pallav raajavansh

pallav saamraajya
raajya
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dviteeya shataabdi – 9veen shataabdi E. Blank.png

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Flag of पल्लव

dhvaj

Location of पल्लव
narasinhavarman 1 (645 E.) kaal ke pallav adheen kshetr. ismein pallavon dvaara adhikrut chaalukya kshetr bhi jude hain.
rajdhani kaanchi
bhaasha(eain) tamil, sanskrut
dharm hindu
sarkaar raaja
President
- 555–590 E. sinhavishnu
- 882–897 E. aparaajitvarman
aitihaasik yug praacheen-madhya kaal
- sansthaapit dviteeya shataabdi
- visansthaapit 9veen shataabdi E.
vartamaan mein Flag of India.svg India

pallav raajavansh praacheen dakshin Bhaarat ka ek raajavansh tha. chauthi shataabdi mein isne kaancheepuram mein raajya sthaapit kiya aur lagbhag 600 varsh tamil aur telugu kshetr mein raajya kiya. bodhidhrm isi raajavansh ka tha jisne dhyaan yog ko cheen mein failaaya. yeh raaja apne aap ko kshatriya maanate the.

anukram

pallavon ki utpatti

pallav raajavansh kuchh vidvaanon ne pallavon ki utpatti paarthiyn logon se batalaai hai. kintu pallav aur pahlav naamon ka dhvanisaamya donon ka taadaatmya siddh karne ke liye paryaapt naheen hai. dakshini Bhaarat mein pahlavon ko uttaraapath mein aur pallavon ko dakshinaapath mein rahanevaala kehkar donon mein spasht antar dikhlaaya hai. pallav shabd moolat: tamil tondeyar aur tondamaan ka sanskrut roop tha. pallavon ki tamil utpatti maananevaale vidvaan pallavon ka tiraiyar aur kurumbar logon se sameekaran batalaate hain. ek vidvaan ne to pallav shabd ko hi, doodh duhanevaale ya gvaale ke arth mein, tamil bhaasha se nikla siddh karne ka asafal prayatn kiya hai. manimekhalai ke aadhaar par pratham pallav naresh ko ek chol aur ek naag raajakanya ki satati maanane ka bhi sujhaav rakha gaya hai. pallav naamakaran naag-raaj-kanya ke janmadesh manipllavam athva pratham pallav ke tondai lata ki shaakha ki geinduri se baindha hua paae jaane ke kaaran batalaaya jaata hai.

iske viruddh kuchh vidvaan pallavon ki uttari utpatti maanate hain. jaayasavaal ke anusaar pallav vaakaatakon ki ek shaakha the; ye uttar ke kaayasth the jinhonne sainik vrutti apna li thi. pallav raajavansh ke oopar uttari Bhaarat ki saanskrutik paranparaaon ki spasht chhaap hai. ve pehle praakrut aur baad mein sanskrut ka upayog karte hain. ve dharmamahaaraaj aur ashvameghayaajin jaisi upaadhiyaaain dhaaran karte hain. unki praarambhik shaasanavyavastha satavaahan paddhati aur antatogatva arthashaastr mein pratipaadit vyavastha se sambandhit hai. kintu in sab se pallavon ki uttari utpatti kahaaain tak siddh hoti hai, yeh nishchaya karna kathin hai. pallavon ko braahman dronaachaarya aur ashvatthaama se sambandhit karanevaali anushrutiyaaain to hai kintu kadanbon ke taalagund abhilekh mein pallavon ko kshatriya kaha gaya hai jiska samarthan hvenasaang bhi karta hai.

pallavon ki utpatti ke vishay mein koi bhi mat poornaroopen satya naheen hai. sambhavat: unki utpatti mein anek tatvon ka yogadaan tha. unamein uttar Bhaarat ke ek kaayasth vansh aur sthaaneeya naag vansh ka sammishran tha.

sambhavat: ve praarambh mein saatavaahanon ke saamant the. unhonne kaanchi pradesh naagon se liya hoga. yeh ghatna doosari shataabdi ke madhya ke baad ki hogi jab ki taalmi ke anusaar yahaaain naagon ka adhikaar tha. baad ke kuchh abhilekhon mein pallav raajavansh ki utpatti brahma aur bharadvaaj se bataai gayi hai. inmein ullikhit kuchh praarambhik naam kaalpanik jaise lagte hain kintu kuchh ghatnaaon ka aitihaasik aadhaar bhi sambhav hai.

