paishaachi bhaasha

paishaachi bhaasha us praakrut bhaasha ka naam hai jo praacheen kaal mein Bhaarat ke pashchimottar pradesh mein prachalit thi. pashto tatha uske sameepavarti darad bhaashaaeain paishaachi se utpann evam prabhaavit hui pai jaati hain.

anukram

lakshan

hemachandraadi praakrut vyaakaranon mein iske nimn lakshan paae jaate hain :

  1. jnya, nya aur nya ke sthaan par nyanya ka uchchaaran, jaise sarvajnya = savvanyanyao, abhimnyoo = abhimnnyanyaoo
  2. n ke sthaan par na, jaise gunen = gunen;
  3. t aur d donon ke sthaan par t jaise paarvati pavvati, daamodaro taamotaro;
  4. l ke sthaan par l ; jaise salilan oo salil;
  5. sh, sh s, in teenon ke sthaan par s, jaise shashi sasi, vishmo - vismo, prashansa - pasansa;
  6. t ke sthaan par vikalp se t, jaise kutunbakan = kutunbakan;
  7. parvookaalik pratyaya ktva ke sthaan toon, jaise gatva = gantoon.

inke atirikt is praakrut ki madhyakaaleen anya shauraseni aadi praakruton se visheshata batalaanevaali pravrutti yeh hai ki ismein k, g, ch, j aadi alpapraan varno ka lop naheen hota aur na kh, gh, dh, bh in mahaapaan varno ke sthaan par h. is prakaar paishaachi mein varnavyavastha anya praakruton ki apeksha sanskrut ke adhik nikat hai.

paishaachi praakrut ka ek upabhed "choolika paishaachi" hai, jismein paishaachi ki ukt pravruttiyon ke atirikt nimn do vishesh lakshan paae jaate hain. ek to yahaaain, saghosh varno, jaise g, gh, d, dh aadi ke sthaan par kramash: aghosh varno k kh aadi ka aadesh paaya jaata hai, jaise gandhaar = kandhaar, ganga = kanka, bhedh: = mekho, raaja = raacha, nirjhar: = nichharo, madhuran = mathuran, baalak: = paalako, bhagavati = fakvti; doosare r ke sthaan par vikalp se l, jaise gori = goli, charan = chalan, ruddan = luddan.

anya praakruton se Milan karne par paishaachi ki jnya ke sthaan par tatha nyanya tatha l ke sthaan par r ki pravruttiyaaain paali se milti hain. r ke sthaan par loo ki pravrutti maagadhi praakrut ka vikshep lakshan hi hai. teenon sakaaron ke sthaan par s, kartaakaarak ekavachan ki vibhkti O, paishaachi ko shauraseni se milaati hai. yathaarthat: shauraseni se usaka sabse adhik saamya hai aur isaliye vaiyaakaranon ne usaki shesh pravruttiyaaain "shauraseneevat" nirdisht ki hein.

saahitya

paishaachi ki ukt pravruttiyon mein se kuchh ashok ki pashchimottar pradeshavarti kharoshthi lipi ki shahabaajagadhi evam maanasera ki dharmalipiyon mein tatha isi lipi mein likhe gaye praacheen madhya Asia-khotaan-tatha Punjab se praapt hue lekhon mein milti hain. paishaachi bhaasha mein virchit gunaadhya krut bruhatkatha ki bhaarateeya saahitya mein badi khyaati hai. dandi ne iske sambandh mein kaha hai - "bhootabhaashamayeen praahuradbhutaan bruhatkruthaam." durbhaagyat: yeh mool granth ab upalabdh naheen hai, kintu uske sanskrut anuvaad bruhatkathaamanjari, kathaasaritsaagar aadi milte hain. praakrut vyaakaranon evam sanskrut naatakon mein khandash: is bhaasha ke ansh praapt hote hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain