panna

Emerald
Emerald crystal muzo colombia.jpg
Emerald crystal from Muzo, Colombia
saamaanya
varg Beryl variety
raasaayanik sootr Beryllium aluminium silicate with chromium, Be3Al2(SiO3)6::Cr
pehchaan
varn Green
kristal haibit Hexagonal Crystals
kristal pranaali Hexagonal
kleevej Poor Basal Cleavage (Seldom Visible)
fracture Conchoidal
mohj skel sakhtata 7.5–8.0
chamak Vitreous
rifraiktiv index 1.576–1.582
pleokroijm Distinct, Blue-Green/Yellow-Green
streek White
spaisifik graiviti 2.70–2.78

panna, beril (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) naamak khanij ka ek prakaar hai jo hare rang ka hota hai aur jise kromiym aur kabhi-kabhi vainediym ki maatra se pahachaana jaata hai.[1] khanij ki kathorata maapane vaale 10 ankeeya mohas paimaane par beril ki kathorata 7.5 se 8 tak hoti hai.[1] adhikaansh panne bahut adhik antarvisht hote hain, isliye unki majabooti (tootane ki pratirodhak kshamata) ka vargeekaran aam taur par nimn koti ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. shabd "emarald" (hindi: panna) ka aagaman (puraatan fraansisi shabd: esmeraud aur madhyakaaleen laitin shabd: esmaraaldas se aayaatit, madhya angreji shabd: emaraud ke maadhyam se) greek shabd smaaragadaus – σaaμaaάaaρaaαaaγaaδaaοaaς ("harit mani") ke maadhyam se laitin shabd smaaragadas se hua hai, iska mool srot ek saami shabd ijmaragad (אaaזaaמaaרaaגaaד) hai, jiska arth "panna" ya "hara" hai.[2]

anukram

vyutpatti

naam "emarald" (panna) valgar laitin shabd: esmaraalda/esmaraaldas se vyutpann (madhya angreji shabd: emaraud aur puraatan fraansisi shabd: esmeraud ke maadhyam se) hai, jo laitin shabd smaaragadas ka ek roop hai, jiski utpatti greek shabd: σaaμaaάaaρaaαaaγaaδaaοaaς (smaaragadaus; "harit mani") se hui thi, iska mool srot ek saami shabd ijmaragad (אaaזaaמaaרaaגaaד) hai, jiska arth "panna" ya "hara" hai.[2]. yeh naam saami shabd baraak (בaaָaaּaaרaaָaaק ;اaلaبaُaرaاaقa‎; "bijli" ya "chamak") (c.f. hibroo: בaaרaaקaaת bareketh aur arabi: بaaرaaق baark "bijli") se bhi sambandhit ho sakta hai. iske faarasi (زaaمaaرaaّaaد jomorrod), Turkey (jumrut), sanskrut maragdam aur roosi (иaaзaaуaaмaaрaaуaaд; ijumrud) naamon ke bhi ek hi srot hai.[3]

moolya-nirdhaarak gun

kate hue panne

sabhi rangeen ratnon ki tarah pannon ko bhi chaar aadhaarbhoot maanakon ka prayog karke vargeekrut kiya jaata hai, jinhein parakh ke chaar C kehte hain, jo is prakaar hai; Color (rang), Cut (kataai), Clarity (svachhata) aur Crystal (sftik) . antim C, sftik ko keval ek paryaaya ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai jo paaradarshita ke liye C se shuroo hota hai ya jise ratn-vaigyaanik paaradrushyata kehte hain. 20veen sadi se pehle jauhari do gunavatta, rang aur sftik ke sanyojan ko vyakt karne ke liye jal shabd, jaise - "behatareen jal ka ratn",[4] ka prayog karte the. aam taur par, rangeen ratnon ke vargeekaran mein rang hi sabse mahatvapoorn kasauti hai. haalaanki, panne ke vargeekaran mein sftik ko doosra sabse mahatvapoorn maanadand maana jaata hai. donon aavashyak shartein hain. ek utkrusht ratn ke roop mein maanyata haasil karne ke liye ek behtar panne mein, jaisa ki neeche varnit hai, keval ek shuddh sabj varn hi naheen hona chaahiye, balki ek uchch stareeya paaradarshita bhi honi chaahiye.[5]

rang

vaigyaanik taur par kaha jaata hai ki rang teen ghatakon: varn, santrupti aur rangat mein vibhaajit hai. peele aur neele rang, varnakrameeya rang chakr ke hare rang ke nikat paae jaane vaale varn, panne mein paae jaane vaale saamaanya dviteeyak varn hain. panne, peele-hare se lekar neele-hare varnon ke hote hain. nissandeh, praathamik varn hara hi hona chaahiye. keval unheen ratnon ko panna maana jaata hai jinki rangat madhyam se lekar gaadhi hoti hai. prakaasheeya rangat vaale ratnon ko prajaatiyon ke naam, harit beril ke naam se jaana jaata hai. iske atirikt, varn avashya chamakeela (ujjval) hona chaahiye. bhoora, panna mein paaya jaane wala saamaanya santrupti sanshodhak ya mukhauta hai. bhooraanuma hara varn, ek halka hara varn hai.

svachhata

pannon mein kai antarveshan aur satah tootane jaisi daraarein hoti hain. jahaan heere ki svachhata ko vargeekrut karne ke liye loop maanak, arthaat 10X aavardhan ka prayog kiya jaata hai, usase bilkul alag, panne ko nangi aankhon se dekhkar vargeekrut kiya jaata hai. is prakaar, yadi kisi panne mein (saamaanya drushya teekshnata ko aadhaar maankar) nangi aankhon se dekhne laayak koi drushya antarveshan naheen hai to ise dosharahit maana jaata hai. aise ratn atyant durlabh hain jinmein satah tootane jaisi daraaron ka abhaav ho aur iseeliye lagbhag sabhi pannon ki spasht svachhata mein vruddhi karne ke liye inhein prashodhit, "paalish", kiya jaata hai. ujjval praathamik hare varn vaale (jaisa ki oopar varnit hai) saaf dikhaai dene vaale ratn bahut beshakeemati hote hain jinmein kisi bhi dviteeyak varn ya madhyam-gaadhi rangat vaale sanyojan (ya to neela ya peela) ki maatra 15% se adhik na ho.[5] yeh saapeksh sftik gair-ekaroopata, pannon ko anya ratnon ki tulana mein paarshv aakaaron mein taraashane ke bajaay kaibochon ke aakaar mein kaate jaane ki sambhaavana ko badha deta hai.

prashodhan

pannon ki svachhata mein vruddhi karne ke uddeshya se, baad mein taraashane ki prakriya ke baad ki kaaryavaahi ke hisse ke roop mein adhikaansh pannon ka rogan kiya jaata hai. ek samaan apavartak soochakaank vaale devadaar ke tel ko aksar is aam taur par sveekrut kaaryapranaali mein istemaal kiya jaata hai. optikn jaise panne soochakaankon ke niktavarti apavartak soochakaankon vaale krutrim telon aur bahulak sahit anya taral padaarthon ka bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. U.S. ke sangheeya vyaapaar aayog ko ek prashodhit panne ke bik jaane ke baad is prashodhan ke prakateekaran ki aavashyakta padti hai.[6] tel ka prayog paaramparik hai aur ratn vyaapaar mein ise bade paimaane par sveekruti mili hai. anya prashodhan, jaise - hare rang ke tel ka prayog, is vyaapaar mein sveekaarya naheen hai. prayogashaala samudaaya ne haal hi mein pannon ki svachhata ko vargeekrut karne ki shaili ka maanakeekaran kiya hai. ratnon ko chaar charanon vaale ek paimaane ke aadhaar par vargeekrut kiya jaata hai; naheen, laghu, madhyam aur uchch parishkrut. dhyaan dein ki ye shreniyaan vruddhi, na ki svachhata, ke staron ko darshaati hain. vruddhi ke paimaane par "naheen " ke roop mein vargeekrut ek ratn abhi bhi drushya antarveshan ka pradarshan kar sakta hai. prayogashaalaaen, in maanadandon ko alag-alag dhang se laagoo karti hain. kuchh ratn prayogashaalaaen vruddhi ka gathan karne ke liye keval tel ya bahulakon ki upasthiti par hi vichaar karti hain. anya prayogashaalaaen, tel ke nishaanon ki anadekhi kar sakti hain yadi padaarth ki upasthiti ratn ke roop mein bhautik drushti se vruddhi na karta ho.

yeh dekhte hue ki sabhi pannon ki ek bahut badi taadaad ka prashodhan kiya jaata hai jaisa ki oopar varnit hai aur is tathya par dhyaan dete hue ki gunavatta ki drushti se ek samaan dikhaai dene vaale do ratn vaastav mein prashodhan ke star ki drushti se ek doosare se kaafi alag ho sakte hain, ek beshakeemati panne ko khareedne ka vichaar kar rahe ek upabhokta ko ek sammaanit ratn-vaijnyaaaniki prayogashaala se praapt prashodhan soochana ki maang karne ki ek achhi salaah di jaati hai. anya sabhi kaarakon ke samaan hone par, "madhyam " ke roop mein vargeekrut vruddhi star vaale uchch gunavatta vaale ek panne ki laagat, "naheen " ke roop mein vargeekrut kiye gaye ek samaan dikhaai dene vaale ratn se 40–50% kam hona chaahiye.

pannon ke praapti-sthal

Victoria aur albart sangrahaalaya mein pradarshit speni panna aur svarn jhumaka.

praacheen kaal mein pannon ko misravaasiyon dvaara aur ostriya mein khanan karke nikaala kiya gaya tha.[7][8]

panne ka ek durlabh prakaar, jise traipich panna ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jo kabhi-kabhi Columbia ke khaanon mein paaya jaata hai. ek traipich panna ek 'star' paitarn pradarshit karta hai; ismein kaale kaarban ki ashuddhataaon ke kirnon jaisi tilliyaan hoti hain jo panne ko chh:-nonk wala ek rediyl paitarn pradaan karta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] panne Columbia ke teen mukhya pannon ke khanan kshetron: mujo, koskuej aur chivor, se aate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] panne anya deshon, jaise - afgaanistaan, Australia, ostriya, braajeel, bulgeriya, Canada, cheen, misr, ithiyopiya, fraans, Germany, Bhaarat, Italy, kajaakhastaan, maidaagaaskar, mojaambik, naameebiya, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, roos, somaaliya, dakshin afreeka, Spain, svitjralaind, tanjaaniya, sanyukt raajya America, jaambiya aur jimbaabve, mein bhi paaya jaata hai.[9] America mein, panne Connecticut, montaana, nevaada, uttar kairolina aur dakshin kairolina mein paae gaye hain.[9] varsh 1998 mein yukon mein pannon ki khoj ki gayi.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

krutrim panna

panne ki shatkoni sanrachana ka pradarshan

panna ek durlabh aur anmol ratn hai aur, iseeliye, krutrim ya krutrim panne ke vikaas ke liye protsaahan pradaan kiya gaya hai. jalataapeeya aur pravaah-vruddhi krutrim donon tarah ke pannon ka utpaadan kiya gaya hai aur rangaheen beril par ativruddhi star par ek panne ke utpaadan ke liye ek vidhi viksit ki gayi hai. vaanijyik drushti se safal pehli panna sanshleshan prakriya, Carol chaitham ki prakriya thi. choonki chaitham ke panne mein kisi bhi tarah ka jal naheen hota hai aur vainedet, molibdenam aur vainediym ke nishaan tak naheen hote hain, isliye ek lithiym vainedet pravaah prakriya ko shaayad shaamil kiya jaata hai. pravaah pannon ke anya bade utpaadak piyre gilsan senior the, jo varsh 1964 se baajaar mein hain. gilsan ke panne aam taur par praakrutik rangaheen beril beej beejon se viksit hote hain jo donon taraf se dhank jaate hain. vruddhi prati maah 1 mimi ki dar se hota hai, saat maheene ki ek vishisht vruddhi 7 mimi mote panne ke rave ke utpaadan ka fal pradaan karti hai.[10] gilsan ne 1980 ke dashak mein ek Japani company ko apna utpaadan prayogashaala bech diya tha, lekin uske baad se hi utpaadan rooka hua hai aur varsh 1989 mein sain fraansisko mein aae bhookamp ke baad se yahi haal chaitham ki prayogashaala ka bhi hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]jalataapeeya krutrim panne IG faarben, naiken, taayaras aur doosaron ki den hain, lekin pratham santoshajanak vaanijyik utpaad, ostriya ke insabruk ke johaan lechaleetnar ka utpaad tha, jo 1960 ke dashak mein baajaar mein dikhaai diya tha. in ratnon ko shuroo mein "emerita" aur "seemaralds" naamon ke tahat becha gaya aur inhein praakrutik rangaheen beril pattharon ke sheersh par panne ki ek patali parat ke roop mein viksit kiya gaya tha. yadyapi mool prakriya ke baare mein jyaada jaankaari naheen hai, lekin fir bhi aisa maana jaata hai ki lechaleetnar ke pannon ko aml paristhitiyon mein viksit kiya gaya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] baad mein, varsh 1965 se 1970 tak, linde ke union kaarbaaid vibhaag ne jalataapeeya sanshleshan dvaara poori tarah se krutrim panne ka utpaadan kiya. unke peteint (US3,567,642 aur US3,567,643) ke anusaar, kromiym (jo ranjak ke roop mein prayukt hota hai) ko avakshepan se bachaane ke liye amleeya paristhitiyaan aavashyak hain. iske alaava, yeh mahatvapoorn hai ki silikaun-yukt poshak tatvon ko kendrakeekaran se bachaane aur beej ke ravon mein vruddhi ko seemit karne ke liye anya avayavon se door rakhana chaahiye. vruddhi, sanvahan ki sahaayata se prasaar-pratikriya waali ek prakriya dvaara hoti hai. aaj jalataapeeya pannon ka sabse bade utpaadak roos ka taayaras hai. ve pannon ka sanshleshan karne mein safal hue hain jinki raasaayanik sanrachana Columbia ke kshaareeya nikshepan vaale pannon ke samaan hi hoti hain, isliye inhein "kolanbiyaai nirmit panne" ya "taayaras nirmit panne" kehte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

praakrutik banaam krutrim nirdhaaran karte samay paraabaingani prakaash ki sandeepti ko ek poorak pareekshan maana jaata hai kyonki kai, lekin sab naheen, praakrutik panne paraabaingani prakaash ke samaksh akriya hote hain. kai krutrim bhi UV akriya hote hain.[11]

krutrim pannon ko aksar "nirmit" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai, kyonki inki raasaayanik aur ratn-vaijnyaaaniki sanrachana, inke praakrutik pratiroopon ke samaan hi hoti hai. U.S. ki sangheeya vyaapaar aayog (FTC) ke is sandarbh mein bahut sakht viniym hain ki kise "krutrim" ratn kaha ja sakta hai aur kise naheen. FTC ka kehna hai: "§ 23.23(c) kisi bhi audyogik utpaad ka varnan karne ke liye kisi bhi praakrutik ratn ke naam ke saath "prayoshaala-viksit," "prayogashaala-nirmit," "[nirmaata naam]-nirmit," ya "krutrim" shabd ka prayog karna tab tak anuchit ya bhraamak hai jab tak aise audyogik utpaad mein inke naam ke anusaar aavashyak roop se ek samaan drushtigt, bhautik aur raasaayanik gun upalabdh na ho."[12]

pravaah-viksit krutrim pannon mein aspasht ghoonghat-jaise antarveshanon ka hona aam baat hain.

alag-alag sanskrutiyon ke panne aur panna vidya

gachaala emarald duniya ke sabse bade ratn pannon mein se ek hai, [27] par. yeh ratn 1967 mein Columbia ke gachaala ke la vega de san juaan Khan mein paaya gaya tha. ise di.si. ke Washington ke smithsoniyn insteetyooshan ke raashtreeya praakrutik itihaas sangrahaalaya mein rakha gaya hai.

panna ko May maheene mein janm lene vaalon ka paaramparik janm-ratn ke saath-saath vrush, kark aur kabhi-kabhi mithun ke jyotish-chinh ka paaramparik ratn maana jaata hai. pannon se sambandhit anek vilkshan upaakhyaanon mein se ek 16veen sadi ke itihaasakaar braintam ka upaakhyaan tha jinhonne kai prabhaavashaali pannon ko speni pannon ke roop sandarbhit kiya jinhein koratej ke tahat laitin America se vaapas Europe mein laaya gaya tha. koratej ke sabse ullekhaneeya pannon mein se ek par nimnalikhit avataran ko utkeern kiya gaya tha: Inter Natos Mulierum non sur-rexit mayor (jiska hindi arth hai - ek aurat se utpann unamein se ek mahaan aadmi naheen hua hai. XI, 11), jo bapatisma-daata John ko sandarbhit karta tha. braintam ne is utkeernan ko prakruti ki itni sundar aur saral utpaad ka pavitra vastu dooshak maana aur is krutya ko koratej ki beshakeemati moti (jise unhonne A byooteeful end in kaumpeyarebal parl naamak ek rachana samarpit ki) ke nuksaan aur is krutya ke turant baad marne vaale fraans ke raaja Charles IX ki maut ka bhi kaaran maana.[13]

kuchh sanskrutiyon mein, panna 55vein shaadi ki saalagirh ka paaramparik upahaar hai. ise 20vein aur 35vein shaadi ki saalagirh ke ek ratn ke roop mein bhi prayog kiya jaata hai.

baaibil ke otharaaijd King James varshan, eksodas 28:18 aur 39:11 mein, "emarald" (panne) yahoodiyon ke uchch paadari ke kavach ke keemati ratnon mein se ek ke roop mein soocheebaddh hai; lekin aadhunik sarvasammati yahi hai ki yeh sanbhavat: ek galat anuvaad hai. (hoshen dekhein.)

Ireland ko aksar, khaaskar America mein, "emarald aail" (panna taapoo) ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.

L. Frank ki the vandaraful vijrd of oj mein jis shahar mein jaadoogar ka shaasan hai, vah pannon ka bana hai, iseeliye emarald siti arthaat panna shahar kahalaata hai. shrrunkhala ki chhathi kitaab ka naamakaran isi ke naam par kiya gaya hai.

panna mool
gachaala emarald Columbia
chauk emarald
baahiya emarald braajeel

inhein bhi dekhein

chitrashaala

nots

  1. a aa harlbat, kaurneliys S. junior aur kaimarling, Robert si., 1991, jemolauji, prushth. 203, John vile end sans, New York
  2. a aa Fernie M.D., W.T. (1906). Precious Stones for Curative Wear. John Wright. & Co..
  3. Harper, Douglas. "emerald". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=emerald.
  4. kruk aur baul eds., taivaraniyr, J.bi. the six vauijij, khand II, peepi.44, 58
  5. a aa vaaij, aar. dablyoo., seekrets of the jem trade, kaunoisiyors guide too presiys jemastons, brunsavik house press, (2001), peepi.108
  6. aabhooshan, keemati dhaatu aur kaansya udyog ki maargadarshikaaen
  7. giyooliyaani eight al. (2000): "praacheen kaal se okseejan samasthaanik aur panna vyaapaar maarg." gaistan giyooliyaani, mark chaudissan, henari-jeen shyoobnel, dainiyl-H. piyt, kleyar roliyn-baard, krishchiyn fraans-laanord, didiyr giyrd, dainiyl de naarvej, beinjaamin rondeeyoo. science, 28 January 2000, peepi. 631-633.
  8. giyooliyaani eight al. (2000b): "La route des emeraudes anciennes." gaistan giyooliyaani, Michelle hayooj, mark chaudissan. paur la science, November 2000, peepi 58-65.
  9. a aa http://www.mindat.org/min-1375.html praapti-sthalon ke aankade ke saath mindait
  10. naisaaoo, ke., 1980, James med baai main, jemolaujikl Institute of America, ISBN 0-87311-016-1
  11. harlbat, kaurneliys S. junior aur kaimarling, Robert si., 1991, jemolauji, pi. 81, John vile end sans, New York
  12. aabhooshan, keemati dhaatu aur kaansya udyog ki maargadarshikaaen
  13. Kunz, George Frederick (1915). Magic of Jewels and Charms. Lippincott Company. prushth. 305

sandarbh

  • koopar, J.si. (Ed.) (1992). brevars mith end lejeind . New York: kesal pablishrs limited ISBN 0-304-34084-7.
  • sinkankas, John (1994). emarald end odar berils . jiyosaains press. ISBN 0-8019-7114-4
  • harlbat, kaurneliys S.; klen, kaurnelis (1985). mainual of minralauji (20vaan sanskaran). New York: John vile end sans. ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  • veinsteen, Michael (1958). the world of jvel stons . shereeden house.
  • naisaaoo, kart (1980). James med baai main . jemolaujikl Institute of America. ISBN 0-87311-016-1
  • Ali, saleem H. (2006). the emarald city: braajeel mein panna khanan (+anya deshon mein ratn khanan) http://www.uvm.edu/envnr/gemecology/brazil.html
  • vaaij, richrd dablyoo., seekrets of the jem trade, the kaunoisiyors guide too presiys jemastons (2001), brunsavik house press. ISBN 0-9728223-8-0. website: [1]
  • baul, vi. aur kruk, dablyoo., trevals in indiya baai jin baiptist taivaraniyr, oriental riprint kaurporeshan, nai Delhi, Bhaarat.

baahari link