itihaas

kaancheepuram ke kailaashanaath mandir ka aantarik drushya

pallavon ka praarambhik itihaas kramabaddh roop se naheen prastut kiya ja sakta. suvidha ke liye bhaasha ke aadhaar par unhein praakrut taamrapatton se gyaat aur sanskrut taamrapatton se gyaat pallavon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. inmein se sarvapratham naam sinhavarman ka hai jiska guntur abhilekh teesari shataabdi ke antim charan ka hai. shivskandavarman, jiske abhilekh mayidvolu aur heerahadagalli se praapt hue hain, chauthi shataabdi ke aarambh mein hua tha aur praarambhik pallavon mein sabse adhik prasiddh hai. is samay pallavon ka adhikaar Krishna nadi se dakshini penner aur bellaari tak faila hua tha. shivskandavarman ne ashvamegh yagya kiya tha. uske baad skandavarman ka raajya hua. skandavarman ke guntur se praapt taamrapatt mein, jo british myoojiym mein surakshit hai Yuvraj buddhavarman aur uske putr buddhyankur ka ullekh hai. kintu iske baad ka itihaas timiraachhann hai. samudragupt ke dvaara paraajit kaanchi ke naresh ka naam vishnugop tha.

iske baad sanskrut taamrapatt ke pallavon ka raajyakaal aata hai. in abhilekhon se hamein kai pallav raajaaon ke naam gyaat hote hain kintu un sabhi ka paraspar sambandh aur kram nishchit karna kathin hai. kaanchi ke raajavansh ki chhinn-bhinn shakti ka laabh uthaakar pallav saamraajya ke uttari bhaag mein nellor-guntur kshetr mein ek saamant pallav vansh ne apna svatantr raajya sthaapit kiya. taamrapatton se gyaat is vansh ke shaasakon ko 375 se 575 E. ke beech rakha ja sakta hai.

kaanchi ke mukhya gharaane ke liye sarvapratham ham cheindaloor taamrapatt se gyaat skandavarman, uske putr kumaaravishnu pratham, pautr buddhavarman aur prapautr kumaaravishnu dviteeya ko rakh sakte hain. skandavarman sambhavat: british myoojiym ke taamrapatt ka skandavarman ho. iske baad udayedirm taamrapatt se skandavarman (dviteeya), uske putr sinhavarman, pautr skandavarman truteeya aur prapautr nandivrman (pratham) ka gyaan hota hai. pehle ullikhit pallavon ke saath inka sambandh gyaat naheen hai. kintu sinhavarman ka raajyakaal 436 se 458 E. tak avashya raha. sinhavarman aur uske putr skandavarman (truteeya) ka ullekh unke saamant gang logon ke abhilekhon mein bhi aata hai. chhathi shataabdi ke praarambh mein shaantivrman ka naam gyaat hota hai. sambhavat: yahi chandadand ke naam se bhi prasiddh tha aur kadanb ravivrman ke dvaara maara gaya tha.

sinhavarman dviteeya se pallavon ka raajyakram sunishchit ho jaata hai. pallav raajavansh ke gaurav ka shreeganesh uske putr sinhavishnu (575-600 E.) ke dvaara hua. sinhavishnu ne kalabhron dvaara tamil pradesh mein utpann raajaneetik avyavastha ka ant kiya aur chol mandalam par pallavon ka adhikaar sthaapit kiya. yeh vishnu ka upaasak tha. avanisinh usaka virodhi tha. usane sanskrut ke prasiddh kavi bhaaravi ko prashraya diya tha. mahaabalipuram ki varaah guha mein usaki aur usaki do raaniyon ki moortiyaaain prastar par ubhaari gayi hai.

