parisancharan tantr

maanav ka parisancharan tantr ; yahaaain laal rang aakseejanayukt rakt ka soochak hai tatha neela rang aakseejanarahit rakt ka soochak hai.

parisancharan tantr ya vaahikaatantr (circulatory system) angon ka vah samuchchaya hai jo shareer ki koshikaaon ke beech poshak tatvon ka yaataayaat karta hai. isse rogon se shareer ki raksha hoti hai tatha shareer ka taap evam pH sthir bana rahata hai. amino aml, vidyut apaghatya, gaisein, haarmon, rakt koshikaaeain tatha naaitrojan ke apashisht utpaad aadi parisancharan tantr dvaara yaataayaat kiye jaate hain. keval rakt-vitran network ko hi kuchh log vaahika tantr maanate hain jabki anya log laseeka tantr ko bhi isi mein sammilit karte hain.

maanav evam anya kasheruk praaniyon ke parisancharan tantr, 'band parisancharan tantr' hain (iska matlab hai ki rakt kabhi bhi dhamaniyon, shiraaon, evam keshikaaon ke jaal se baahar naheen jaata). akasherukon ke parisancharan tantr, 'khule parisancharan tantr' hain. bahut se tuchh (primitive animal) mein parisancharan tantr hota hi naheen. kintu sabhi praaniyon ka laseeka tantr ek khula tantr hota hai.

vaahikaatantr hrudaya, dhamaniyon tatha shiraaon ke samooh ka naam hai. dhamaniyon aur shiraaon ke beech keshikaaon ka vistrut samooh bhi isi tantr ka bhaag hai. is tantr ka kaam shareer ke pratyek bhaag mein rudhir ko pahuainchaana hai, jisse use poshan aur okseejan praapt ho sakein. is tantr ka kendra hrudaya hai, jo rudhir ko nirantar panp karta rahata hai aur dhamaniyaaain ve vaahikaaeain hain jinmein hokar rudhir angon mein pahuainchata hai tatha keshikaaon dvaara vitrit hota hai. keshikaaon ke rudhir se poshan aur okseejan ootakon mein chale jaate hain aur is poshan aur okseejan se viheen rudhir ko ve shira mein lautaakar hrudaya mein laati hain jo usako fupfus mein okseejan lene ke liye bhej deta hai. aantr se avashoshit hokar poshak avayav bhi is rudhir mein mil jaate hain aur fir se is rudhir ko angon mein okseejan tatha poshan pahuainchaane ke liye dhamaniyon dvaara bhej diya jaata hai.

anukram

hrudaya (Heart)

manushya ke hrudaya ka saamane se drushya

yeh peshi-ootak se nirmit chaar koshthonvaala khokhala ang, vaksh ke bheetar, oopar, doosari parshuka aur neeche ki or chhathi parshuka ke beech mein baai or sthit hai. iske donon or daahine or baaeain fupfus hain. iska aakaar kuchh trikon ke samaan hai, jiska chauda aadhaar oopar aur vistrut nimn dhaara (lower border) neeche ki or sthit hai. ispar ek dohara kalaanirmit aavaran chadha hua hai, jiska hrudayaavaran (Pergicardium) kehte hain. iski donon paraton ke beech mein thoda snigdh drav bhara rahata hai.

hrudaya bheetar se chaar koshthon mein vibhkt hai. do koshth daahini or aur do baai or hain. daahini aur baai or ke koshth ke beech mein ek vibhaajak pat (septum) hain, jo donon or ke rudhir ko milne naheen deta. pratyek or ek koshth oopar hai, jo alind (Auricle) kahalaata hai aur neeche ka koshth nilya (Ventricle) kaha jaata hai. daahine nilya mein oordhv or adho mahaashiraaon (superior and inferior vena cava) ke do chhidr hain, jinke dvaara rudhir lautakar hrudaya mein aata hai. ek bada chhidr alind aur nilya ke beech mein hain, jispar kapaatika (valve) lagi hui hai. hrudaya ke sankuchan ke samay alind ke sankuchit hone par kapaatikaaeain nikal ki or khul jaati hai, jisse rudhir nilya mein chala jaata hai. daahine nilya mein fupfusi dhamani (pulmonaryartery) ka bhi chhidr hai. nilya ke sankuchit hone par rudhir fupfusi dhamani mein hota hua fupfuson mein chala jaata hai. isi prakaar baai or bhi oopar alind hai aur neeche nilya. baaeain nilya mein chaar fupfusi shiraaon ke chhidr hain, jinke dvaara fupfuson mein shuddh hua (okseejanayukt) rudhir lautakar aata hai aur alind ke sakuchan karne par vah nilya aur alind ke beech ke chhidr dvaara nilya mein chala jaata hai. baani or ke is chhidr par bhi kapaatika lagi hui hai. baaeain nilya mein mahaadhamani (aorta) ka chhidr hai, jisse rudhir nikalkar mahaadhmani mein chala jaata hai aur usaki anek shaakhaaon dvaara saare shareer mein sanchaar karke shiraaon dvaara lautakar fir hrudaya ke daahine alind mein laut aata hai.

hrudaya ki kapaatikaaeain

ye bade mahatva ki sanrachanaaeain hain, jo rudhir ko keval ek maarg se agrasar hone deti hain, lautane naheen deteen. daahini or ki kapaatika teen kaudi ke samaan bhaagon ki bani hai aur trivlan kapaatik (Tricuspid) kahalaati hai. baai or dvivlan (bicuspid) kapaatika hai. nilya ki or ke prushth par inmein baareek rajju ke samaan tantu lage hue hain, jinke doosare sire nilya ki deevaar se nikle hue ankuron par lagte hain. ye kandareeyarajju (cordaetendinae) kahalaate hain aur ankuron ko paipileeya peshi (Musculipapillares) kaha jaata hai. alind ke sankoch se nilya mein rudhir bhar jaane par, jab vah sankuchit hota hai, to rudhir kapardon ke peechhe pahuainchakar unako chhidron ki or utha deta hai, jisse unke sire aapas mein milkar chhidr ke maarg ko rok dete hain aur rudhir alind mein naheen laut paata. paipileeya peshi bhi sankuchit ho jaati hain, jisse kandareeyarajju tan jaati hai aur kapaatikaaon ke kapard alind mein ulatane naheen paate. is prakaar ke prabandh se rudhir keval ek hi disha mein, alind se nilya mein, ja sakta hai. fupfusi aur mahaadhamani ke chhidron par bhi ardhachandraakaar kapaatikaaeain lagi hui hain.

rudhir parisancharan (Blood Circulation)

uparyukt varnan se spasht hain ki rudhir mahaashiraaon sak daahine alind mein aata hai. vahaaain se hrutsankunchan ke samay nilya mein jaata hai. nilya ke sankuchit hone par fupfusi dhamani mein hota hua fupfus mein chala jaata hai. vahaaain okseejan lekar, rudhir chaar fupfusi shiraaon dvaara baaeain alind mein jaata hai aur uske sankuchan karne par rudhir baaeain nilya mein chala jaata hai. baaeain nilya mein sankuchit hone par rudhir mahaadhamani mein agrasar ho jaata hai. is dhamani ki shaakhaaeain, jinka neeche ullekh kiya gaya hai, shareer mein faili hui hain. rudhir inke dvaara angaun mein sanchaar karke keshikaaon (Capillaries) mein hota hua, shiraaon dvaara fir hrudaya ke daahine bhaag mein laut aata hai aur fir vahi chakr aarambh hota hai. yahi rudhir parisancharan kahalaata hai.

hrudaya mein swayam sankuchan karne ki shakti hai. vah prati minute 72 baar sankuchan karta hai, arthaat ek baar sankuchan mein 0.8 second lagta hai. is kaal mein 0.1 second tak alind ka sankunchan hota hain, shesh 0.7 second vah shithil avastha mein rahata hai. nilya mein 0.3 second tak sankuchan hota hai, shesh kaal mein vah shithil rahata hai. is prakaar saara hrudaya 0.4 second tak shithilaavastha mein rahata hai. hrudaya ka sankoch prakunchan (Systole) aur shithilaavastha anushithiln (Diastole) kahalaata hai.

dhamaniyaaain (Arteries)

hrudaya se shuddh rudhir ko le jaanevaali lacheeli naliyaaain ya vaahikaaeain hain, jinke dvaara rudhir angon mein pahuainchata hai. hrudaya se niklanevaali mukhya mahaadhamani hai, jo vaksh mein se hoti hui udar ke ant par pahuainchakar, do antim shaakhaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hain. mahaadhamani se shaakhaaeain nikalkar angon mein chali jaati hain. jyon jyon shaakhaaeain, niklati jaati hain, unka aakaar chhota hota jaata hai. ye chhote aakaaravaali dhamanikaaeain (Arterioles) kahalaati hain. dhaminyon ka niktavarti shaakhaaeain ek doosare se mil jaati hain, jisse yadi ek ka maarg kat jaata hai ya rog ke kaaran ruk jaata hai, to doosari dhamani se use vistaar kshetr mein rudhir pahuainchata rahata hai. isko shaakhaamiln (anastomosis) kehte hain.

hrudaya se niklanevaali do mukhya dhamani hain, fuffusi (pulmonary) aur mahaadhamani. fupfusi dhamani daahine nilya se nikalne ke pashchaat do shaakhaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hai aur pratyek fuffus mein ek ek shaakha chali jaati hai. is dhamani ka prayojan okseejan lene ke liye rudhir ko fuffus mein pahuainchaana hai.

Arterial System en.svg

mahaadhamani

hrudaya ke baaeain nilya se nikalkar pehle kuchh daahini or, tab peechhe ki or, tatpashchaat mudti hui baai or ko chali jaati hain, jahaaain chauthi vaksh kasheruka ke baaeain paarshv par pahunchakar vahaaain se seedhi neeche ko utarati hui vaksh ke ant tak chali jaati hai. is prakaar praarambh mein iska jo mod banta hai, vah mahaadhamani chaap (Aortic arch) kahalaata hai. vaksh ke ant par madhyachhada peshi mein se chhidr dvaara nikalkar, saare udar ko paar karti hui chauthe kati kasheruk par pahuainchakar, do saamaanya shreni falak dhamaniyon mein vibhkt hokar samaapt ho jaati hai.

shaakhaaeain

vaksh mein hruddhamaniyaaain (coronary arteries) mahaadhamani ki pratham shaakhaaeain hain, jo hrudaya se mahaadhamani ke nikalne ke sthaan hi par donon or se nikalkar hrudaya par ek ghera sa bana deta hain. inki shaakhaaeain seedhi neeche ko jaakar hrutpeshi mein poshan pahuainchaati hain.

mahaadhamani chaap ke anuprasth bhaag mein, daahini or se kramash: anaami (innominats), baaaini moolagreeva dhamani (common carotid) aur baai adhojatruk (left subclavian) shaakhaaeain niklati hain. anaami sabse badi shaakha hai aur daahini or oopar greevaamool mein pahuainchakar, daahini mool greeva aur shir mein rudhir pahuainchaati hain tatha adhojatruk oordhv shaakha ka rudhir sanbharan karti hai.

moolagreeva seedhi greeva mein oopar jaakar avatu upaasthi (thyroid cartilage) ki oordhv dhaara par baahya aur ant:greeva shaakhaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hain.

ant:greeva netragolak ko ek shaakha dene ke pashchaat shankhaasthi ki greeva nalika mein hokar, kapaal ke bheetar pahuainchakar, puropramastishk aur madhya pramastishk (anterior and middle cerebral) shaakhaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hai, jo pramastishk ke agr aur madhya bhaag ko rudhir deti hain. donon or ki ant: greevaaeain pramastishk ke tal par pahuainchakar aage ki or swayam ek sanyojani shaakha dvaara aapas mein aur peechhe ki or bhi doosari shaakha dvaara aadhaar dhamani se sammelan karti hain. is prakaar vahaaain ek chakr ban jaata hai, jo villim ka valaya kaha jaataah hai.

bahimtika greeva ke paarshv mein hoti hui oopar kapolik granthi mein pahuainchakar, ant:dantika (internal maxillary) paur uttal shankhaasthi (superficial temporal) shaakhaaon mein samaapt ho jaati hai, jo mukh ki peshiyon tatha vahaaain ke anya avayavon evam kapaal ke prushth par fail jaati hain. usaki anya shaakhaaeain ye hain :

  1. oordhvaavatuki (Superthyroid) - avatuka aur svarayantr ko;
  2. jihviki (Lingual) - jihva aur jihvaadhar granthi ko;
  3. maukhiki (Facial) - aanan ko tatha adhohanvi granthi, taunsil aadi ko;
  4. pashchaadika (occipital) - ur: kararnamoolika peshi aur kapaal ke pashch bhaag ko;
  5. pashchakarnika - karn ke pashchim prushth aur paas ke kapaal prushth ko tatha
  6. ant: hanviki (Internal maxillary) - charvan peshiyon, daaaint, naak, grasani (pharynx), karnapatah aur mastishk ke kathin aavaran ko. saataveen aur aathaveen antim shaakhaaeain hain, jinka ullekh kiya ja chuka hai.

adhojatruk

yeh kaksh mein pahunchakar kaksheeya (axillary) aur baahu mein baahuk (brachial) dhamani ban jaati hai. kuhani ke saamane pahuainchakar iski at: aur bahi:prakoshthik do shaakhaaeain ho jaati hain. isse nimn shaakhaaeain niklati hain :

adhojatruk se - (1) kasheruki (vertebral), (2) avatukaamool dhamani, (3) ant: stanika (Internal mammary) tatha (4) oordhv parshukaantarika (superior intercostal).

kaksheeya bhaag se - (1) vankheeya (thoracic) shaakhaaeain - vaahu ki peshiyon ko; (2) ansatund vaksheeya (ocromiothoracic); (3) agrapariveshthani; (4) pashchapariveshthani tatha (5) adhoansafalaki; baahya bhaag se, oordhv aur adhonitl (superior and inferior profunda) aur (6) peshiyon ko tatha asthiposhak shaakhaaon ko.

ant:prakoshthika (Ulna)

yeh kuhani koorpar (elbow) ke saamane se praarambh hokar agrabaahu ke bheetari kinaare par seedhi neeche hatheli tak chali jaati hai aur vahaaain aaingoothe ki or ko mudkar, bahi:prakoshthika ki shaakha ke saath milkar uttal karatal chaap (superficial palmar arch) bana deti hain, jismein kanishtha, madhyama aur anaamika anguliyon ke donon or, tarjani ke keval bheetari kinaare par, shaakhaaeain chali jaati hain. agrabaahu mein vah sab peshiyon ko tatha asthiyon ko poshak shaakhaaeain deti hain. kuhani ke paas usase do aavartak shaakhaaeain niklati hain.

bahi:prakoshthika (Radial)

agrabaahu ke baahari kinaare par seedhi neeche manibandh par pahuainchakar, peechhe ki or ko ghoomkar, pehli aur doosari karatal shaakhaaon ke beech se peechhe ki or se karatal mein aakar, ant:prakaashthika ki ek shaakha se milkar, nitl karatal chaap (deep palmar arch) bana deti hain, jisse aaingoothe ke donon or aur tarjani ke bahi:prushth ko shaakhaaeain jaati hain. manibandh par isse do aavartak shaakhaaeain niklati hain tatha peshiyon aur asthiyon ki shaakhaaeain jaati hain.

vaksh mein mahaadhamani se nimnalikhit shaakhaaeain niklati hain : grasika (oesophageal), shvaasanalika tatha hrudayaavarani (pericardial) shaakhaaeain, jo in angon mein chali jaati hain.

udar mein mahaadhamani se niklanevaali shaakhaaon mein se kuchh ke jode hain. stavak (glomerular), vrukk (Renal) tatha shukravaha shaakhaaon ke jode hain, jo mahaadhamani ke paarshvon se nikalte hain. uske saamane se udaraguhaadhamani (coeliac) aur oordhv aur adho aantrayojani (superior and inferior mesenteric) shaakhaaeain hain. udaraguho dhamani se yakrut, aamaashaya aur pleeha ko shaakhaaeain jaati hain. aantrayojani dhamaniyaaain samast aantr ko tatha udar mein sthit anya angon ko rudhir pahuainchaati hain.

vaksh aur udar ki bhittiyon mein rudhir le jaanevaali shaakhaaeain hain : parshukaantar (intercostal), kati (lumbar) madhyachhada, (phrenic) aur madhya saikral (middle sacral) hain.

