panaama nahar

panaama nahar
Panama Canal Map EN.png
panaama nahar ka vyavasthaanurekhan, jismein lauks aur jalamaargon ka kram dikhaaya gaya hai
vishishtataaeain
jalapaash 3 jalapaash oopar ki or aur 3 neeche ki or har paaragaman mein, donon len mein
(do len mein teen sthalon par jalapaash)
sthiti khuli hui (chaaloo); eksateinshan nirmaanaadheen
sanchaalan praadhikran panaama nahar praadhikran
itihaas
mool svaami La Sociéaté internationale du Canal
mukhya abhiyanta John findale vailaak (1904–05), John Frank steeveins (1905–07), George Washington gothals (1907–14)
pratham upayog tithi August 15, 1914
panaama nahar ki lokeshan, neeche prashaant mahaasaagar aur oopar ki or caribbean saagar
panaama nahar ki sthalaakruti (digital uchchaavach pratidrsh)
vartamaan samay mein panaama nahar

panaama nahar (speni: Canal de Panamá) maanav nirmit ek jalamaarg athva jalayaan nahar hai jo panaama mein sthit hai aur prashaant mahaasaagar tatha (caribbean saagar hokar) atalaantik mahaasaagar ko jodti hai. is nahar ki kul lambaai 77.1 ki॰mee॰ hai. yeh nahar panaama sthaladamaroomadhya ko kaatate hue nirmit hai aur antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ke pramukhatam jalamaargon mein se ek hai.

America ke poorvi aur pashchimi taton ke beech ki doori is nahar se hokar gujarane par takareeban 8000 meal (12,875 ki॰mee॰) ghat jaati hai kyonki iske na hone ki sthiti mein jalapoton ko dakshin America ke haurn antareep se hokar chakkar lagaate hue jaana padta tha.

is nahar ka nirmaan 14 August 1914 ko poora hua aur 15 August 1914 ko yeh jalapoton ke aavaagaman hetu khol di gayi. abhi haal hi mein (14 August 2014 ko) panaama nahar ke nirmaan ki 100veen barasi manaai gayi hai.[1] jab yeh nahar bani thi tab isse lagbhag 1000 jalapot prativrsh gujarte the aur ab sau varshon baad inki sankhya lagbhag 42 jalapot pratidin ho chuki hai.

yeh nahar apne aap mein abhiyaantriki ki ek badi upalabdhi aur vilkshan udaaharan bhi maani jaati hai. yeh nahar ek meethe paani ki gaatun jheel se hokar gujarati hai aur chooainki is jheel ka jalastar samudratal se 26 meter oopar hai, ismein jalapoton ko pravesh karne ke liye teen lauks ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai jinmein jalapoton ko pravesh kara kar aur paani bharakar unhein pehle oopar uthaaya jaata hai, taaki yeh jheel se hokar gujar sake.

in lauks ki vartamaan chaudaai 35 meter hai aur yeh samakaaleen bade jalapoton ke liye paryaapt naheen hai at: iske vistaar ka project chal raha hai jiske 2015 tak poora hone ki ummeed hai.

panaama nahar ko American society of civil engineers ne aadhunik abhiyaantriki ke saat aashcharyon mein sthaan diya hai.[2]

anukram

itihaas

aaranbhik prayaas

panaama nahar ke nirmaan ki sabse pehli yojana Spain ke raaja aur pavitra roman saamraajya ke samraat Charles pancham ne san 1534 mein paas ki aur is hetu sarvekshan ke liye nirdesh jaari kiye taaki speni vyaapaariyon aur sena ko purtagaaliyon se behtar jalamaarg mil sake aur ve iska laabh utha sakein.[3][4] stratejik aur vyaapaarik hiton ki mahatvapoornata aur donon nae khoje gaye mahaadveepon ke madhya sthit panaama sthaladamaroomadhya ki kam chaudaai ke baavajood yahaaain vyaapaarik maarg banaane ka pehla prayaas 1658 mein skaatalaind raajya dvaara kiya gaya jo ek sthal maarg tha aur kharaab paryaavaraneeya dashaaon aur uchchaavach ki vishmata ke kaaran ise 1700 mein lagbhag chhod hi diya gaya.[5]

