panchaayati raaj

panchaayati raaj vyavastha mein gram, taaluka aur jila aate hain. Bhaarat mein praacheen kaal se hi panchaayati raaj vyavastha aastitv mein rahi hain. aadhunik Bhaarat mein pratham baar tatkaaleen pradhaanamantri javaaharalaal Nehru dvaara Rajasthan ke naagaur jile mein 2 October 1959 ko panchaayati raaj vyavasth laagoo ki gayi.

samvaidhaanik pravadhaan

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke anuchhed 40 mein raajyon ko panchaayaton ke gathan ka nirdesh diya gaya hain. 1993 main samvidhaan mein 73vaan samvidhaan sanshodhan adhiniyam, 1992 karke panchaayat raaj sanstha ko samvaidhaanik maanyata de di gayi hain.

  • balavant rai Mehta samiti ki sifaarishein (1957) -
  • ashok Mehta samiti ki sifaarishein (1976) -

panchaayati raaj par ek najar

24 April 1993 Bhaarat mein panchaayati raaj ke kshetr mein ek mahatvapoorn maargachinh tha kyonki isi din samvidhaan (73vaan sanshodhan) adhiniyam, 1992 ke maadhyam se panchaayati raaj sansthaaon ko sanbaidhaanik darja haasil karaaya gaya aur is tarah mahaatma Gandhi ke gram Swaraj ke svapn ko vaastavikta mein badalne ki disha mein kadam badhaaya gaya tha.

73vein sanshodhan adhiniyam, 1993 mein nimnalikhit praavadhaan kiye gaye hain:

ek tri-stareeya dhaanche ki sthaapana (gram panchaayat, panchaayat samiti ya madhyavarti panchaayat tatha jila panchaayat)

gram star par gram sabha ki sthaapana

har paanch saal mein panchaayaton ke niyamit chunaav

anusoochit jaatiyon/janajaatiyon ke liye unki janasankhya ke anupaat mein seaton ka aarakshan

mahilaaon ke liye ek tihaai seaton ka aarakshan

panchaayaton ki nidhiyon mein sudhaar ke liye upaaya sujhaane hetu raajya vitta aayogon ka gathan

raajya chunaav aayog ka gathan

73vaan sanshodhan adhiniyam panchaayaton ko svashaasan ki sansthaaon ke roop mein kaam karne hetu aavashyak shaktiyaan aur adhikaar pradaan karne ke liye raajya sarkaar ko adhikaar pradaan karta hai. ye shaktiyaan aur adhikaar is prakaar ho sakte hain:

samvidhaan ki gayaarahaveen anusoochi mein soocheebadhd 29 vishyon ke sambandh mein aarthik vikaas aur saamaajik nyaaya ke liye yojanaaen taiyaar karna aur unka nishpaadan karna

kar, dayooteej, taul, shulk aadi lagaane aur use vasool karne ka panchaayaton ko adhikaar

raajyon dvaara ekatr karon, dayootiyon, taul aur shulkon ka panchaayaton ko hastaantaran

gram sabha

gram sabha kisi ek gaanv ya panchaayat ka chunaav karne vaale gaanvon ke samooh ki matadaata soochi mein shaamil vyaktiyon se milkar bani sanstha hai.

gatisheel aur prabudhd gram sabha panchaayati raaj ki safalta ke kendra mein hoti hai. raajya sarkaaron se aagrah kiya gaya hai ki ve:-

panchaayat (anusoochit kshetron mein vistaar) adhiniyam, 1996 mein ullikhit praavadhaanon ke anusaar gram sabha ko shaktiyaan pradaan karein.

ganatantr diwas, shram diwas, svatantrata diwas aur Gandhi jayanti ke avsar par desh bhar mein gram sabha ki baithakon ke aayojan ke liye panchaayati raaj kaanoon mein anivaarya praavadhaan shaamil karna.

panchaayati raaj adhiniyam mein aisa anivaarya praavadhaan jodna jo visheshakar gram sabha ki baithakon ke koram, saamaanya baithakon aur vishesh baithakon tatha koram poora na ho paane ke kaaran fir se baithak ke aayojan ke sambandh mein ho.

gram sabha ke sadasyon ko unke adhikaaron aur shaktiyon se avagat karaana taaki jan bhaageedaari sunishchit ho aur visheshakar mahilaaon tatha anusoochit jaati/janajaati ke logon jaise seemaanteekrut samooh bhaag le sakein.

gram sabha ke liye aisi kaarya-prakriyaaen banaana jinke dvaara vah gram vikaas mantraalaya ke laabhaarthi-unmukh vikaas kaaryakramon ka asarakaari dhang se saamaajik audit sunishchit kar sake tatha vitteeya kuprabandhan ke liye vasooli ya saja dene ke kaanooni adhikaar use praapt ho sakein.

gram sabha baithakon ke sambandh mein vyaapak prasaar ke liye kaarya-yojana banaana.

gram sabha ki baithakon ke aayojan ke liye maarg-nirdesh/kaarya-prakriyaaen taiyaar karna.

praakrutik sansaadhanon, bhoomi rikaardon par niyantran aur samasya-samaadhaan ke sambandh mein gram sabha ke adhikaaron ko lekar jaagrukta paida karna.

73vaan samvidhaan sanshodhan adhiniyam gram star par sv-shaasan ki sansthaaon ke roop mein aisi sashakt panchaayaton ki parikalpana karta hai jo nimn kaarya karne mein saksham ho:

gram star par jan vikaas kaaryon aur unke rakh-rakhaav ki yojana banaana aur unhein poora karna.

gram star par logon ka kalyaan sunishchit karna, ismein svaasthya, shiksha, samudaaya bhaaichaara, visheshakar gender aur jaati-aadhaarit bhedabhaav ke sambandh mein saamaajik nyaaya, jhagadon ka nibtaara, bachchon ka visheshakar baalikaaon ka kalyaan jaise mudde honge.

73vein samvidhaan sanshodhan mein jameeni star par jan sansad ke roop mein aisi sashakt gram sabha ki parikalpana ki gayi hai jiske prati gram panchaayat javaabadeh ho. 74vein samvidhaan sanshodhan