panchaayat

praacheen kaal se hi bhaaratavarsh ke saamaajik, raajaneetik aur aarthik jeevan mein panchaayat ka mahatvapoorn sthaan raha hai. saarvajanik jeevan ka pratyek pahaloo isi ke dvaara sanchaalit hota tha.

anukram

parichay evam itihaas

praacheen kaal

vaidik kaal mein bhi panchaayaton ka astitv tha. gram ke pramukh ko graamani kehte the. uttar vaidik kaal mein bhi yeh hota tha jiske maadhyam se raaja gram par shaasan karta tha. bauddhakaaleen graamaparishd mein "gram vruddh" sammilit hote the. inke pramukh ko "graamabhojak" kehte the. parishd athva panchaayat gram ki bhoomi ki vyavastha karti thi tatha gram mein shaanti aur suraksha banaae rakhane mein graamabhojak ki sahaayata karti thi. janahit ke anya kaaryon ka sanpaadan bhi vahi karti thi. smruti granthon mein bhi panchaayat ka ullekh hai. kautilya ne gram ko raajaneetik ikaai maana hai. "arthashaastr" ka "graamik" gram ka pramukh hota tha jise kitne hi adhikaar praapt the. apne saarvajanik kartavyon ko poora karne mein vah graamavaasiyon ki sahaayata leta tha. saarvajanik hit ke anya kaaryon mein bhi graamavaasiyon ka sahayog vaanchhaneeya tha. gram ki ek saarvajanik nidhi bhi hoti thi jismein jurmaane, dand aadi se dhan aata tha. is prakaar graamik aur graamapanchaayat ke adhikaar aur kartavya sammilit the jinki avhelna dandaneeya thi. guptakaal mein gram shaasan ki sabse chhoti ikaai tha jiske pramukh ko "graamik" kehte the. vah "panchamandal" athva panchaayat ki sahaayata se gram ka shaasan chalaata tha. "graamavruddh" is panchaayat ke sadasya hote the. harsh ne bhi isi vyavastha ko apnaaya. uske samay mein raajya "bhukti" (praant), "vishay" (jila) aur "gram" mein vibhkt tha. harsh ke madhuban shilaalekh mein saamakundaka gram ka ullekh hai jo "kundaghaani" vishay aur "ahichhtr" bhukti ke antargat tha. graamapramukh ko graamik kehte the.hjqweoairufio;asudfi;jasdf;akj

madhya kaal

naveen aur dasveen shataabdi ke chol aur uttar malloor shilaalekhon se pata chalta hai ki dakshin mein bhi panchaayat vyavastha thi. graamya svashaasan ka vikaas chol shaasan ki mukhya visheshata thi. in saamya shaasan ikaaiyon ko "kurrum" kehte the, jinmein kai gram sammilit hote the. kurrum ek svaayattashaasi ikaai thi. shaasanasatta ek mahaasabha mein nihit hoti thi jile gram ke log chunate the sabha apni samitiyon ke maadhyam se shaasan ka kaam chalaati thi. is prakaar ki aath samitiyaaain theen jo janahit ke vibhinn kaaryon ko karne ke atirikt shaanti aur suraksha banaae rakhane ke liye uttaradaayi theen. ye nyaaya sambandhi kaarya bhi karti theen. gram poori tarah svaayattashaasi tha aur is prakaar keindreeya shaasan anek daayitvon se mukt rahata tha. muslim aur maraatha kaalon mein bhi kisi na kisi prakaar ki panchaayat vyavastha chalti rahi aur pratyek gram apne mein svaavalanbi bana raha.

british kaal

angreji shaasanakaal mein panchaayat-vyavastha ko sabse adhik dhakka pahuaincha aur vah yeh vyavastha chhinn-bhinn ho gayi. fir bhi graamon ke saamaajik jeevan mein panchaayatein bani raheen. pratyek jaati athva varg ki apni alag-alag panchaayatein theen jo uske saamaajik jeevan ko niyantrit karti theen aur panchaayat ki vyavastha evam niyamon ka ullanghan karanevaale ko kathor dand diya jaata tha. shaasan ki or se in panchaayaton ke kaaryon mein hastakshep naheen kiya jaata tha. aarambh se hi angrejon ki neeti yeh rahi ki shaasan ka kaam, yathaasanbhav, adhikaadhik raajya karmachaariyon ke haathon mein hi rahe. iske parinaamasvaroop faujadaari aur deevaani adaalaton ki sthaapana, naveen raajasv neeti, police vyavastha, gamanaagaman ke saadhanon ka vikaas aadi kaaranon se graamon ka svaavalanbi jeevan aur sthaaneeya svaayattata dheere-dheere samaapt ho chali.

parantu aage chalakar angrejon ne bhi yeh anubhav kiya ki unki keindreekaran ki neeti se shaasanabhaar din prati din badhta hi ja raha hai. doosari or raashtreeya jaagrati ke kaaran svaayattashaasan ki maaaing bhi badh rahi thi. ataev unhein vikeindreekaran ki disha mein kadam uthaane ko baadhya hona pada. praarambh mein jila bordon aur myunisipl bordon ki sthaapana ki gayi. san 1907 ke vikeindreekaran sambandhi shaahi commission ne panchaayaton ke mahatva ko sveekar kiya aur apni report mein likha ki kisi bhi sthaayi sangathan ki neenv, jisse janta ka sakriya sahayog prashaasan ke saath ho, graamon mein hi honi chaahiye. commission ne sifaarish ki ki kuchh chune hue graamon mein, jo paarasparik dalabandi aur jhagadon se mukt hon, panchaayatein sthaapit ki jaaeain aur praarambh mein unhein seemit adhikaar diye jaaeain. tatkaaleen Bhaarat sarkaar ne 1915 E. mein commission ki sifaarishon ko siddhaantat: to sveekar kar liya parantu vyavahaar mein unki poornataya upeksha ki gayi. bahut hi kam graamon mein panchaayatein bani; jo bani, ve bhi sarkaar dvaara poori tarah niyantrit thi.

Bhaarat sarkaar ke 1919 me adhiniyam ke anusaar praanteeya sarkaaron ko svashaasan ke kuchh adhikaar diye gaye aur 1920 ke aaspaas sabhi praanton mein gram panchaayat adhiniyam banaae gaye. sanyukt pradesh (uttar pradesh) mein 1920 ke panchaayat aikt ke adheen lagbhag 4700 gram panchaayatein sthaapit ki gain. sabhi praanton mein panchaayaton ko seemit adhikaar diye gaye. ve janasvaasthya, svachhata, chikitsa, jalavikaas, sadkon, taalaabon kuon aadi ki dekhbhaal karti theen. unhein nyaaya sambandhi kuchh adhikaar bhi praapt the. ve adhiktam 200 Ru. ki chal sampatti se sambaddh mukadame le sakti theen aur faujadaari ke mukadamon mein 50 Ru. tak jurmaana kar sakti theen. inki aay ka mukhya saadhan jurmaana ya daan tha. parantu vaastavikta yeh rahi ki praacheen panchaayaton ki tulana mein ye panchaayatein poornataya prabhaavaheen theen, inke panch janta dvaara na chune jaakar sarkaar dvaara manoneet kiye jaate the tatha aay ke saadhan na hone ke karan inki aarthik sthiti shochaneeya thi. doosari or raashtreeya aandolan ke karnadhaar yeh anubhav karte the ki gaaainvon ka aarthik aur naitik patan keval panchaayaton ki pun: sthaapana dvaara hi roka ja sakta hai. Gandhi ji ke graamon ke liye dasasootri kaaryakram mein panchaayaton ko sudrudh banaane ki baat mukhya thi. ve panchaayaton ko svantatr Bhaarat ki shaasanavyavastha ki aadhaarashila banaana chaahate the. 1937 mein saat praanton mein sthaapit Congressi sarkaaron ke saamane bhi yahi aadarsh tha. uttar pradesh mein anek graamon mein jeevanasudhaar samitiyaaain (Better Life Societies) banaai gayi jinhein graamavikaas ke kaarya saunpe gaye.

svatantrataapraapti ke baad

is prakaar 1947 E. tak graamon mein sahi panchaayat vyavastha ka abhaav hi raha. svatantrataapraapti ke pashchaat is vyavastha ko punarjeevit karne ke sakriya prayaas aarambh hue. uttar pradesh mein san 1947 mein panchaayat raaj adhiniyam banaaya gaya. samvidhaan ke antargat "raajaneeti ke nideshak tatvon" mein raajya ka yeh pramukh kartavya batalaaya gaya ki "vah gram panchaayaton ka sangathan karne ke liye agrasar ho" tatha "unako aisi shaktiyaaain aur adhikaar pradaan kare jo unhein svaayatt shaasan ki ikaaiyon ke roop mein kaarya karne yogya banaane ke liye aavashyak hon". is nidesh ke anusaar pratyak raajya mein panchaayat vyavastha laagoo karne ki disha mein kadam uthaae gaye aur pratyek gram athva graamasamooh mein panchaayat ki sthaapana ki gayi. panchaayat ke sadasyon ka chunaav gaaainv ke mataadhikaarapraapt vyaktiyon dvaara kiya jaata hai. gram panchaayatein gram ki svachhata, prakaash, sadkon, aushadhaalayon, kuon ki safaai aur marammat, saarvajanik bhoomi, paith, baajaar tatha melon aur charaagaahon ki vyavastha karti hain, janm mrutyu ka lekha rakhati hain aur kheti, udyog dhandhon evam vyavasaayon ki unnati, beemaariyon ki rokathaam, shmashaanon aur kabristaanon ki dekhbhaal bhi karti hain. vrukshaaropan, pashuvansh ka vikaas, graamasuraksha ke liye graamasevak dal ka gathan, sahakaarita ka vikaas, akaal peedito ki sahaayata, pulon aur puliyon ka nirmaan, schoolon aur aspataalon ka sudhaar aadi inke aichhik kartavya hain. graamon mein panchaayat vyavastha ka doosra ang nyaaya panchaayatein hain. graamon mein mukadamebaaji kam karne tatha janta ko sasta nyaaya sulabh banaane ki drushti se nyaaya panchaayaton ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai. inhein deevaani, faujadaari aur maal ke maamalon mein kuchh adhikaar pradaan kiye gaye hai. pratyek raajya mein panchaayaton ke adhikaar aur daayitv nyoonaadhik roop se samaan hai.

vikeindreekaran vyavastha ko poori tarah kaaryaanvit karne ki disha mein aur bhi kadam uthaae gaye hain. panchaayaton ke adhikaaron aur kartavyon ka kshetr vistrut ho raha hai. is prakaar gram panchaayatein pun: hamaare desh ke janajeevan ka abhinn ang ban gayi hain. is vyavastha ki safalta ke liye janashiksha, saamoohik chetna, gutabandi ka abhaav, raajya dvaara kam se kam hastakshep aadi baatein aavashyak hain.

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