1855 mein William kanish naamak engineer ne sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ke liye kaam karte hue is ilaake ka sarvekshan kiya aur report prastut ki[6] pun: 1877 aramaand reklas (Armand Reclus) naamak fraanseesi sainya adhikaari (engineer) aur loosiyaan nepoliyn naamak injeeniyron ne milkar nahar ke nirmaan maarg ka sarvekshan kiya[7] jiske peechhe fraanseesiyon dvaara svej nahar ke nirmaan ki upalabdhiyon ka utsaah tha.

nirmaan

fardineind di lesap
baas abiso mein khudaai ka kaarya, 1886

fraans dvaara yahaaain nahar banaae jaane ka kaarya 1 January 1881 ko fardineind di lesap ke netrutv mein shuroo hua jo svej nahar ka nirmaanakarta tha.

bhoogarbhik aur jalavaijnyaaanik adhyayanon ke bina aarambh kiye gaye is kaarya mein anya kai baadhaaen bhi aayeen jinmein yahaaain ki asahya jalavaayaveeya dashaaon aur machharon ki bahutaayat ke kaaran beemaariyon tatha anya durghatanaaon mein takareeban 22,000 karmiyon ki jaanein gayeen.

antat: 1889 mein yeh nirmaata company divaaliya ho gayi aur fardineind di lesap ke bete Charles di lesap ko vitteeya aniyamitataon ke aarap mein (jise panaama skaindal kaha gaya) paaainch varshon ki kaid ho gayi. company ko nirast kar diya gaya aur kaam ruk gaya. 1894 mein ek doosari company kumpani nauvelle doo kainal de panaama (Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panama) bani lekin iske prayaas bhi safal naheen hue.

ameriki nirmaan

baad mein ameriki sarkaar ne Columbia sarkaar ke saath sandhi karte hue is kshetr ka adhigrahan (tab yeh Columbia desh ke antargat tha) kiya aur 1904 mein ameriki injeeniyron ne kaarya aarambh kiya jismein is nahar ko teen lauks ke saath banaane ki shurooaat hui.

amerikiyon ne kaafi aadhyayan aur nivesh ke baad 1914 mein ise poora kiya. ek tarah se dekha jaaya to vaasko di bilboya dvaara panaama damaroomadhya ke paar karne ke lagbhag 400 varshon ke baad is nahar ka nirmaan ho paaya. is project mein Amreeki sarkaar ne lagbhag $375,000,000 (vartamaan samtulyk $8,600,000,000) kharch kiye$[8]

tamaam parivrtanon, vivaadon aur antarraashtreeya vyaapaar mein iski nishpaksh sthiti ko banaaye rakhane hetu lagbhag 80 kilometer lambi is nahar ka prashaasan 31 December 1999 ko panaama ko saunp diya gaya.

sanchaalan

sanchaalan ke maamale mein bhi yeh nahar adviteeya hai kyonki yeh duniya ka akela aisa jalamaarg hai jahaan kisi bhi jahaaj ka kaptaan apne jahaaj ka niyantran poori tarah panaama ke sthaaneeya visheshagya kaptaan ko saunp deta hai.[1]prashaant aur atalaantik mahaasaagar ke beech bani is nahar se gujarane ke liye hajaaron tan bhaari jahaaj ko lauk mein paani bharakar 85 feet oopar uthaaya jaata hai.

poore lauk tantr ko paar karne ke liye pehle jahaaj ko sabse nichle lauk mein laaya jaata hai, fir lauk ko band kar usamein shaktishaali pampon dvaara paani bhara jaata hai. is prakaar paani se jahaaj oopar uthane lagta hai. tatpashchaat bhaari aur behad taakatavar lokomotiv engine jahaaj ko paarshvon se takaraane se bachaate hue kheenchate hain aur doosare lauk mein le jaate hain. fir doosare lauk mein bhi yahi kaam duharaaya jaata hai, paani bharna, jahaaj ko kheenchna aur aage badhna. teen laukon ke jariye oopar uthane ke baad jahaaj meethe paani ki krutrim jheel, gaatoon jheel, se gujarte hain. doosare chhor par pahunchane ke baad jahaajon ko fir isi prakriya ke dvaara 85 feet neeche le jaakar mahaasaagar mein utaar diya jaata hai.

