paramaar bhoj

raaja bhoj ki pratima (Bhopal)

paramaar bhoj paramaar vansh ke navein raaja the. paramaar vansheeya raajaaon ne maalava ki rajdhani dhaaraanagari (dhaar) se aathaveen shataabdi se lekar chaudahaveen shataabdi ke poorvaardh tak raajya kiya tha. bhoj ne bahut se yuddh kiye aur apni pratishtha sthaapit ki jisse siddh hota hai ki unamein asaadhaaran yogyata thi. yadyapi unke jeevan ka adhikaansh yuddhakshetr mein beeta tathaapi unane apne raajya ki unnati mein kisi prakaar ki baadha na utpann hone di. usane maalava ke nagaron va graamon mein bahut se mandir banavaae, yadyapi unamein se ab bahut kam ka pata chalta hai.

kaha jaata hai ki vartamaan Madhya Pradesh ki rajdhani Bhopal ko raaja bhoj ne hi basaaya tha , tab usaka naam bhojapaal nagar tha , jo ki kaalaantar mein bhoopaal aur fir Bhopal ho gaya. raaja bhoj ne bhojapaal nagar ke paas hi ek samudra ke samaan vishaal taalaab ka nirmaan karaaya tha, jo poorv aur dakshin mein bhojapur ke vishaal Shiv mandir tak jaata tha. aaj bhi bhojapur jaate samay , raaste mein shivmandir ke paas us taalaab ki pattharon ki bani vishaal paal dikhti hai. us samay us taalaab ka paani bahut pavitra aur beemaariyon ko theek karne wala maana jaata tha. kaha jaata hai ki raaja bhoj ko charm rog ho gaya tha tab kisi rishi ya vaidya ne use is taalaab ke paani mein snaan karne aur use peene ki salaah di thi jisse usaka charmarog theek ho gaya tha. us vishaal taalaab ke paani se shivmandir mein sthaapit vishaal shivling ka Abhishek bhi kiya jaata tha.

raaja bhoj swayam bahut vidvaan the aur kaha jaata hai ki unane dharm, khagol vidya, kala, kosharachana, bhavananirmaan, kaavya, aushadhashaastr aadi vibhinn vishyon par pustakein likhi hain jo ab bhi vartamaan hain. iske samay mein kaviyon ko raajya se aashray mila tha. unhone san 1000 E. se 1055 E. tak raajya kiya. inki vidvata ke kaaran janamaanas mein ek kahaavat prachalit hui kahaaain raaja bhoj kahaaain gangoo taili.

bhoj bahut bade veer, prataapi, pandit aur gunagraahi the. inhonne anek deshon par vijay praapt ki thi aur kai vishyon ke anek granthon ka nirmaan kiya tha. ye bahut achhe kavi, daarshanik aur jyotishi the. sarasvateekanthaabharan, shrungaaramanjari, chanpooraamaayan, chaarucharya, tatvaprakaash, vyavahaarasamuchchaya aadi anek granth inke likhe hue batalaae jaate hain. inki sabha sada bade bade panditon se sushobhit rahati thi. inki patni ka naam leelaavati tha jo bahut badi vidushi thi.

jab bhoj jeevit the to kaha jaata tha-

adya dhaara sadaadhaara sadaalamba sarasvati.
pandita manditaa: sarve bhojaraaje bhuvi sthite.

(aaj jab bhojaraaj dharati par sthit hain to dhaara nagari sadaadhaara (achhe aadhaar waali) hai; sarasvati ko sada aalamb mila hua hai; sabhi pandit aadrut hain.)

jab unka dehaant hua to kaha gaya -

adya dhaara niraadhaara niraalanba sarasvati.
panditaa: khanditaa:: sarve bhojaraaje divan gate .

(aaj bhojaraaj ke divangat ho jaane se dhaara nagari niraadhaar ho gayi hai ; sarasvati bina aalamb ki ho gayi hain aur sabhi pandit khandit hain.)

anukram

parichay

bhojapur (madhya pradesh) ka apoorn bhojeshvar mandir

raaja bhoj munj ke chhote bhaai sindhuraaj ka putr tha. rohak iska pradhaan mantri aur bhuvanapaal mantri tha. kulachandr, saadh tatha taraaditya iske senaapati the jinki sahaayata se bhoj ne raajyasanchaalan suchaaru roop se kiya. apne chaacha munj ki hi bhaaainti yeh bhi pashchimi Bhaarat mein ek saamraajya sthaapit karna chaahata tha aur is ichha ki poorti ke liye ise apne padosi raajyon se har disha mein yuddh karna pada. munj ki mrutyu shokajanak paristhiti mein ho jaane se paramaar bahut hi uttejit the aur iseeliye bhoj chaalukyon se badla len ke vichaar se dakshin ki or sena lekar chadhaai karne ko prerit hua. usane daahal ke kalaburi gaangeyadev tatha tanjaur (tanchyaavoor) ke raajeindrachol se sandhi ki or saath hi saath dakshin par aakraman bhi kar diya, parantu tatkaaleen raaja chaalukya jayasinh dviteeya ne bahaaduri se saamana kiya aur apna raajya bacha liya. san 1044 E. ke kuchh samay baad jayasinh ke putr someshvar dviteeya ne paramaaron se fir shatruta kar li aur maalav raajya par aakraman kar bhoj ko bhaagane ke liye baadhya kar diya. dhaaraanagari par adhikaar kar lene ke baad usane aag laga di, parantu kuchh hi dinon baad someshvar ne maalav chhod diya aur bhoj ne rajdhani mein lotakar fir sattaadhikaar praapt kar liya. san 1018 E. ke kuchh hi pehle bhoj ne indrarath naamak ek vyakti ko, jo sambhavat: kaling ke gaang raajaaon ka saamant tha, haraaya tha