sinhavishnu ke putr mahendravaman pratham (600-630 E.) ki ganana is raajavansh ke sarvochch samraaton mein hoti hai. is mahaan shaasak ki bahumukhi pratibha yuddh aur shaanti donon hi kshetron mein viksit hui. isi samay pallavon aur chaalukyon ke sangharsh ka praarambh hua. chaalukya naresh pulakeshin dviteeya ki sena vijay karti hui pallav rajdhani ke bilkul sameep pahuainch gayi thi. pullaloor ke yuddh mein maheindravarman ne chaalukyon ko paraajit kiya aur saamraajya ke kuchh uttari bhaagon ka chhodkar shesh sabhi ki punarvijya kar li. maheindravarman ne kai virud dhaaran kiye jo uske pratibhaashaali vyaktitv ke anek gunon ki or sanket karte hain, yatha mattavilaas, vichitrachitt, chetthakaari aur chitrakaarapuli. chattaanon ko kaatkar banavaae gaye iske madiron mein se kuchh trichinaapali, maheindravaadi aur dalavaanoor mein udaaharan roop mein avashisht hain. usane maheindravaadi mein Mahendra-tataak naam ke jalaashaya ka nirmaan kiya. use chitrakala mein bhi ruchi thi evam vah kushal sangeetajnya ke roop mein bhi prasiddh tha. usane mattavilaas prahasan ki rachana ki thi. praarambh mein vah jain mataavalanbi tha kintu appar ke prabhaav se usane shaiv dharm sveekaar kar liya. fir bhi usane vishnu ki pooja ko protsaahan diya kintu jainiyon ke prati vah asahishnu bana raha.

maheindravarman ka putr narasinhavarman pratham (630-668) is raajavansh ka sarvashreshth samraat tha. iske samay mein pallav dakshini Bhaarat ki pramukh shakti ban gaye. usane chaalukya naresh pulakeshin dviteeya ke teen aakramanon ka vifal kar diya. in vijyon se utsaahit haakar usane apni sena chaalukya saamraajya par aakraman ke liye bheji jisne 642 E. mein chaalukyon ki rajdhani vaataapi par adhikaar kar liya. is vijay ke upalaksh mein usane vaataapikond ki upaadhi dhaaran ki. yuddh mein pulakeshin ki mrutyu ke kaaran chaalukya saamraajya avyavasthit raha. falasvaroop chaalukya saamraajya ke dakshini bhaag par pallavon ka adhikaar bana raha. pulakeshin ke putr vikramaaditya ne 655 mein pallavon ko vaataapi chhodne par vivsh kiya. narasinhavarman ne lanka ke Rajkumar maanavarma ki sahaayata ke liye do baar lanka par aakraman kiya aur ant mein use lanka ke sinhaasan par fir se adhikaar dilaaya. uske liye yeh bhi kaha jaata hai ki usane chol, cher, kalabhr aur paandavon ka bhi paraajit kiya tha. usaka virud mahaamall tha. usane mahaabalipuram ka gaurav badhaaya. yahaaain usane ek hi prastarakhand se bane kuchh mandiron ya rathon ka nirmaan karaaya. 640 mein cheeni yaatri hvenasaang pallav saamraajya mein aaya. usane tondamandalam aur kaanchi ka varnan kiya hai.

narasinhavarman ke putr maheindravarman dviteeya ka raajyakaal do varsh (668-670) ka hi tha jismein use chaalukya vikramaaditya ke haathon paraajit hona pada.

maheindravarman ke putr parameshvaravarman pratham (670-695) ka raajaneetik mahatva chaalukya naresh vikramaaditya ka safal virodh karne mein hai. vikramaaditya ne pallavon ke shatru paandyon ke saath sandhi ki aur apne desh ke apamaan ka pratikaar karne ke liye pallav raajya par aakraman kiya aur kaanchi ko vijay karta hua kaaveri ke dakshini tat par uragapur tak pahuaincha. parameshvaravarman apni praarabhik asafalataaon se hatotsaah naheen hua. vipkshiyon ka dhyaan aakarshit karne ke liye usane ek sena chaalukya saamraajya mein bheji jisne vikramaaditya ke putr vinyaaditya aur pautr vijyaaditya ka paraajit kiya. usane swayam peruvalanalloor ke yuddh mein aakramanakaariyon ko paraajit kiya aur unhein pallav saamraajya chhodkar jaan par vivsh kiya. mahaabalipuram ki kuchh kalaakrutiyaaain usi ne banvaai theen. vah Shiv ka upaasak tha. usane kaanchi ke sameep kooram mein ek shivmandir ka nirmaan karaaya.

parameshvaravarman ke putr narasinh dviteeya raajasinh (695-722) ka shaant aur samruddh raajyakaal kala aur saahitya ki pragati ki drushti se ullekhaneeya hai. uske mandir apne aakaar aur sundarata ke liye prasiddh hai. kaanchi ka kailaasanaath mandir aur maamallapuram ka mandir inke udaaharan hain. kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar prasiddh kaavyashaastrajnya aur gadyalekhak dandin isi ke darbaar mein tha aur yaheen bhaas ke naatakon ka rangamanch par pradarshanaarth parivartan kiya gaya tha. is kaal ki samruddhi ka kaaran videsho se vyaapaar tha. sambhavat: vyaapaarik hit ke liye hi usane ek raajadootamandal cheen bheja tha. use virudon s vishesh prem tha. usane 250 ke lagbhag upaadhiyaaain grahan ki theen jinmein raajasinh, shankarabhakt aur aagamapriya pramukh hai.

narasinhavarman ke putr parameshvaravarman dviteeya (722-730) ke raajyakaal ke antim varshon mein chaalukya Yuvraj vikramaaditya ne gangon ki sahaayata se kaanchi par aakraman kiya. parameshvaravarman ne bheint aadi dekar aakramanakaariyon ko lautaaya. pratikaar ki bhaavana se prerit hokar usane gang raajya par aakraman kiya kintu yuddh mein maara gaya. tiruvadi ka shivmandir sambhavat: usi ne banavaaya tha.

parameshvaravarman ki mrutyu par uske vanshajon ke abhaav mein raajya ke adhikaariyon ne vidvaan braahmanon ki ghatika ke paraamarsh se baarahavarsheeya nandivrman dviteeya pallavamall (730-800) ki sinhaasan par baithaaya yeh sinhavishnu ke bhaai bheemavarman ke vanshaj hirnyavarman ka putr tha. paandya naresh maaravarman raajasinh ne pallavon ke viruddh kai raajyon ka ek gut sangathit kiya aur chitramaaya naam ke vyakti ki sahaayata ke liye, jo apne ko parameshvaravarman ka putr kehta tha, nandivrman par aakraman kiya aur use nandigraam mein gher liya. kintu pallavon ke senaapati udayachandr ne nandigraam ka ghera toda, chitramaaya ko maarkar aur doosare virodhiyon ko paraajit kiya. kintu pallavon ke senaapati udayachandr ne nandigraam ka ghera toda, chitramaaya ko maarkar aur doosare virodhiyon ko paraajit kiya. kintu nandivrman ki sabse bhayankar viptti chaalukya naresh vikramaaditya dvitteeya ka aakraman tha. gangon ki sahaayata se usane 740 E. ke lagbhag pallavon ko paraajit kar kaanchi par adhikaar kar liya. kintu nagar ka vidhvans na karke usane ulate janta ko daan aur upahaar diye aur is prakaar pallavon ke adhikaar ko kunthit kiye bina unase badla liya. uske shaasan ke antim varshon mein uske putr keertivrman ne fir aakraman kiya tha. raashtrakoot saamraajya ke sansthaapak dantidurg ne bhi kaanchi par aakraman kiya tha kintu apni shakti ka pradarshan kar usane nandivrman se sandhikr uske saath apni kanya reva ka vivaah kar diya tha. nandivrman ne gang naresh shreepurush ko paraajit kiya aur gang raajya ki bhoomi apne baan saamant jayanadivrman ko di thi. nadivrman paandya naresh varagun mahaaraaj pratham ke haathon paraajit hua. usane paandyon ke viruddh kongu, Kerala aur tagadoor ke shaasakon ka sangh banaaya kintu paandya naresh apne vipkshiyon ko paraajit karke pallav raajya mein pennar nadi ke tat par arashoor pahuaincha tha. puraane mandiron ke uddhaar ke saath hi nandivrman ne mukteshvar, vaikunth perumaal aur doosare mandiron ka nirmaan karaaya. vah vaishnav tha. prasiddh vaishnav sant tirumarg aalvar usi ke raajyakaal mein hue the. nandivrman swayam vidvaan tha.

dantivrman (796-847) nandivrman aur reva ka putr tha. raashtrakooton se sambandhit hone par bhi use raashtrakoot sinhaasan ke liye uttaraadhikaar ke sangharsh mein bhaag lene ke kaaran dhruv aur govind truteeya ke haathon paraajit hona pada tha. paandya naresh varagun pratham ne kaaveri pradesh ki vijay kar li thi kintu baan fir bhi pallavon ke saamant bane rahe.

dantivrman ke putr nandivrman truteeya (847-872) ne pallavon ki luptapraaya pratishtha ko punarjeevit sa kar diya. usaka vivaah raashtrakoot naresh amodhavarsh pratham ki putri shankha se hua tha. usane paandyon ke viruddh kai shaktiyon ka ek sangh banaaya tha. paandya naresh shreemaar shreevallabh ko tellaaru ke yuddh mein buri tarah paraajit kar vahavaigai ke tat tak pahuainch gaya tha. apni vijay ke upalakshya mein usane tellaareinrid ki upaadhi grahan ki thi. kintu baad mein shreemaar ne nandivrman aur uske sahaayakon ko kunbhakonam ke sameep paraajit kiya. syaam mein takuaa-pa sthaan se praapt ek tamil abhilekh mein usaki upaadhi ke aadhaar par avaninaaranan naam ke jalaashaya aur vishnu mandir ka ullekh hai. isse pallavon ki naushakti aur videshon ke saath unke sanbadh ka aabhaas hota hai. use anya virud the varatungan aur ugrakopan. vah shaiv tha. usane tamil saahityakaar perudevanaar ko prashraya diya tha.

nandivrman ki raashtrakoot raani se utpann nrupatungavarman (872-913) ne sinhaasan par baithane ke kuchh samay baad hi kunbhakonam ke sameep shreepuranviym ke yuddh mein paandya naresh varagun dviteeya ko paraajit kar apan pita ki paraajaya ka pratikaar kiya. usane pallav "saamraajya ki seemaaon ko akshunn rakha. usane abhilekhon se gyaat hota hai ki shiksha aur shaasanaprabandh ke kshetr mein pallavon ne hi cholon ke liye bhoomika banaai thi.

nrupatungavarman ka putr aparaajit is vansh ka antim samraat tha. pallavon ke saamant aaditya pratham ne apni shakti badhaai aur 893 ke lagbhag aparaajit ko paraajit kar pallav saamraajya ko chol raajya mein mila liya.

is prakaar pallav saamraajya ka astitv samaapt hua. pallavon ki kuchh shaakhaaon (nolanb-pallav) ne kuchh sthaanon par baad mein bhi shaasan kiya. 13veen shataabdi mein koperunjing naam ke saamant ne apni svatantr satta sthaapit karne ka prayatn kiya. yadyapi vah apne ko pallav kehta tha, tathaapi usako pallav samraaton se sanbadhit karna kathin hai.

vanshaavali

  • sinhavarman 1 275 - 300 E.
  • skandavarman
  • vishnugop 350 - 355 E.
  • kumaaravishnu 1 350 - 370 E.
  • skandavarman 2 370 - 385 E.
  • veeravarman 385 - 400 E.
  • skandavarman 3 400 - 436 E.
  • sinhavarman 2 436 - 460 E.
  • skandavarman 4 460 - 480 E.
  • nandivrman 1 480 - 510 E.
  • kumaaravishnu 2 510 - 530 E.
  • buddhavarman 530 - 540 E.
  • kumaaravishnu 3 540 - 550 E.
  • sinhavarman 3 550 - 560 E.

uttarakaaleen pallav

  • sinhavishnu 555 - 590 E.
  • mahendravarman 1 590 - 630 E.
  • narasinhavarman 1 (mamall) 630 - 668 E. mahaan raaja
  • mahendravarman 2 668 - 672 E.
  • parameshvaramarman 1 672 - 700 E. mahaan raaja
  • narasinhavarman 2 (raajasinh) 700 - 728 E.
  • parameshvaravarman 2 705 - 710 E.
  • nandivrman 2 (pallavamall) 732 - 796 E.
  • tandivrman 775 - 825 E.
  • nandivrman 3 825 - 869 E.
  • aparaajitvarman 882 - 901 E.

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