yahaaain yaataayaat prabandhan ke liye poornataya kampyootareekrut system laga hua hai jisse is nahar se gujarane vaale jalapoton ka sanchaalan suvidhaajanak dhang se kiya ja sake.[9]

nahar ki kshamata

relainjan dvaara kheench kar le jaaya ja raha jahaaj
panaama nahar mein parivhan ki maatra ke treind

vartamaan samay mein duniya bhar mein vyaapaar ke liye chalne vaale 5 pratishat paani ke jahaaj panaama se hokar gujarte hain.

filhaal panaama nahar se sirf ve hi jahaaj gujar paate hain jo 1050 feet lanbaai, 110 feet chaudaai aur 41.2 feet gaharaai ke bheetar aate hain. haalaaainki aadhunik jahaaj aakaar mein kaafi bade ho chuke hai aur isi liye yahaaain ek naya lauk banaaya ja raha hai. nahar mein taiyaar kiye ja rahe nae lauk 12000 kantenaron vaale bade jahaajon ke saaij ke anuroop honge jinke chamber 1400 feet lambe, 180 feet chaude aur 60 feet gahre banaae jaane ki yojana hai aur saath hi nae lauk mein jalapoton ko kheenchne ke liye lokomotiv ki jagah tagabot lagaaye jaayeinge.[1]

panaama nahar ko chauda karne ke kaam ko teesare set ke lauk ka project bhi kaha jaata hai. iske 2015 tak poora ho jaane par panaama nahar se pehle ke mukaabale jyaada bade aakaar ke jahaaj gujar sakeinge jisse ki is maarg ka jyaada istemaal ho sakega. nahar ko chauda karne aur bade jahaajon ke liye nae lauk banaane ka yeh project Spain aur Italy ki companiyon ke niyantran waali 'groopo yoonidos por L kanaal consortium' (jeeyoopeesi) ke paas hai. ummeed hai ki nae teesare set ke lauk taiyaar ho jaane par maarg ki kshamata doguni ho jaaegi. project ke antargat nahar ke donon siron atalaantik mahaasaagar ki taraf aur prashaant mahaasaagar ki taraf ek ek nae lauk complex banaae jaane hain. pratyek mein paani jama karne ke teen chamber honge jinki madad se pot visthaapit kiye jaaenge.[1]

vivaad aur samasyaaeain

2014 mein panaama nahar chalaane waali company ACP aur nahar ka vistaar kar rahi company jeeyoopeesi ke beech vitteeya aavashyakataaon ko lekar vivaad ho gaya tha.[10] jeeyoopeesi ka kehna tha ki sanchaalak company ke doshapoorn bhoogarbheeya adhyayan ke kaaran panaama nahar ko chauda karne ke kaam mein bajat ko badhaane ka savaal khada ho gaya hai aur pehle se paas bajat mein yeh kaarya naheen poora kiya ja sakta.[11]

panaama nahar ke lauks ka nirmaan, 1913

speni company saakir ke anusaar jeeyoopeesi ne pichhle hafte aupachaarik roop se ACP tak sandesh pahuncha diya tha ki agar nirdhaarit avadhi mein manjoori naheen milti hai to kaam rok diya jaaega. iske liyesakir ne 1.2 arab Euro atirikt dene ki maaaing ki aur aisa na hone par kaam rok dene ki dhamaki de di thi. baad mein madhyasthata ke silsile mein aana paastor companiyon ke pratinidhiyon ke alaava panaama ke raashtrapati rikaardo maartineli ko bhi utarana pada tha aur tab jaakar yeh vivaad shaant hua.[12]

isi ke saath hi yahaaain se gujarane vaale jalapoton aur lauks mein paani bhare jaane tatha chhode jaane se gaatum jheel ki paryaavaraneeya gunavatta bhi prabhaavit hui hai. paryaavaran kaaryakartaaon ke anusaar jheel ka paani khaara hota ja raha hai aur iske jalajeevon aur jaivavividhta par khatra mandara raha hai aise mein nae aur bade lauks ka nirmaan sthitiyon ko aur bigaadega.[11]

