panaama

panaama ka naksha
panaama ki rajdhani (siyudaad de paanaama)

panaama, jiska aupachaarik naam panaama ganatantr (speni: Repúablica de Panamá, republika paanaama) hai, madhya America ka sabse dakshintam raashtra hai. yeh panaama bhoodamaru par sthit hai jo uttar America aur dakshin America ke do mahaadveepon ko dharati ki ek patale damaroo se jodta hai. iske uttarapashchim mein kosta reeka, dakshinpoorv mein kolambiya, dakshin mein prashaant mahaasaagar aur poorv mein kairibiyaai samudra hai jo andh mahaasaagar ka ek bhaag hai. panaama ki rajdhani ka naam panaama nagar hai (speni mein Ciudad de Panama, "siyudaad de paanaama"). panaama ki janasankhya 2010 mein 34,05,813 thi aur iska kshetrafal 75,517 varg kimi hai.

panaama Spain ka upanivesh hua karta tha lekin san 1821 mein Spain se naata todkar vah nueva graanaada (Nueva Granada), ekuaador aur venejuela ke saath ek "graan kolambiya" naam ke sangh mein shaamil ho gaya. yeh sangh 1830 mein toot gaya. nueva graanaada ek hi raashtra mein jude rahe aur isne apna naam badalkar kolambiya rakh liya. beesavi sadi ke aarambh mein sanyukt raajya America panaama ke kshetr mein se panaama nahar banaana chaahata tha, kyonki is se America ke poorvi aur pashchimi taton ke beech mein samudri yaataayaat ko bahut bada faayda hone wala tha. America ke ukasaane par panaama mein kolambiya se alagaavavaad ki lahar uthi aur 1903 mein panaama kolambiya se alag hokar ek svatantr raashtra ban gaya. ameriki sena ke abhiyantaaon ne 1904 aur 1914 ke beech mein khudaai kar ke panaama nahar taiyaar kar di, lekin America aur panaama ke samjhaute ke antargat is naahar par America ka niyantran raha. yeh baat panaama ko khatakati rahi aur vah America se nahar ke kshetr ki vaapasi ki maang karta raha. 1977 mein America is naahar ko 20vi shataabdi ke ant tak panaama ko vaapas karne ke liye raaji ho gaya.[1]

anukram

bhoogol

madhya America ka bhoobhaag adhiktar uttar-dakshin disha mein chalta hai, lekin panaama ke kshetr mein yeh mudkar lagbhag poorv-pashchim disha mein chalta hai. panaama ke madhya mein ek pahaadon ki shrunkhala hai jiske sudoor pashchimi bhaag mein 3,474 meter ki ooainchaai par panaama ka sabse ooaincha sthaan, volkaan baaroo (Volcáan Barú) naam ka jvaalaamukhi sthit hai. kyonki panaama ki chaudaai kam hai isliye saaf dinon mein is jvaalaamukhi ke shikhar se prashaant mahaasaagar aur kairibiyaai samudra donon hi nazar aa jaate hain. panaama ke sudoor poorv mein daareeen daraar (Tapóan del Dariéan) naam ka vanon aur daladalon se bhara hua ek kshetr hai jo panaama ko kolambiya se baantata hai. yeh ilaaka bahut hi kathin hai aur ise paar karna bahut khatarnaak maana jaata hai.

mausam

panaama mein ushnakatibandh (traupikl) hai aur yahaaain garami hi rahati hai. hava mein nami bhi adhik rahati hai. varshabhar vahi mausam rahata hai aur maheeno ke saath ritu naheen badalti. din ke aarambh mein taapamaan 24 °aseinteegred aur dopahar mein lagbhag 30 °aseinteegred hota hai. varsha April se December ke maheeno mein girti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh