parisangh (prashaasan)

2003 mein Serbia aur montenegro ka parisangh bana lekin 2006 mein montenegro (neela rang) ke nikal jaane par parisangh bikhr gaya

parisangh aisi raajanaitik vyavastha ko kaha jaata hai jismein do ya us se adhik lagbhag poornat: svatantr raashtra samjhauta kar lein ke baaki vishv ke saath ve ek hi raashtra ki tarah sambandh rakheinge. sanghon ki tulana mein parisanghon ke sadasyon ko adhik svatantrata hoti hai. parisanghon mein kabhi-kabhi keval naam maatr ki kendreeya sarkaar hoti hai jiske paas koi asli shaktiyaan naheen hoti.

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

angreji mein parisangh ko "kaunafaidaireshan" (confederation) kehte hain.

sanghon aur parisanghon mein antar

alag-alag visheshagya sanghon aur parisanghon ki alag-alag paribhaashaaeain dete hain, lekin yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki in donon mein aksar kuchh antar dikhte hain -

  • parisanghon ke sadasyon ko parisangh chhodne ki khuli svatantrata hoti hai, jabki sanghon ke sadasyon ko aksar yeh chhoot naheen hoti
  • parisanghon ki kendreeya sarkaar ke koi bhi faisale ko koi bhi sadasya maanane se inkaar kar sakta hai, jabki sangh ki kendreeya sarkaar ke faisale aksar sangh-sadasyon par laajim hote hain
  • parisanghon ke sanvidhaanon mein badlaav ke liye har sangh-sadasya ki poori anumati chaahiye hoti hai aur unamein se koi bhi ise rok sakta hai, jabki sanghon ke raajyon mein aksar bahumat se bhi badlaav laaye ja sakte hain

parisanghon ke udahaaran

1847 mein Catholic kshetron (hara rang) ke adhik svatantrata jatalaane par Swiss gruhayuddh chhid gaya, jiske baad svitjralaind sangh ban gaya aur keval naam-maatr ka parisangh rah gaya

vishv mein aise parisangh bahut kam hain jo bahut arase ke liye parisangh ke roop mein hi rahein. aksar inmein parivartan ho jaata hai kyonki samay-samay par inke sadasyon mein koi na koi matabhed ubhar hi aate hain. is soorat mein ya to ye toot jaate hain, ya inka kendra zyaada shaktishaali bankar inhein vaastav mein sangh bana deta hai, chaahe aupachaarik roop se ve apne aap ko bhale hi parisangh kehte rahein.

Serbia aur montenegro

1992 mein puraane yoogoslaaviya ke toot jaane ke baad 4 fravari 2003 ko Serbia aur montenegro naam ka ek parisangh bana. iske donon sadasyon ke paise alag the - montenegro mein Euro chalta tha jabki Serbia mein deenaar chalti thi. inki aarthik neetiyaaain bilkul alag theen. is parisangh ki sirf sena aur videsh neeti ek thi aur ek, bina kisi shakti wala, raashtrapati tha. samay ke saath-saath donon sadasyon mein antar bante gaye aur 21 May 2006 mein montenegro mein alag hone ke mudde par ek chunaav hua. is chunaav mein montenegro ke naagrikon nein alag hone ka faisala suna diya. 3 June 2006 ko montenegro nein ailaan kiya ki vah parisangh se alag ho raha hai aur ek svatantr raashtra hai. do din baad, 5 June 2006 ko, Serbia nein bhi alag hone ka ailaan kar diya aur parisangh khtm ho gaya.

svitjralaind

svitjralaind apne aap ko aupachaarik roop se "Swiss parisangh" bulaata hai.[1][2][3] aitihaasik najriye se bhi aaj se 700 se bhi adhik saal pehle, 1291 mein, ailps parvaton mein base hue bahut se gaaainv aur shaharon nein ikatha hokar ek parisangh banaaya to svitjralaind bana. lekin tab se svitjralaind ke prashaasanik dhaaainche mein bahut badlaav aaya hai aur aadhunik yug mein yeh raashtra vaastav mein ek sangh hai. svitjralaind 1847 mein ek gruhayuddh ke baad parisangh se sangh bana. is gruhayuddh mein, kuchh dhaarmik jhadpon ke baad, Catholic-dharmi kshetron nein milkar adhik svatantrata jatalaane ki koshish ki thi jise kuchal diya gaya. 1848 mein ek nae samvidhaan ke tahat svitjralaind ek sangh ban gaya.[4]

irakvaui parisangh

irakvaui parisangh chhah mool ameriki aadivaasi raashtron ka parisangh tha. paaainch irakvaui jaati ke aadivaasi guton - mohauk, oneeda, ononadaaga, kaayooga, sainaika - nein solahavi sadi isavi mein hi parisangh bana liya tha aur 1722 mein tuskaarora raashtra bhi ismein shaamil ho gaya. parisangh ke maamalon ko chalaane ke liye ek "mahaan parishad" (grand kaaunsal) naam ke prashaasan sansathaan ko aarambh kiya gaya, jo aaj tak chal raha hai aur uttar America ki sab se puraani jeevit sarkaari sansathaan hai.[5]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "Startseite". admin.ch. 2011-02-13. http://www.admin.ch/. abhigman tithi: 2011-02-19.
  2. "Federal Chancellery - The Swiss Confederation – a brief guide". Bk.admin.ch. 2010-03-01. http://www.bk.admin.ch/dokumentation/02070/index.html?lang=en. abhigman tithi: 2011-02-19.
  3. http://swissconfederationinstitute.org/
  4. Haller/Köalz, p. 147
  5. Francis Jennings, The ambiguous Iroquois empire: the Covenant Chain confederation of Indian tribes with English colonies from its beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744, W. W. Norton & Company, 1990, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780393303025, http://books.google.com/books?id=jfxdH5pslt4C, "... Even after total military defeat, the Iroquois Grand Council still meets - the oldest governmental institution still maintaining its original form in eastern North America ..."