panaama sarkaar par yeh aarop bhi lage hain ki is nahar se hone waali aay se yahaaain ke nivaasiyon ke liye kuchh naheen hota aur aisa prateet hota hai ki nahar ka vistaar keval badi companiyon ke hiton ke liye ho raha hai[11]

pratidvandita mein nikaaraaguaa nahar

nikaaraaguaa nahar ke prastaavit maarg (laal rang)(2013); panaama nahar (neele rang se)

haal hi mein cheen ki sahaayata se nikaaraaguaa mein bhi nahar banaaye jaane ki yojana hai.[13] haalaaainki iske banaaye jaane ka paryaavaranavid kaafi virodh kar rahe hain aur yeh bhi maana ja raha hai ki ismein kharch jyaada hoga aur laabh kam.[14]

ye bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa i E "panaama nahar ke 100 saal". dauyache vele. http://www.dw.de/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BE-%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%B0-%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%87-100-%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B2/a-17849911. abhigman tithi: 25-August-2014. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name ".E0.A4.B8.E0.A4.BE.E0.A4.B2" defined multiple times with different content
  2. "Seven Wonders [saat aashcharya]" (angreji mein). American society of civil engineers. http://www.asce.org/content.aspx?id=2147487305. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2014.
  3. "History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts [panaama nahar ka itihaas: French aur ameriki nirmaan ke prayaas]" (angreji mein). panaama nahar praadhikran. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html.
  4. "Some Early Canal Plans [kuchh shuruaati nahar yojanaaen]" (angreji mein). http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/early.html.
  5. "Darien Expedition [deriyn abhiyaan]" (angreji mein). http://www.kinnaird.net/darien.htm.
  6. "Manx Worthies [mainks varthees]" (angreji mein). http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/fulltext/worthies/p118.htm.
  7. jeraard faukanar (2004) (fraanseesi mein). Panama: Armand Reclus et le canal des deux océaans [panaama: aramaand reklas aur do ​a​amahaasaagaron ka channel]. varjiniya vishvavidyaalaya. http://books.google.com/books/about/Panama.html?id=wmwYAAAAYAAJ.
  8. "Read our history: American Canal Construction [hamaare itihaas padhein: ameriki nahar nirmaan]" (angreji mein). panaama nahar praadhikran. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2014.
  9. "Enhanced Vessel Traffic Management System [sanvardhit pot yaataayaat prabandhan pranaali]" (angreji mein). panaama nahar praadhikran. https://www.pancanal.com/eng/op/evtms/index.html. abhigman tithi: 26-August-2014.
  10. "badhti laagaton par uthe vivaad ke kaaran panaama nahar ko chauda karne ka kaam ruka". jaagaran josh. http://www.jagranjosh.com/current-affairs/badhti-laagaton-par-uthe-vivaad-ke-kaaran-panaama-nahar-ko-chauda-karne-ka-kaam-ruka-1391751635-2. abhigman tithi: 25-August-2014.
  11. a aa i "vivaadon mein ghiri panaama nahar". dauyache vele. http://www.dw.de/vivaadon-mein-ghiri-panaama-nahar/a-17117229. abhigman tithi: 25-August-2014.
  12. "panaama nahar vivaad mein Spain ki madhyasthata". dauyache vele. http://www.dw.de/panaama-nahar-vivaad-mein-Spain-ki-madhyasthata/a-17344437. abhigman tithi: 25-August-2014.
  13. "Hiina firma tahab ehitada uue Ameerika kanali [ek cheeni company America mein ek nai nahar ka nirmaan karna chaahati hain]" (estoniyaai mein). http://www.e24.ee/1270456/hiina-firma-tahab-ehitada-uue-ameerika-kanali. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2014.
  14. "kya doosari panaama nahar ki zaroorat hai?". radio roos. http://hindi.ruvr.ru/2014_02_23/263819802/. abhigman tithi: 25-August-2014.

baahari kadiyaaain