saamaanya shroni falak dhamaniyaaain

mahaadhamani ki do antim shaakhaaeain hain, jo thoda hi aage chal kar ant: aur bahi: shroniflak shaakhaaon (internal and external iliac) mein vibhkt ho jaati hain. ant:shaakha shroni ke bheetar jaakar, vahaaain ki peshiyon tatha angon ko shaakhaaeain bhejati hai. prajanan angon tatha nitanb ki peshiyon mein bhi isi se rudhir jaata hai. bahi:shroniflak dhamani vankshani snaayu ke neeche se nikalkar ooru mein aa jaati hai aur urudhamani (Femoral Artery) kahalaati hai, jo uru ke samane ki or seedhi neeche uske peechhe ki or chali jaati hai aur jaanuprushth par pahunchakar, jaanupashch (popliteal) dhamani kahi jaati hai. kuchh neeche utar kar yeh agraprajandhika aur pashvajanghika (anterior tibial) dhamaneen naam ki do shaakhaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hai. ooru mein utarane ke pashchaat hi usase nitloo (posterior tlbial) dhamaneen naam ki do shaakhaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hai. ooru mein utarane ke pashchaat hi usase nitloo (profunda) shaakha niklati hai, jiski pariveshthak (circumflex) aur vedhak (perforating) shaakhaaeain ooru ki peshiyon mein tatha asthi ki rudhir pahuainchaati hain.

agraprajandhika

yeh dhamani prajanghika aur anujanghika donon ke beech mein neeche ko pauv tak chali jaati hai aur uske prushth par pahuainchakar paadatal shalaakaaon ke beech aainguliyon ko shaakhaaeain bhejati hain. pashchajanghika jangha ke peechhe ki or neeche paaainv mein pahuainch kar ant: aur bahi:paadatal shaakhaaon (external and internal plantar arteries) mein ant ho jaata hai. bahi:paadatal shaakhaaon se aainguliyon ke donon aur paadaanguli shaakhaaeain aainguliyon ke ant tak chali jaati hain. ye donon dhamaniyaaain paaainv ki peshiyon aur asthi tatha sandhiyon ko rudhir pahuainchaakar unka poshan karti hain.

shiraaeain (Veins)

dhamaniyaaain shuddh rakt ko hrudaya se le jaati hain aur angon mein sookshm koshikaaon mein ant ho jaati hain, jinke dvaara ang poshan aur ॲaakseejan rudhir se grahan kar lete hain. in keshikaaon se shiraaeain praarambh hoti hain, jinke dvaara poshan aur okseejan se rahit rudhir se grahan kar lete hain. in keshikaaon se shiraaeain praarambh hoti hain, jinke dvaara poshan aur okseejan se rahit rudhir hrudaya ko lautakar aata hai. yahi ashuddh rudhir kaha jaata hai, yadyapi usamein koi ashuddhi naheen hoti. ataev shiraaeain ve vaahikaaeain hain jo ashuddh rudhir ko hrudaya mein lautaakar laati hain. iska apavaad pehle bataaya ja chuka hai. fupfusi dhamani ashuddh rudhir ko hrudaya mein le jaakar fupfus se hrudaya mein le jaati hain.

shiraaon ka praarambh keshikaaon hi se hota hai. dhamani ki keshikaaon mein rudhir sancharit hokar, poshan aur okseejan ko de chukane ke pashchaat, keshikaaon ke us bhaag mein aa jaata hai jinse shiraaeain banti hain. in keshikaaon ke milne se pratham sookshmashiraaeain (veinules) banti hain. ye sookshm shiraaeain milkar bade prakaar ki shira banaati hain. unase aur badi shira banti hain. isi prakaar mukhya shiraaeain ban jaati hai, jo ant mein mahaashiraaeain bana deti hain.

shareer mein teen mukhya shiraatantr hain : saamaanya shiraatantr, fupfusi shiraatantr aur yakruti ya yakruteeyanivaahika (hepatic or portal system) shiraatantr.

