadhikaarik United kingadam sarkaar ki paribhaasha ek pahaad ki, upayog ke prayojanon ke liye, 600 meter ya usase adhik ki ek shikhar sammelan hai. [9] iske alaava, kuchh paribhaashaaon ko bhi ek sthalaakrutik pramukhata aavashyakta hai, aam taur par 100 ya 500 feet (30 meter ya 152) shaamil hain. [10] ek samay, America 1000 feet (300 meter) ya lambe hone ke roop mein ek pahaad ko paribhaashit kiya. kisi bhi isi tarah is oonchaai ki tulana mein kam sthaalaakruti ek pahaadi maana jaata tha. baharahaal, aaj, sanyukt raajya America bhoovaijnyaaanik sarvekshan (yooesajeees) ka nishkarsh hai ki in sharton America mein takaneeki paribhaasha naheen hai. [11]

"pahaadi paryaavaran" ki sanyukt raashtra paryaavaran kaaryakram ki paribhaasha nimn mein se kisi mein shaamil hain: [12]

kam se kam 2,500 meter (8,200 foot) ki oonchaai; kam se kam 1,500 meter (4,900 foot), 2 degree se adhik se adhik ek dhaal ke saath ki oonchaai; kam se kam 1,000 meter (3,300 foot), 5 degree se adhik se adhik ek dhaal ke saath ki oonchaai; kam se kam 300 meter (980 feet), 7 kimi (4.3 meal) ke bheetar ek 300 meter (980 feet) ki oonchaai seema ke saath ki oonchaai. in paribhaashaaon ka prayog, pahaadon yooreshiya ke 33%, dakshin America ke 19%, uttari America ke 24%, aur Africa ke 14% ko kavar kiya. [13] ek poore ke roop mein, pruthvi ki bhoomi dravyamaan ka 24% pahaadi hai. [14]

bhoogarbhashaastr mukhya lekh: parvat nirmaan aur pahaad prakaar ki soochi

jef Davis peek vheelar peek, nevaada ke gleshiyr nakkaasheedaar shikhar sammelan se dekha . jvaalaamukhi, guna, aur block [15] sabhi teen prakaar plate tektoniks se bante hain: jab pruthvi ki papadi chaal ke kuchh bhaagon, padna, aur gota vahaaain pahaadon ke teen mukhya prakaar hain. Compressional balon, isostatic utthaan aur aagneya baat balon ki ghuspaith oopar ki or chattaan ki satah, ek sthaalaakruti aaspaas suvidhaaon ki tulana mein adhik banaane. suvidha ki oonchaai yeh ya to ek pahaadi banaata hai ya, uchch aur steeper, ek pahaad hai. major pahaadon lambe rekheeya aarks mein hote hain, tektonik plate seemaaon aur gatividhi ka sanket karte hain.

jvaalaamukhi mukhya lekh: jvaalaamukhi

fooji jvaalaamukhi ki bhoovaijnyaaanik paar anubhaag jab ek thaali ek madhya mahaasaagar rij ya hautaspaut par ek aur plate neeche dhakel diya hai, ya jvaalaamukhi ka gathan kar rahe hain. [16] kareeb 100 kilometer ki gaharaai mein, pighlane rock slaib mein oopar (paani ke alaava ke kaaran) hota hai, aur megma ki satah tak pahuainch roopon. megma satah tak pahuainch jaata hai, yeh aksar is tarah ke ek dhaal jvaalaamukhi ya ek straitojvaalaamukhi ke roop mein ek jvaalaamukhi parvat banaata hai. [17] jvaalaamukhi ke udaaharan Japan mein mount fooji aur fileepeens mein mount Pinatubo shaamil hain. megma ki jameen ke neeche solidifies abhi bhi aise sanyukt raajya America mein navaajo parvat ke roop mein gunbad pahaadon, firm kar sakte hain: megma ke kram mein ek pahaad banaane ke liye satah tak pahunchane ke liye jaroori naheen hai.

pahaadon modo mukhya lekh: guna pahaadon modo pahaadon hoti hai jab do pleton ke takaraane:. chhota jor dosh ke saath hota hai aur papadi overthickened hai [18] kam ghana mahaadveepeeya parat "mangaai" ke baad se saghan viraasat chattaanon ke neeche, kisi bhi krastal saamagri ke vajan ko oopar ki or majaboor pahaadiyon ke roop mein karne par, pathaaron ya pahaadon mein ek bahut badi viraasat mein neeche ki or majaboor maatra ki uchhaal bal dvaara santulit kiya jaana chaahiye. is prakaar mahaadveepeeya parat saamaanya roop se jyaada pahaadon ke neeche gahra ho jaata hai, kam jhooth bol kshetron ki tulana mein. [19] rock ya to santulit roop se ya asymmetrically guna kar sakte hain. upfolds anticlines kar rahe hain aur downfolds synclines hain: visham tah mein vahaaain bhi leta hua ho sakta hai aur paraton palat sakta hai. jura pahaadon guna pahaadon ka ek udaaharan hai.

block pahaadon mukhya lekh: block pahaadon

Upstate New York mein Catskills ek ghis pathaar pratinidhitv karte hain. block pahaadon papadi mein dosh ke kaaran hota hai: ek seevan jahaan chattaanon ek doosare ke ateet ko sthaanaantarit kar sakte hain. chattaanon doosare ke liye ek galati vruddhi rishtedaar ke ek taraf, yeh ek pahaad ke roop mein kar sakte hain. [20] uplifted blaukon block pahaadon ya horsts hain. daramyaani gira blaukon Graben mein kaha jaata hai: ye chhota ho sakta hai ya vyaapak daraar ghaati system ke roop mein. paridrushya ke is roop ko poorvi Africa, vausages, pashchimi uttar America aur raain ghaati ke besin aur range praant mein dekha ja sakta hai. in kshetron mein aksar hoti hai jab kshetreeya tanaav extensional hai aur papadi patala hai.

kataav mukhya lekh: kataav aur nimn utthaan ke dauraan, pahaadon ke kataav ke agent (paani, hava, barf, aur gurutvaakarshan), jo dheere-dheere uplifted kshetr neeche pahanane ke adheen hain. kataav pahaadon ki chattaanon ki satah ki pahaadon ko khud ke liye firm ki tulana mein chhoti hone ka kaaran banta hai. [21] himnadon prakriyaaon aise girishrung, chaakoo badhat arêaates, aur katore ke aakaar ka cirques ki jheelon ke roop mein shaamil kar sakte hain visheshata bhoo aakrutiyon, utpaadan. pathaar pahaadon, aise Catskills ke roop mein, ek uplifted pathaar ke kataav se bante hain.

jalavaayu mukhya lekh: alpaain jalavaayu

kaarban County, yoota mein ek pahaad

das chotiyon, Canada ke Rockies ki ghaati pahaadon par jalavaayu uchch oonchaai par thanda ho gaya hai, kaaran hai ki jis tarah sooraj pruthvi ki satah tapata hai. [22] sooraj seedhe jameen vruddhi, jabki ek kanbal ke roop mein green house prabhaav kaarya karta hai, garmi pruthvi ki or vaapas darshaati hai ki hoga anyatha antariksh ke liye kho diya ja sakta hai. green house prabhaav is prakaar garm kam oonchaai par hava rahata hai. oonchaai badh jaati hai, vahaaain kam greenahaaus prabhaav hai, to parivesh ke taapamaan neeche chala jaata hai. [23]

jis dar par taapamaan oonchaai ke saath chala jaata hai, kaha jaata paryaavaran chook dar, sthir naheen hai (yeh din bhar mein utaar chadhaav ho sakta hai ya mausam aur bhi kshetreeya), lekin ek theth chook dar 1,000 meter (3.57 ° F prati 5.5 degree celcius hai 1,000 foot). [24] [25] isliye, ek pahaad par 100 meter ki doori tak chalti mote taur niktatam dhruv ki or 80 kilometer (45 meal ya akshaansh ke 0.75 °) chalti karne ke liye baraabar hai. [26] is sambandh keval anumaanit hai haalaanki, , is tarah ke mahaasaagaron (jaise ki aarkatik mahaasaagar ke roop mein) kaafi jalavaayu sanshodhit kar sakte hain karne ke liye niktata ke roop mein sthaaneeya kaarakon ke baad se. [27] ki oonchaai badh jaati hai, varsha ka mukhya roop se barf ban jaata hai aur havaaon vruddhi hui hai. [28]

oonchaai par paaristhitiki par jalavaayu ka prabhaav kaafi had tak varsha ki maatra ka ek sanyojan ke maadhyam se kabja kiya ja sakta hai, aur biotemperature, lesli mein Holdridge dvaara varnit ke roop mein 1947 [29] Biotemperature ausat taapamaan hai; neeche 0 degree celcius (32 ° F) sabhi taapamaan 0 degree celcius maana jaata hai. taapamaan 0 degree celcius neeche hai jab, paudhon, nishkriya kar rahe hain taaki sahi taapamaan mahatvaheen hai. sthaayi roop se barf ke saath pahaadon ki chotiyon se neeche 1.5 degree celcius (34.7 ° ef) ek biotemperature ho sakta hai.

paristhitiki mukhya lekh: parvateeya paaristhitiki

Swiss aalps mein ek alpaain keechad pahaadon par thanda jalavaayu paudhon aur pahaadon par rahane vaale jaanvaron ko prabhaavit karta hai. paudhon aur jaanvaron ke ek vishesh set jalavaayu ki ek apekshaakrut sankeern range ke liye anukool ho jaate hain. is prakaar, paaristhitik tantr mote taur par sthir jalavaayu ke unnayan ke band ke saath jhooth bolne ke liye karte hain. is altitudinal zonation kaha jaata hai. [30] shushk jalavaayu ke saath kshetron mein, uchch varsha ke saath hi kam taapamaan hai karne ke liye pahaadon ki pravrutti bhi badalti sthitiyon ke liye pradaan karta hai, jo zonation ko badhaata hai. [31] [32]

kuchh paudhon aur jaanvaron altitudinal kshetron mein paaya ke baad se oopar aur neeche ek vishesh kshetr ki sthiti durgam ho sakta hai aur is tarah unke aandolanon ya prasaar vivsh hoga alag ho jaate hain. in alag paaristhitiki pranaaliyon aakaash dveepon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. [33]

oonchaai se jonon ek vishisht paitarn ka paalan karte hain. sarvochch oonchaai par, ped naheen viksit kar sakte hain, aur jo kuchh bhi jeevan, alpaain prakaar ka ho jaaega maujood ho sakta hai tundra jaisi. [32] bas ped rekha se neeche, ek needleleaf pedon ki subalpine jangalon mil sakta hai, jo sardi, sookhe ki sthiti ka saamana kar sakte . [34] ki neeche, parvateeya jangalon se badhta hai. pruthvi ke sheetoshn bhaagon mein, un jangalon, needleleaf ped hone ke liye, jabki ushnakatibandheeya mein, ve chaude ek varsha jungle mein badh rahi pedon ki ja sakti hain.

samaaj mein

pahaad parvataarohi mount reniyr aarohi

ben nevis, british dweep samooh ke shikhar sammelan 'uchchatam, ek smaarak hai parvat kathor mausam aur chhote star krushi ke liye upayukt jameen ki vajah se, neeche ke desh se maanav nivaas ke liye aam taur par kam behtar kar rahe hain. jabki pruthvi ki bhoomi kshetr ke 7% 2,500 meter (8,200 foot) se oopar hai, [13] keval 140 million logon ko us oonchaai [35] aur keval 20-30 lakh logon 3,000 meter (9,800 foot) ki oonchaai se oopar ke oopar rahate hain. [36 ] oonchaai badhaane ke saath kam ho vaayumandaleeya dabaav matlab hai ki kam okseejan saaains lene ke liye upalabdh hai, aur vahaaain saur vikirn (yoovi) ke khilaaf kam suraksha hai. [31] ko kam okseejan ke kaaran, duniya mein sabse jyaada jaana jaata sthaayi basti 5,100 meter ki doori par hai ( 16,700 foot) hai, jabki sarvochch gyaat sthaayi roop se santoshajanak oonchaai 5,950 meter (19520 feet) par hai. [37] 8000 se oopar meter (26,000 feet) ki oonchaai, vahaaain paryaapt okseejan maanav jeevan ka samarthan karne ke liye naheen hai. yeh "maut jon 'ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. [38] mount evarest aur K2 ke shikhar maut jon mein hain.

pahaad mein rahane vaale logon ke baare mein aadha endeej, madhya Asia aur Africa mein rahate hain. [14] paramparaagat pahaadi samaaj kam unnayan ki tulana mein fasal ki vifalta ke uchch jokhim ke saath, krushi par nirbhar hain. khanij khanan aksar kuchh parvateeya samaaj ke arthashaastr ka ek mahatvapoorn ghatak hone ke saath pahaadon mein paae jaate hain. abhi haal hi mein is tarah ke paryatan raashtreeya paarkon ya ski risaurt ke roop mein aakarshan ke aaspaas kuchh gahan vikaas ke saath, pahaad samudaayon ka samarthan karta hai. pahaad ke logon ki [39] ke baare mein 80% gareebi rekha ke neeche rahate hain. [14]

duniya ki nadiyon mein se adhikaansh barf bahaav ke upayogakartaaon ke liye ek bhandaaran tantr ke roop mein abhinay ke saath, parvat sroton se tang aa chuke hain. [40] aur maanavata ke aadhe se adhik paani ke liye pahaadon par nirbhar karta hai. [41] [42]

parvataarohan, parvat par chadhaai, ya alpinism khel, shauk ya lambi paidal yaatra, skiing, aur chadhaai pahaadon ki pesha hai. parvataarohan unclimbed bade pahaadon visheshajnyaataaon yeh hai ki pahaad ke vibhinn pahaluon ko sambodhit mein branched hai ke uchchatam bindu tak pahunchane ke liye prayaas ke roop mein shuroo kiya tha aur teen kshetron ke hote hain, jabki: rock-shilp, barf se shilp aur skiing, chaahe maarg chuna khatm ho gaya hai par nirbhar karta hai chattaan, barf ya barf. sabhi anubhav, pusht karne ki kshamata hai, aur takaneeki gyaan suraksha banaae rakhane ki aavashyakta hai. [43]

atishyokti mukhya lekh: ooainche pahaadon ki soochi

Zugspitze, Germany mein sabse oonchi parvat

shukr ka Maat mauns (22.5x atishyokti) pahaadon ki oonchaaiyon ko aam taur par samudra star se oopar maapa jaata hai. is meetrik ka upayog karna, mount evarest 8,848 meter (29,029 feet) par, pruthvi par sabse ooncha parvat hai. [44] vahaaain samudra ke star se oopar 7,200 meter se adhik (23622 feet) ki oonchaai ke saath kam se kam 100 pahaadon, jo sabhi mein sthit hain madhya aur dakshini Asia. samudra ke star se oopar ooainche pahaadon aam taur par aaspaas ke ilaake ke oopar uchchatam naheen hain. aaspaas ke aadhaar ka koi sateek paribhaasha hai, lekin Denali, [45] mount kilimanjaaro aur nanga parvat is upaaya se jameen par sabse oonchi parvat ke liye sambhav ummeedavaar hain. pahaad dweep samooh ke thikaanon samudra ke star se neeche hain, aur is vichaar ke mauna (samudra tal se 4207 meter (13802 feet)) diya prashaant mahaasaagar ke tal se lagbhag 10203 meter (33474 feet) badh rahe hain, duniya ki sabse oonchi parvat aur jvaalaamukhi hai. [ 46]

ooainche pahaadon aam taur par sabse mota naheen hain. Mauna Loa (4169 meter ya 13678 foot) aadhaar kshetr (2,000 varg meal ke baare mein ya 5,200 km2) aur maatra (lagbhag 18,000 ghan meal ya 75,000 km3) ke maamale mein pruthvi par sabse bada pahaad hai. [47] kilimanjaaro parvat ki sabse badi gair hai donon aadhaar kshetr (245 varg meal ya 635 km2) aur maatra (1,150 ghan meal ya 4,793 km3) ke maamale mein -shield jvaalaamukhi. mount logaan aadhaar kshetr (120 varg meal ya 311 km2) mein sabse bada gair jvaalaamukhi pahaad hai.

samudra ke star se oopar ooainche pahaadon ki chotiyon bhi pruthvi ke kendra se door ke saath un logon mein naheen hain, kyonki pruthvi ka aankada golaakaar naheen hai. samudra ke star se bhoomadhya rekha ke kareeb pruthvi ke kendra se kai meal door hai. Chimborazo, ikvaador ki sabse oonchi parvat ke shikhar sammelan, aamtaur par, pruthvi ke kendra se door bindu maana jaata hai, haalaanki peroo ki sabse oonchi parvat, Huascaran, ke dakshini shikhar sammelan ek aur daavedaar hai. [48] donon hai samudra star se oopar unnayan adhik se adhik 2 kilometer ki doori par (6,600 foot) evarest ki tulana mein kam.