jayasinh dviteeya tatha indrarath ke saath yuddh samaapt kar lene par bhoj ne apni sena Bhaarat ki pashchimi seema se lage hue deshon ki or badhaai aur pehle laat naamak raajya par, jiska vistaar dakshin mein Mumbai raajya ke antargat soorat tak tha, aakraman kar diya. vahaaain ke raaja chaalukya keertiraaj ne aatmasamarpan kar diya aur bhoj ne kuchh samay tak usapar adhikaar rakha. iske baad lagbhag san 1020 E. mein bhoj ne laat ke dakshin mein sthit tatha thaana jile se lekar maalaagaar samudratat tak vistrut konkan par aakraman kiya aur shilaahaaron ke arikeshari naamak raaja ko haraaya. konkan ko paramaaron ke raajya mein mila liya gaya aur unke saamanton ke roop mein shilaahaaron ne yahaaain kuchh samay tak raajya kiya. san 1008 E. mein jab Mehmood gajnabi ne panjaabe shaahi naamak raajya par aakraman kiya, bhoj ne Bhaarat ke anya raajyon ke saath apni sena bhi aakramanakaari ka virodh karne tatha shaahi aanandapaal ki sahaayata karne ke hetu bheji parantu hindu raajaaon ke is mel ka koi fal na nikla aur is avsar par unki haar ho gayi. san 1043 E. mein bhoj ne apne bhrutibhogi sipaahiyon ko Punjab ke musalmaanon ke viruddh ladne ke liye Delhi ke raaja ke paas bheja. us samay Punjab gajni saamraajya ka hi ek bhaag tha aur Mehmood ke vanshaj hi vahaaain raajya kar rahe the. Delhi ke raaja ko Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon ki sahaayata mili aur usane Punjab ki or kooch karke musalmaanon ko haraaya aur kuchh dinon tak us desh ke kuchh bhaag par adhikaar rakha parantu ant mein gajni ke raaja ne use haraakar khoya hua bhaag pun: apne saamraajya mein mila liya.

bhoj ne ek baar daahal ke kalachuri gaangeyadev ke viruddh bhi chadhaai kar di jisne dakshin par aakraman karne ke samay usaka saath diya tha. gaangeyadev haar gaya parantu use aatmasamarpan naheen karna pada. san 1055 E. ke kuchh hi pehle gaangeya ke putr karn ne Gujarat ke chaulukya bheem pratham ke saath ek sandhi kar li aur maalav par poorv tatha pashchim ki or se aakraman kar diya. bhoj apna raajya bachaane ka prabandh kar hi raha tha ki beemaari se usaki aakasmik mrutyu ho gayi aur raajya sugamata se aakramanakaariyon ke adhikaar mein chala gaya.

uttar mein bhoj ne chandelon ke desh par bhi aakraman kiya tha jahaaain vidyaadhar naamak raaja raajya karta tha. parantu usase koi laabh na hua. bhoj ke gvaaliyr par vijay praapt karne ke prayatn ka bhi koi achha fal na hua kyonki vahaaain ke raaja kachhapaghaat keertiraaj ne uske aakraman ka datakar saamana kiya. aisa vishvaas kiya jaata hai ki bhoj ne kuchh samay ke liye kannauj par bhi vijay pa li thi jo us samay pratihaaron ke patan ke baadavaale parivartan kaal mein tha.

bhoj ne Rajasthan mein shaakanbhari ke chaahamanon ke viruddh bhi yuddh ki ghoshana ki aur tatkaaleen raaja chaahamaan veeryaraam ko haraaya. iske baad usane chaahamaanon ke hi kul ke anahil dvaara shaalit nadul naamak raajya ko jeetne ki dhamaki di, parantu yuddh mein paramaar haar gaye aur unke pradhaan senaapati saadh ko jeevan se haath dhona pada.

bhoj ne Gujarat ke chaulukyon se bhi, jinhonne apni rajdhani anahilpattan mein banaai thi, bahut dinon tak yuddh kiya. chaalukya moolaraaj pratham ke putr chanmudaraaj ko Varanasi jaate samay maalava mein bhoj ke haaainthon apamaanit hona pada tha. uske putr evam uttaraadhikaari ballabharaaj ko ispar bada krodh aaya aur usane is apamaan ka badla lene ki sochi. usane bhoj ke viruddh ek badi sena taiyaar ki aur bhoj par aakraman kar diya, parantu durbhaagyavash raaste mein hi chechak se usaki mrutyu ho gayi. iske baad vallabharaaj ke chhote bhaai durlabharaaj ne satta ki baagdor apan haathon mein li. kuchh samay baad bhaaj ne use bhi yuddh mein haraaya. durlabharaaj ke uttaraadhikaari bheem ke raajyakaal mein bhoj ne apne senaapati kulachandr ko Gujarat ke viruddh yuddh karne ke liye bheja. kulachandr ne poore pradesh par vijay praapt ki tatha usaki rajdhani anahilpattan ko loota. bheem ne ek baar Abu par aakraman kar uske raaja paramaar dhandu ko haraaya tha, jab use bhaagakar chitrakoot mein bhoj ki sharan leni padi thi. jaisa oopar bataaya ja chuka hai, san 1055 E. ke thode hi pehle bheem ne kalachuri karn se sandhi karke maalava par aakraman kar diya tha parantu bhoj ke rahate ve us pradesh par adhikaar na pa sake.

krutiyaaain

raaja bhoj bahut bade veer aur prataapi hone ke saath-saath prakaand pandit aur gunagraahi bhi the. inhonne kai vishyon ke anek granthon ka nirmaan kiya tha. ye bahut achhe kavi, daarshanik aur jyotishi the. sarasvateekanthaabharan, shrungaaramanjari, chanpooraamaayan, chaarucharya, tatvaprakaash, vyavahaarasamuchchaya aadi anek granth inke likhe hue batalaae jaate hain. inki sabha sada bade bade panditon se sushobhit rahati thi. inki patni ka naam leelaavati tha jo bahut badi vidushi thi.

raaja bhoj ne gyaan ke sabhi kshetron mein rachanaaeain ki hain. unhone koi 84 granthon ki rachana ki hai. unamein se pramukh hain-[1]

  • raajamaartand (patanjali ke yogasootr ki teeka)
  • sarasvateekanthaabharan (vyaakaran)
  • sarasvateekanthaabharan (kaavyashaastr)
  • shrungaaraprakaash (kaavyashaastr tatha naatyashaastr)
  • tattvaprakaash (shaivaagam par)
  • vruhadraajamaartand (dharmashaastr)
  • raajamrugaank (chikitsa)
  • vidyaavinod
  • yuktiklpataru - yeh granth raaja bhoj ke samast granthon mein adviteeya hai. is ek granth mein anek vishyon ka samaahaar hai. raajaneeti, vaastu, ratnapareeksha, vibhinn aayudh, ashv, gaj, vrushabh, mahish, mrug, aj-shvaan aadi pashu-pareeksha, dvipdayaan, chatushpadayaan, ashtadola, nauka-jahaaj aadi ke saarabhoot tattvon ka bhi is granth mein sankshep mein sannivesh hai. vibhinn paalakiyon aur jahaajon ka vivran is granth ki apni visheshata hai. vibhinn prakaar ke khadgon ka sarvaadhik vivran is pustak mein hi praapt hota hai.

Dr mahesh Singh ne unki rachanaaon ko vibhinn vishyon ke antargat vargeekrut kiya hai-

  • sankalan : subhaashitprabandh
  • shilp : samaraaङaganasootradhaar
  • khagol evam jyotish : aadityaprataapasiddhaant, raajamaartand, raajamrugaaङak, vidvajnyaaanavallabh (prashnavijnyaaan)
  • dharmashaastr, raajadharm tatha raajaneeti : bhujabul (nibndh) , bhupaalapaddhati, bhupaalasamuchchaya ya krutyasamuchchaya
  • chaanakyaneeti ya dandaneeti : vyavahaarasamuchchaya, yuktiklpataru, purtamaartand, raajamaartand, raajaneeti:
  • vyaakaran : shabdaanushaasan
  • kosh : naamamaalika
  • chikitsaavijnyaaan : aayurvedasarvasv, raajamaartand ya yogasaarasangrah raajamrugaarika, shaalihotr, vishraant vidyaavinod
  • sangeet : sangeetaprakaash
  • darshan : raajamaartand (yogasootr ki teeka), raajamaartand (vedaant), siddhaantasangrah, siddhaantasaarapaddhati, shivtattv ya shivtattvaprakaashika
  • praakrut kaavya : kurmaashtak
  • sanskrut kaavya evam gadya : champooraamaayan, mahaakaaleevijya, shrungaaramanyajari, vidyaavinod

sandarbh

  1. [http://www.exoticindiaart.com/book/details/samarangana-sutradhara-of-bhojadeva-ancient-treatise-on-architecture-in-two-volumes-IDJ479/ Samarangana Sutradhara of Bhojadeva: An Ancient Treatise on Architecture in Two Volumes)

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain