paksheevijnyaaan

pakshi ki aakruti ka vidhivt maapan bahut mahatva rakhata hai.

paksheevijnyaaan (Ornithology) jeevavijnyaaan ki ek shaakha hai. iske antargat pakshiyon ki baahya aur antararachana ka varnan, unka vargeekaran, vistaar evam vikaas, unki dincharya aur maanav ke liye pratyaksh ya apratyaksh aarthik upayogita ityaadi se sambandhit vishay aate hain. pakshiyon ki dincharya ke antargat unke aahaar-vihaar, pravrajan, ya ek kshetr se doosare kshetr mein sthaanaantaran, anuranjan (courtship), need nirmaan, maithun, prajanan, santaan ka laalan paalan ityaadi ka varnan aata hai. aadhunik fotograafi dvaara pakshiyon ki dincharyaaon ke adhyayan mein badi sahaayata mili hai. pakshiyon ki boli ke fonograaf rekaard bhi ab taiyaar kar liye gaye hain.

anukram

itihaas

paksheevijnyaaan ka praarambh bahut hi praacheen hai. arastoo (Aristotle) ke lekhon me pakshi sambandhi anek sahi vaigyaanik avalokanon ka ullekh paaya jaata hai. kintu vigyaan ki ek shaakha ke roop mein paksheevijnyaaan ki maanyata apekshaya aadhunik hai. ghareloo chidiyon ki aakarshak sundarata, aarthik upayogita aur chidiyon ke shikaar dvaara manushya ka manorajann ityaadi anake kaaranon se, anya praaniyon ki apeksha, pakshi varg bhali bhaaainti vikhyaat hai aur vyaavasaayik tatha shaukiya donon hi prakaar ke vaigyaaniko ke liye aakarshan ka vishay raha hai. pakshiyon ke vishay mein anek vaigyaanik khojein ki gayi aur naveen gyaan praapt hue hain, jinka samaavesh pakshi sambandhi anek naveen pustikaaon mein kiya gaya hai. yadyapi ye pustikaaeain poornat: vaigyaanik naheen hain, fir bhi inse anek vaigyaanik vruttaant upalabdh hote hain. yahi kaaran hai ki pruthvi ke un khandon mein bhi, jo adhik beehad jungle hain aur jinki bhali bhaaainti chhaanabeen naheen hui hain, bahut kam nai jaati ke pakshiyon ka pata lag paaya hai, kyonki un sthaanon ke bhi adhikaansh pakshiyon ke vishay mein bahut pehle hi adhik khoj aur jaankaari ho chuki hai. kintu yahi ke roop mein praapt honevaale pakshiyon ke vishay mein naheen kyonki pakshiyon ke jeevaashm ke vishay mein sam samay aashcharyajanak khojein hui hain aur abhi bahut adhik khoj ki jaati hai.

Charles daarvin ke vikaasavaad ke siddhaant ne paksheevijnyaaan tatha jeevavijnyaaan ki anya shaakhaaon mein bahut hi kraanti paida ki hai. jin dinon praanivijnyaaan ke anya vargon ke visheshagya nai jaati ke varnan mein vyast rahe, paksheevijnyaaanavetta pakshiyon ki jaati ke sookshm antaron ka pata lagaane mein aur is baat ki khoj mein lage the ki prakruti mein nai jaati ke jeevon ka abhyudaya kaise hota hai. pakshiyon ke adhyayan se aajkal is baat par jor diya ja raha hai ki praaniyon ki nai jaati ki utpatti unke bhaugolik alagaav dvaara hoti hai aur yahi kaaran hai ki sab praaniyon ke vaigyaanik naamakaran ke truteeya khand mein bhaugolik sthaan ka samaavesh ho gaya hai.

jeevon ke vaigyaanik naamakaran se, jisse kisi bhi desh aur bhaasha ke vaigyaanik praaniyon tatha pakshiyon ki jaati ko pehchaan sakein, jeevavijnyaaan mein bahut badi pragati hui hai. jeevon ke vaigyaanik naamakaran ki paddhati sveeden nivaasi kairolas leeniys (Carolus Linnaeus) ke granth "sistema naichuri" (Systema Naturae) ke dasham sanskaran (1758 E.) se apnaai gayi hain. is paddhati ke anusaar kisi praani ke naam ke do ya teen khand hote hain. naam ka pratham khand uske vansh (genus) ko bataata hai, doosra khand usaki jaati (species) ko aur teesara khand usaki upajaati (subspecies) ko, jo bhaugolik kshetr athva usaki anya visheshata par aadhaarit hoti hai. udaaharanaarth saadhaaran bhaarateeya ghareloo kaue ka vaigyaanik naam saamaanya bhasmachhavi kaak (Corvus splendens) aur dakshin bhaarateeya kaue ka naam dakshin Krishna kaak (Corvus levaillanti culminatus) aur bhaarateeya jangali kaue ka naam saamaanya Krishna kaak (Corvus machrrorhynchus macrrophynchus) hai. paksheevijnyaaanavettaaon ne naamakaran ki is paddhati ko 1910 E. se apna liya tha, kintu anya praanivrgon ke adhyayanakartaaon ne ise ab apanaana praarambh kar diya hai. bhaarateeya pakshiyon ke vishay mein anek vyaktiyon ne achhe kaam kiye hain aur pustakein likhi hain.

bhaarateeya sanskruti mein pakshi

bhaarateeya sanskruti mein pakshiyon ka bahut mahatva hai. vibhinn devataaon ke vaahan ke roop mein unhein sammaan milta raha hai yatha vishnu ka garud, brahma aur sarasvati ka hans, kaamadev ke tota, kaarttikeya ka manyoor, Indra tatha agni ka Arun krunch (falaimingo), varun ka chakravaak (shailadak) aadi. lakshmi ke vaahan ulloo aadi sammaan naheen milta hai tab vah vaastav mein lakshmi ko kam sammaan dene ki ichha se. Krishna ka 'mor pankh' to sabhi bhaarateeyon ke hrudaya mein sthaan pa chuka hai. hanson ka 'neer-ksheer' nyaaya to prasiddh hi hai. pehle to main ise kaviyon ki kalpana hi maanata tha kintu jab Arun krunchon ko bahate paani mein se (jismein maanon 'neer-ksheer' mila ho) apni vishesh chhanneedaar choncho ki sahaayata se apne liye paushtik bhojan (ksheer) nikaalkar khaate hue dekha tab sanskruti saahityakaaron ki avlokan shakti aur rachana shakti ki bhoori-bhoori prashansa hi kar saka.

rigved ke (1, 164, 20) mantra mein vruksh par baithe do suparnon ke roopak se jeev aur aatma ka antar batalaaya gaya hai. arthaved (14/2/64/) ke mantra mein navadanpati ko chakava dampati ke samaan nishthaavaan rahane ka aasheervaad diya gaya hai. yajurved ek sanhita - 'taittireeya' ka naam tittir pakshi ke naam par hi hai. pahaadi maina tatha shukon ko unki vaak kshamata ke aadhaar par unhein vaagdevi sarasvati ko samarpit kiya gaya hai. yahaan rigved mein 20 pakshiyon ka ullekh hai, yajurved mein 60 pakshiyon ka hai. yeh dhyaan dene yogya hai kyonki rigved ka rachanaakaal lagbhag 4,000 varsh E. poo. hai (New Light on the date of the Rgveda-Dr. _Waradpande, Sanskrit B.P Sabha, Nagpur).

raamaayan tatha mahaabharat mein, fir puraanon me anek pakshiyon par sookshm avlokan hain. saara sanskruti saahitya, praakrut tatha paali saahitya bhi, pakshiyon ke gyaan se samruddh hai. yeh aur bhi prashansaneeya hai ki pakshiyon ke sanrakshan hetu manusmruti, paraasharasmruti aadi mein kuchh vishesh pakshiyon ke shikaar ka nishedh kiya gaya hai. kautilya ke arthashaastr mein bhi aise hi pakshi-sanrakshan ke samachit nirdesh hain. ye sab us kaal ki ghatnaaen hain jab vishv mein anyatr paalatoo ke atirikt pashu-pakshiyon ko mukhyata shikaar tatha bhojan ke roop mein hi dekha ja raha tha.

charakasanhita ka sankalan kaal saataveen shati isha poorv hai (bhaarateeya vigyaan ke karnadhaar dau॰ satyaprakaash, Research Institute of Ancient Scientific Studies, Delhi). charak sanhita, sangeet ratnaakaar tatha bharatamuni ke naatyashaastr mein pakshiyon ki chaaritrik visheshataaon ka sookshm varnan hai jo vaijnyaanik paddhati par aadhaarit hai. kintu iske baad ke upalabdh saahitya se aisa lagta hai ki, baad mein, sanbhavataya barbaron se apni raksha mein joohjte Bhaarat mein, pakshiyon ka adhyayan vaigyaanik drushti se na kiya ja saka. haan, sasankrut saahitya mein pakshiyon ka varnan sookshm avlokan ke aadhaar par, bahut hi komalata tatha anuraagapoorn bhaavanaaon ke saath kiya gaya hai. mithunarat kraunch ke vadh ko dekhkar aadikvi vaalmiki ka hruyad karun ras se otaprot hokar kavita ke roop mein bah nikla tha, ''ma nishaad pratishthaanam tvam....'' arthaat he nishaad tumhein samaaj mein pratishtha naheen milegi..... haan, mugal kaal mein baabar, humaayoon tatha jahaangeer ne, jo bahut sikaar premi the, pakshiyon ka sookshm avlokan kiya aur likha. lok saahitya mein bhi pakshiyon ka vishesh sthaan hai, kintu hindi saahitya mein pakshiyon ke vaigyaanik adhyayan tatha sookshm avlokan ki paranpamara kinhi kaaranon se aage naheen badhi. aur pakshiyon ka jo bhi varnan hai vah adhiktar bandhi-bandhaai rudhi par hai chaahe ve pakshi chaatak, chakor, papeeha, saaras chakravaak aadi hon athva tota, maina, hans, ulloo, kauaa, giddh, abaabeel, khanjan aadi hon. kintu iske saath yeh dukhad sach hai ki aaj saamaanya vidyaarthi ya vyakti ko pakshiyon tatha ped-paudhon ki sahi pehchaan batalaane wala ruchikr saahitya, hindi mein, naheen ke baraabar hai.

pakshivijnyaaan ki takaneekein

pakshivijnyaaan mein tarah-tarah ke tareeke evam aujaar prayukt hote hain. naye aavishkaar aadi ko sheegra hi ismein kaam mein laane ki koshish ki jaati hai. pakshivijnyaaan se sambandhit takaneekon ko mukhyat: do bhaagon mein baanta ja sakta hai -

  • namoonon ke adhyayan se sambandhit takaneekein
  • kaaryakshetr mein prayukt taneekein

inhein bhi dekhein

saalim Ali pakshivijnyaaan evam prakrutik itihaas kendra

baahari kadiyaaain