Venous system en.svg

saamaanya shiraatantr

shareer mein uttal (superficial) aur gambhir (deep) shiraaeain hoti hain. uttal shiraaeain charm ke neeche praaya: gambhir praavarani (deep forascia) mein sthit hoti hai aur laseeka vaahikaaeain tatha adhiktar dhamaniyaaain bhi unke saath hoti hain. avatal shiraaeain sada dhamaniyon ke saath rahati hain aur is kaaran ve gahari sthit hoti hai, chhote ya madhyam aakaar ke saath praaya: unke donon or ek ek shira hoti hai, kintu badi dhamaniyon ke saath keval ek shira hoti hai. donon shiraaeain jahaaain tahaaain chhoti chhoti shaakhaaon dvaara aapas mein jud jaati hain.

saare shareer me shiraaon ke vahi naam hain jo dhamaniyon ke, jinke saath ve rahati hain. kaheen kaheen naam bhinn hain, jaise galashira (Jugular vein) aur greeva dhamani (Carotid artery). kintu praaya: ye samaan hi hain aur unki shaakhaaeain tatha vitran bhi dhamaniyon hi ke samaan hai. is kaaran unke naag aur maarg tatha shaakhaaon ka alag varnan karna aavashyak naheen hai. keval mukhya-mukhya shiraaon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.

kapaal

iski uttal shiraaeain shircharm ke neeche dhamaniyon ke saath saath sthit hain aur us kshetr se rakt ko ekatr karke bahi: galashira (external jugular vein) aur saamaanya aanani shiraaon ke dvaara lautaati hain. vahi: galashira gale ke paarshv par tvacha ke neeche dikhaai deti hai aur neech jatruk ke neeche pahuainchakar adhojatruk shira mein mil jaati hain.

kapaal ke bheetar drudh taanika ki do paraton ke beech mein kotarein (blood sinuses) bane hue hain. pramastishk daatr (falx cerebri) ki oordhv dhaara par oordhv-anudairdhya-kotar (superior longitudinal sinus) aur adhodhaara par adho-anudairdhya-kotar (inferior longitudinal sinus) sthit hain. mastishk ke bheetar se rudhir in shiraanaalon mein sookshm shiraaon dvaara aata hai. ye donon kotar peechhe ki or jaakar mil jaate hain aur vahaaain se paarshv kotar (lateral sinus) dvaara kapaal ke ek chhidr se nikalkar ant:galashira (internarl jugular vein) ka praarambh karte hain. anya kai kotaron ka bhi rudhir paarshv kotar mein aata hai aur usase ant:galashira mein aa jaata hai. is prakaar ant:galashira bankar, pratham ant:greeva (internal carotid) dhamani ke peechhe aur fir uske aur moolagreevaadhamani (common carotid) ke paarshv mein utarati hui neeche adhojatruk shira (subclavian vein) mein milkar, anaami (innominate) shira bana deti hai. saamaanya aanani shira isi mein mil jaati hai. mukh, jihva, taunsil, grasani aadi se aane waali shiraaeain bhi isi mein khulati hain.

oordhvadeh shaakha (upper extremity) ki shiraaeain

haath ke prushth par ki shira jaalikaaeain (plexuses) tvacha dvaara dikhaai deti hai. inse tatha gahari shiraaon ka rudhir karatal chaapon mein hota hua, bahi:prakoshthika (radial), madhyam aur pur: aur pashch ant:prakoshthik shiraaon dvaara kuhani ke saamane pahuainchakar, madhyam shira mein pahuainchata hai. gahre bhaagon (peshi aadi) se aanakur shiraaeain bhi isi mein mil jaati hain aur tab vah madhyam aadhaar (median basilic) shira aur (median cephalic) madhyam sheersh shira mein vibhkt ho jaati hai. ek ya do inch aage chalakar ant:prakoshthik shiraaeain aadhaar shira mein aur bahi:prakoshthik sheersh shiraaon mein jut jaati hain. aadhaar aur sheersh shiraaeain baahoo ke bheetari aur baahari paarshvon par hoti hui oopar ko chali jaati hain aur baahari dhamani ki sahachaari shiraaeain (venae comites) shiraaon ke milne ke pashchaat kaksheeya (axillary) shira mein khul jaati hai jo swayam aage chalakar adhojatruk (subclavian vein) ban jaati hai aur ant:galashira se judne ke pashchaat anaami shira banaati hai.

nimnashaakha (inferior extremity) ki shiraaeain

paaainv ke prushth par ki shira jaalikaaon mein bheetar ki or ant:sakthi aur baahar ki or bahi:sakthi (iniernal and external saphenous) shiraaeain aarambh hoti hain, jo ant: aur bahi: gulf ke neeche se nikalkar jangha ke bheetar ki or tatha beech mein hoti hui oopar ko chali jaati hain. ant: sakthi shira jaanu par se nikalkar ooru praant mein seedhi oopar pahuainchakar, vankshani snaayu ke neeche gambhir aavarani ke sakthi chhidr dvaara bheetar pravesh karke, saamaanya oo degree shira (common femoral vein) se mil jaati hai. bahi:sakthi shira paaainv se jangha ke peechhe lagbhag madhya mein hoti hui oopar jaanupashch khaat (popliteal fossa) mein pahuainchakar, jaanupashch shira (popliteal vein) mein mil jaati hai. dhamani ki sahachari shiraaon aur uttal tatha gambhir ooru shiraaon ke milne se saamaanya uru shira banti hain, jo vankshani snaayu ke neeche se nikal kar udar mein pahuainchakar, bahi:shroni falak shira (ext. iliac) ho jaati hai.

udar ki shiraaeain

bahi:shroni falak shira shroni mein oopar jaakar ant: shroniflak shira se milkar, saamaanya shroniflak shira (common iliac vein) ban jaati hai. donon aur ki ye shiraaeain paaainchavein katiksheruk par pahuainchakar jud jaati hain aur unase nimn mahaashira (inferior vena cava) ban jaati hai, jo seedhi oopar ko jaakar madhyachhada peshi ke chhidr dvaara nikalkar vaksh mein pravesh karti hai. yakrut ke pashchaprushth par yeh ek parikha mein sthit hoti hai. ismein shukravaha ya dinbagranthi se tatha vrukk evam kati shiraaeain aati hain.

aamaashaya, samasat aantr, pleeha aur agnyaashaya se rudhir ko laanevaali shiraaeain milkar pratihaarani shira (portal vein) banaati hain. yeh bade aakaar ki lagbhag teen inch lambi shira adhomahaashira ke saamane sthit hai. iski donon shaakhaaon ki, yakrut mein pahuainchakar, anek shaakhaaeain ho jaati hai, jo ant mein keshikaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hai. shira ki yahi visheshata hai. doosari visheshata unamein kapaatikaaon ka na hona hai.

vaksh ki shiraaeain

adhomahaashira madhyachhada ke chhidr dvaara vaksh mein aakar, seedhi oopar ko jaakar, daahine alind ke neeche ke bhaag mein peechhe ki or khulati hai. donon or ki adhojatruk aur ant:gat shiraaon ke milne se anaami shiraaeain banti hain. baai or ki anaami daahini se lambi hai aur urohastak (mannhrium sterni) ke peechhe se nikalkar pehli parshuka ke theek neeche daahini anaami se milkar, oordhv mahaashira (superior vena cava) banaati hain, jo neeche jaar daahine alind mein prarvisht ho jaati hai. ismein adhoavatu (inf. thyroid) ant:stanika (intmammary) aur kasheruki (vertebral) shaakhaaeain khulati hain.

ayugm (azygos) shira udar se praarambh hokar vaksh mein aakar, chauthe kasheruk par oordhvamahaashira mein khul jaati hain. do oordhv aur adho ardhaayugm shiraaeain (sup. & inf hemiazygos) bhi hoti hain, jinmein oopar aur neeche ki antarpashuka shiraaeain khulati hain.

fuffusi shiraaeain

daahine fuffus se teen aur baaeain fuffus se do shiraaeain shuddh rudhir ko baaeain alind mein laati hain. daahine fuffus se aanevaali shiraaeain praaya: aapas mein judkar do rah jaati hain. to bhi kabhi kabhi teen milti hain jisse alind mein ek or teen aur doosari or do shiraaon ke praveshachhidr hote hain.

dhamani aur shira ki sookshm rachana

dhamani ki chaudaai ki or se ek sookshm kaat (transverse section) banaakar aur usako raingakar sookshmadarshi (microscope) dvaara dekhne se, usamein kai star dikhaai dete hain. sab se baahar taantav star (fibrous coat) hai. uske bheetar peet sthitisthaapak tantu ka (yellow elastic) star hai. uske bheetar teesara anaichhik peshiyon ka star hai. badi dhamaniyon mein peet sthitisthaapak tantu ka star kam ho jaata hai aur pesheestar badh jaata hai. tantrikaaon ka pesheestar mein ant hota hai. is star ke bheetar ek sthitisthaapak kala nirmit star (elastic fenestrated membrane) hota hai aur sabke bheetar antarkala koshikaaon ka ek chikna star rahata hai, jispar rudhir pravaah kiya karta hai.

shiraaon ki bhitti ki bhi aisi hi rachana hoti hai, kintu unki motaai dhamaniyon ki apeksha kaheen kam hoti hain. maansapeshi ootak visheshataya kam hota hai aur jahaaain tahaaain antarkala star ki vruddhi se kapaatikaaeain (valves) ban jaati hain. kapaatikaaon mein praaya: do kapard (cusp) hote hain, yadyapi kaheen kaheen teen aur ek bhi paae jaate hain, ke kapard thele ke samaan hote hain, jo shira ke maarg mein is prakaar sthit hote hain ki yadi rudhir lautane lagta hai to in thailon mein bhar jaata hai, jisse ve foolakar maarg ka band kar dete hain.

keshikaaeain (Capillaries)

vaahikaatantr ka ek mahatvapoorn avayav keshikaaeain kahalaata hai. dhamaniyon aur shiraaon ke beech mein keshikaaon ka samooh sthit hota hai. hrudaya se dhamaniyon mein rudhir aata hai. ye dhamaniyaaain keshikaaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hain. keshikaaon ke doosari or se shiraaeain praarambh hoti hain. is prakaar keshikaasamooh ek jheel ke samaan hota hai, jismein ek or se nadi pravesh karti hai aur doosari or se doosari nadi niklati hai.

keshikaaeain atyant sookshm vaahikaaeain hoti hain, jinki bhittiyaaain ant mein keval ek koshika moti rah jaati hain. jab rudhir dhamani se aakar in keshikaaon mein pravaah karta hai, us samay rudhir mein upasthit poshak avayav aur okseejan ka usase ang ke ootakon mein visran ho jaata hai tatha ang mein honevaali raasaayanik kriyaaon ke fal svaroop jo nikrusht ya antim padaarth bante hain, ve rudhir mein chale aate hain. yaheen se shira ka praarambh ho jaata hai. pehle yeh rudhir keshikaaon mein pravaahit hota hai. keshikaaeain aapas mein judkar sookshm shira bana deti hain. inke mil jaane se kuchh badi shiraaeain banti hain. ye judkar fir aur badi shiraaeain banti hain. is prakaar shiraaon ka aakaar badhta jaata hai. yahaaain tak ki mahaashira ban jaati hain.

hrudaya ke prakunchan se baaeain nilya se nikalkar jab rudhir mahaadhamani mein aata hai, tab usase dhamani ki bhittiyon par dabaav padta hai. ve dabati hain aur thodi baahar ko fail jaati hain. jab rudhir vahaaain se nikal jaata hai, tab bhittiyaaain fir poorvavat ho jaati hain. yeh dabaav hi raktachaap (blood pressure) kahalaata hai. yeh mahaadhamani mein sabse adhik hai. jyon jyon usase shaakhaaeain niklati jaati hain, unamein dab kam hoti jaati hai. keshikaaon mein yeh bahut kam hoti hai. shiraaon mein usase bhi kam hoti hai. jitni badi shira hoti hai daab utani hi kam hoti hai, kyonki unka aakaar bada hota hai aur unamein rakt kam hota hai. svasth yuva vyakti mein prakunchan daab (systolic pressure) 120-160 aur anushithiln daab (diastolic pressure) 80 se 90 mimi. paara hota hai.

anya praaniyon ke vaahika tantr

machhali ke vaahika tantr ka yojanaamoolak (skeemaitik) chitr

baahari kadiyaaain