parmaanu pareekshan

27 March, 1954 ko amareeka dvaara kiye gaye kaisal romiyo naabhikeeya pareekshan ka chitr
"bekar shot", sanyukt raashtra dvaara kiya gaya operation krausarods abhiyaan ka ek bhaag, 1946

naabhikeeya astr pareekshan (angreji:Nuclear weapons tests) ya paramaan pareekshan un prayogon ko kehte hain jo design evam nirmit kiye gaye naabhikeeya astron ke prabhaavikta, utpaadakata evam visfotak kshamata ki jaaainch karne ke liye kiye jaate hain. parmaanu pareekshanon se kai jaanakaariyaaain praapt hoteen hain ; jaise - ye naabhikeeya hathiyaar kaisa kaam karte hain; vibhinn sthitiyon mein ye kis prakaar ka parinaam dete hain; bhavan evam anya sanrachanaayein in hathiyaaron ke prayog ke baad kaisa bartaav karateen han. san 1945 ke baad bahut se deshon ne parmaanu pareekshan kiye. iske alaava parmaanu pareekshanon se vaigyaanik, takaneeki evam sainik shakti ka pradarshan karne ki koshish bhi ki jaati hai.

anukram

prakaar

parmaanu pareekshan chaar mukhya prakaar ke hote hain:1.havaai pareekshan, 2.jalagat pareekshan, 3. baahya vaataavaraneeya aur 4.bhoomigat pareekshan
parmaanu visfot ka enimeshan

parmaanu pareekshan kai tarah ke hote hain. hava, jalagat aur bhoomigat.[1]

havaai pareekshan

hava mein kiye jane vaale pareekshan khule aur nirjan ilaake mein ya dharaatal se kuchh oopar kiye jate hain. aamtaur par aise pareekshanon mein upakaran ko oonchi imaaraton, gubbaaron, dveepon mein ya havaai jahaaj se giraakar pareekshan kiya jata hai. inke alaava, kai baar rauketon se daagakar bhi kuchh parmaanu pareekshan kiye ja chuke hain.[1] visfot se upaje masharoom klaaud mein aaspaas ki cheejein khinchi chali aati hain aur iski dibriyon se rediyodharmita aaspaas ke kshetr mein failati hai.

jalagat pareekshan

is tarah ke pareekshan kisi jahaaj ya nauka ki madad se kiye jate hain. in pareekshanon ko shatru ki nausena ke jahaajon aur panadubbiyon se mukaabale ki drushti se kiya jata hai. iske atirikt, samudri yuddh mein kaam aane vaale hathiyaaron jaise taurapeedo ya depth Chargers ke shakti pareekshan ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai. saagar tat ke paas kiye jaane vaale jalagat pareekshanon se paani mein kaafi rediyodharmi tatv mil jaate hain jo aaspaas ke jahaajon aur saagareeya jan-jeevan ke liye bahut ghaatak hote hain.[1]

bhoomigat pareekshan

aise pareekshan pruthvi ki satah mein gaddha khodakar ya anya tareeke se kiye jate hain. America aur soviyt roos ne sheet yuddh ke dinon mein aksar aise hi pareekshan kiye the. 1963 mein iske atirikt anya pareekshanon ko limited test ban treeti sandhi ke tahat nishedh kar diya gaya tha. jab aise pareekshan sampann hote hain to usamein prayog kiye gaye saamaan se bhookamp ka khatra ho sakta hai. anyatha inse khatra kam rahata hai.[1]

vishv bhar mein pareekshan

beesaveen sadi mein kai deshon ne parmaanu pareekshan kiye the. pehla parmaanu pareekshan America ne 16 July, 1945 mein kiya tha jismein 20 kilotan ka pareekshan kiya gaya tha. ab tak ka sabse bada parmaanu pareekshan soviyt roos mein 30 October 1961 ko kiya gaya tha jismein 50 megaatan ke hathiyaar ka pareekshan kiya gaya tha. 25 May, 2009 ko uttari Korea ne parmaanu pareekshan kiya tha, jise vishv ke adhikaansh deshon ne nindaneeya bataaya hai.[2][3]

vishv ke parmaanu shakti sampann raashtron ne ab tak kam se kam 2000 parmaanu pareekshan kiye hain.

vishv bhar mein darjan se adhik pareekshan sthalon par 2000 se adhik pareekshan kiye hain.
परमाणु परीक्षणों का ग्राफ़ (उत्तरी कोरिया दर्शित नहीं)

Bhaarat ke parmaanu pareekshan

Bhaarat ne san 18 May, 1974 mein pokharan mein pehla parmaanu pareekshan kiya. doosra parmaanu pareekshan san 1989 mein pokharan mein hi hua. us samay Bhaarat sarkaar ne ghoshana ki thi ki Bhaarat ka parmaanu kaaryakram shaantipoorn kaaryo ke liye hoga aur yeh pareekshan Bhaarat ko oorja ke kshetr mein aatmanirbhar banaane ke liye kiya gaya hai.[9] baad mein 11 aur 13 May, 1998 ko paaainch aur bhoomigat parmaanu pareekshan kiye[10] aur Bhaarat ne swayam ko parmaanu shakti sampann desh ghoshit kar diya. inmein 45 kilotan ka ek taapeeya parmaanu upakaran shaamil tha jise praay: par haaidrojan bam ke naam se jaana jaata hai. 11 May ko hue parmaanu pareekshan mein 15 kilotan ka vikhandan upakaran aur 0.2 kilotan ka sahaayak upakaran shaamil tha.[9][11][12] iske baad

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain