pailes of vestaminstar

yunesko vishv dharohar sthal
vestaminstar pailes, vestaminstar aibe aur seint maargrets church
vishv dharohar soochi mein ankit naam
Photograph
thems nadi ke us paar dikhta hua vestaminstar ka mahal aur vestaminstar brij

desh sanyukt raajashaahi (United kingadam)
prakaar saanskrutik
maanadand i, ii, iv
sandarbh 426
yunesko kshetr Europe aur uttari America
shilaalekhit itihaas
shilaalekh 1987 (11th satr)

pailes of vestaminstar, jiska arth hai vestaminstar ka mahal aur jise house of parliament ya vestaminstar pailes ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, Britain ki sansad ke do sadanon ka sabha sthal hai. inmein se ek hai ''house of laurds'' aur doosra hai ''house of kaumans''. yeh London shahar ke hrudaya maane jaane vaale vestaminstar shahar mein thems nadi[note 1] ke uttari kinaare par sthit hai. yeh sarkaari bhavan vaaitahaul aur daaun street tatha aitihaasik sthal vestaminstar aibi ke kareeb hai. yeh naam nimn do mein se kisi ek sanrachana ko sandarbhit kar sakta hai, the old pailes, jo ek madhyakaaleen imaarat hai jo ki 1834 mein hi nasht ho gayi thi aur uske sthaan par banane wala new pailes jo aaj bhi maujood hai. lekin iski mool shaili aur shaahi thaathabaat poorvavat bani hui hai.

is jagah par pehla shaahi mahal gyaarahaveen shataabdi mein banaaya gaya tha aur 1512 mein is imaarat ke nasht hone se pehle vestaminstar hi London ke raaja ka praathamik London nivaas tha. iske baad se hi yeh sansad bhavan ke roop mein kaarya kar raha hai. 13 veen shataabdi se yahaan sansad ki sabhaaen hoti hain aur shaahi nyaaya peeth evam vestaminstar hall bhi yaheen par hai. pun: poori bhavyata se banaaye gaye is sansad bhavan mein 1834 mein bhayaanak aag lag gayi. is aag se jo imaarate bach gain unamein shaamil hain vestaminstar hall, the klauistars of seint steefans, chaipal of seint mairi andarakraaft aur jooal tauvar.

mahal ke purnanirmaan ki pratiyogita mein shilpkaar Charles bairi ki jeet hui aur is imaarat ke nirmaan mein unki abhilmb gothik shaili ko apnaaya gaya. puraane mahal (alag jooal tauvar ke apavaad ke saath) ke avasheshon ko inke sthaan par bade evam bhavya roop mein banaaya gaya, jismein 1100 kaksh shaamil hain. ye kaksh aangan ki do shrrunkhalaaon ke ird gird banaaye gaye hain. is naye mahal ka kuchh bhaaga3.24 hekteyar (8 ekad) thems par banaaya gaya hai, jiska pramukh hisse ka munh 265.8 meter (872 fut) nadi ki taraf hai. bairi ki sahaayata agastas dablyoo. N. pugin ne ki thi jo gothik shilpakala ke ek mukhya adhikaari the. unhonne hi mahal ki saaj sajja ke liye design taiyaar kiye the. 1814 mein nirmaan kaarya shuroo hua tha aur tees saal tak chala. iske nirmaan mein kai baadhaaen aain, donon mukhya shilpakaaron ki mrutyu ho gayi, to kabhi ismein bahut adhik vilamb aur dhan laga. beesaveen shataabdi tak bhi andar ki saaj sajja ka kaam rook rook chalta raha. London ke vaayu pradushan ke kaaran iske sanrakshan ka kaarya tab se chal hi raha hai. doosare vishv yuddh ke dauraan jab 1941 mein iske kauman chamber mein bamabaari hui thi tab se yahaan par purnanirmaan ka kaam chal raha hai.

yeh mahal London ke raajaneetik jeevan ka kendra raha hai. vestaminstar London ki sansad ke liye metom ban chuka hai. iske naam par hi sarkaar ke vestaminstar tantr ka naam pada hai. vishesh roop se klaak tauvar, jo apni mukhya ghante ke kaaran big ben ke roop mein jaana jaane laga hai, London ka pratishthit aitihaasik sthal aur shahar ka mukhya paryatan kendra hai. ise sansadeeya lokatantr ka prateek bhi kaha jaata hai. 1970 se hi pailes of vestaminstar uchchakoti ki imaarat maani jaati hai aur 1987 se yeh yoonesko ke vishv dharohar sthalon ka hissa hai.

anukram

itihaas

puraana mahal

16 veen sadi mein H.J. brevar dvaara vestaminstar ka anumaan par aadhaarit pratipaadan, 1884[1] ke anusaar.

pailes of vestaminstar madhya kaal ke dauraan apni sthiti ke kaaran kootaneetik drushti se bhi mahatvapoorn tha kyonki yeh thems nadi ke kinaare bana hua tha. madhyakaal mein throni aailaind ke naam se mashahoor is jagah ko 1016 se 1035 mein kainoot the great ne apna shaahi mahal banaaya hua tha. seint Edward kanfesar ne England ke raaja saiksan ke ant se pehle throni dweep par ek shaahi mahal banavaaya. yeh London shahar se pashchim ki taraf tha. ise theek usi samay banaaya gaya tha jab usane vestaminstar aibi banavaaya tha. throni dweep aur uske aaspaas ka kshetr jaldi hi vestaminstar kahalaane laga (shabd vest minstar ka sankshipt roop). in imaaraton ka upayog na to saiksan ne kiya aur na hi William pratham ne. sabse lambi avadhi tak tika rahana wala mahal ka hissa (vestaminstar hall) William 1 se lekar raaja William 2 ke samay tak tha.

madhya kaal ke ant tak pailes of vestaminstar shaasak ka mukhya gruh tha. sansad ka pehle ka jo praaroop tha usamein isi jagah vestaminstar hall mein kyooriya regis (shaahi sabha) ekatrit hua karti thi. England ki pehli adhikaarik sansad the model parliament ki baithak is mahal mein 1295[2] mein hui. lagbhag iske baad ki sabhi sansad vahaan par sabha kar chuki hai.

1530 mein raaja henari VIII ne kaaradinl Thomas volase[3] se yaurk place hathiya liya tha. vah ek shaktishaali mantri tha jisne apne raaja ka samarthan kho diya tha. henari ne ise pailes of vaaitahaul ka naam dekar apna mukhya gruh bana liya. yadyapi vestaminstar aadhikaarik taur par shaahi mahal hi raha. ise sansad ke donon sadanon evam shaahi nyaayaalayon dvaara istemaal kiya jaata tha.

The Old Palace of Westminster was a complex of buildings, separated from the River Thames in the east by a series of gardens. The largest and northernmost building is Westminster Hall, which lies parallel to the river. Several buildings adjoin it on the east side, south of those and perpendicular to the Hall is the mediaeval House of Commons, further south and parallel to the river is the Court of Requests, with an eastwards extension at its south end, and at the south end of the complex lie the House of Lords and another chamber. The Palace was bounded by St Margaret's Street to the west and Old Palace Yard to the south-west; another street, New Palace Yard, is just visible to the north.
London ke John rokkuele 1746 maanachitr se ek vivran. seint steefans chaipal, "com ki H '(house of kaumans) lebal, vestaminstar hall ke nikat hai, sansad chamber-lebal" L H' (house yahova ki) aur Rajkumar chamber door dakshin mein hain. anurodhon ke nyaayaalaya, donon sadanon ke beech, 1801 mein laurds ka naya sadan banaaya gaya. nadi ke uttar-poorv par sthit speaker house.

kyonki vaastav mein yeh ek shaahi gruh tha, isliye yahaan par donon sadanon ke kisi anya kaarya ke liye koi kaksh naheen banaaya gaya tha. raajya ke mukhya mahotsav range hue kakshon mein manaaye jaate the. house of laurds ki baithak vaastav mein raani ke kaksh mein hoti thi. yeh shaaleen hall imaarat ke dakshin sire par sthit tha jise madhyakaal mein banaaya gaya tha. 1801 mein uchch sadan bade safed kaksh mein sthaanaantarit ho gaya. yeh pehle court of rikvest mein hua karta tha. jise 18 veen shataabdi mein raaja George truteeya ne banavaaya tha. isi samay Ireland ke saath sandhi bhi hui thi. yeh kadam isliye uthaaya gaya kyon ki poorv kaksh mein badhe hue mitr samooh ke liye jagah naheen thi.

house of kaumans ke paas apna koi kaksh naheen tha, iski sabhaaen kabhi kabhi vestaminstar aibi ke chaiptar house mein hua karti theen. kaamans ne pailes mein Stefan chaipal ke roop mein apne liye ek sthaai jagah bana li. Stefan chaipal Edward VI ke shaasan ke samay shaahi pailes ka poorv chaipal tha. 1547 mein yeh imaarat kaamans ke istemaal ke liye upalabdh ho gayi. iske liye seint stifn college ko todna pada. agali teen shataabdiyon mein stifn ke chaipal mein kai badlaav kiye gaye, taaki nichle sadan ki suvidha barkaraar rahe. fir ek dam se madhyakaal ke uske roop ko bilkul hi khatm kar diya gaya.

kyonki sansad ko apne seemit jagah me kaarya karne mein pareshaani ho rahi thi isliye pailes of vestaminstar mein 18 veen shataabdi ke baad se kai prakaar ke parivartan kiye gaye. ek poori tarah se nae mahal banaane ki baat ko anasuna kar diya gaya, iske sthaan par ismein nai imaaratein jodi gain. 1755 aur 1770 ke madhya ek naya pashchimi mukhya dwaar banaaya gaya. yeh darvaaja seint maargaret street ki or khulata tha. yeh paideliyn shaili mein banaaya gaya tha. ab saamudaayik kaksh evam sanrakshan ke liye kaafi jagah ho gayi thi. 1795 mein house of kaumans ke speaker ke liye ek naya aadhikaarik nivaas sthaan banaaya gaya. yeh seint Stefan chaipal ke saath sata hua tha. 1799 aur 1801 ke beech naye gothik shilpkaar James vyaat ne dono sadanon, house of laard aur house of kaamans mein apna kaam shuroo kar diya.

1824 aur 1827 ke beech mahal ki poori imaarat ko ek baar fir se banaaya gaya. aur is baar yeh kaam sar John saun ne kiya. madhya kaaleen house of laadars ka chamber jo ki 1650 mein gan paaudar plaut ke fail hone par nishaana bana tha. use naveeneekaran ke is kaam ko anjaam dene ke liye tabaah kar diya gaya. taaki is jagah ke dakshin sire par ek naya shaahi galiyaara aur bhavya pravesh dwaar banaaya ja sake. saun ne jo kaarya mahal mein kiye unamein sansad ke dono sadanon ke liye puskaalaya ki nayi suvidha evam raaja ki kaanoon peeth aur uchch nyaayaalya ke liye naye kaksh ka prabandh karna shaamil tha. saun dvaara ki nayi kalaatmak shilpakaari ko lekar kai virodhaabhaas bhi uthane shuroo ho gaye. jo log mool imaarat ke gothik kala ka samarthan karte the vo iske viऱaodhi ban gaye.

aag aur punarnirmaan

Painting
1834 ke agni ko J.M.dablyoo. turner dvaara dekha gaya aur ismein kai chitr kainavas par chitrit kiye gaye, ismein shaamil hai di barning of di house of laurds end kauman (1835).

16 October 1834 ko pailes mein aag lag gayi jab laathi bhandaar mein rakhe aag ke stov ke atyadhik tap jaane ke kaaran house of laadars ke kaksh ne aag pakad li. iske parinaam svaroop sansad ke dono sadan nasht ho gaye aur aas paas ki anya imaaratein bhi naheen bacheen. aag bachaav dal ki sartakata ke kaaran aur hava ki disha ke anukool hone ki vajah se vestaminstar hall bach gaya. the jooal tauvar, the under kraaft chaipal, the kloistars aur chaipatar house of seint stifn, ye mahal ke ve anya hisse hain jo ki is aapada se bach gaye the.

aag lagne ke turant baad hi raaja William IV ne apna bakingham pailes sansad ko dene ki peshakash ki, jo bankar lagbhag taiyaar ho chuka tha. iske peechhe kaaran yeh bhi tha ki vah use apne nivaas sthaan ke roop mein pasand naheen karta tha. is imaarat ko sansad ke kaarya ke liye upayukt naheen paaya gaya. isliye is peshakash ko asveekaar kar diya gaya.[4] chairing kaars aur James park par bhi vichaar naheen ban paaya. vesaminstar se etihaasik aur raajaneetik judaav hi sthaanaantaran ke liye taakatavar saabit hua. jabki vahaan kai kamiyaan theen.[5] ab praathamikta is baat ko di ja rahi thi ki jald se jald sansad ko usaka sthaan mil jaaye. isliye house of laard tatha house of kaamans ke liye jaldi mein chitrakala vaale kaksh aur safed kaksh ko taiyaar kiya gaya. iske liye disha nirdeshan board of varkas ke bache hue shilpkaar sar raurbat smirk ne kiya. February 1835 sadan chalaane ke liye kaksh taiyaar karne ka kaam jaldi jaldi kiya gaya.[6]

mahal ki nai sanrachana ke adhyayan ke liye ek shaahi sangathan niyukt kiya gaya iske praastavit shaili par bhi logon ke beech logon ke beech bahas hone lagi. ab yeh nai uttam padyati jo ki sanyukt raajya ke Federal kaipitl aur white house jaisi thi, us samay kaafi prachalit hui. yeh shaili pehle saun dvaara puraane mahal ke kuchh hisse mein bhi istemaal ki ja chuki thi. ise naye praaroop mein kraanti aur ganatantr ke sanket the. jabki gothik sanrachana mein sanrakshan ke moolya ke moolya chhipe the. is aayog ne 1835 mein hi yeh ghoshana kar di thi ki is imaarat ka praaroop ya to gothik ya fir elijaabethan hoga.[7] is shaahi aayog ne sabhi vaastukaaron ko is drushti se yojana banaane ko kaha.

Portrait of Sir Charles Barry
sar Charles bairi sansad ke sadanon ke liye nai design jeetne ki kalpana ki aur 1860 mein apni mrutyu tak iske nirmaan ki dekharekh ki.

1836 mein 97 paraspar virodhi yojanaayein padhne ke baad shaahi aayog ne gothik shaili ka mahal banaane ke liye bairi ki yojana ko chuna. iski neenv to 1840[8] mein hi daal di gayi thi. laard kaksh 1847 tatha kaamans kaksh 1852 mein bankar taiyaar hua (tab bairi ko saamant ki upaadhi mili). yadyapi is kaarya ke liye 1860 karmachaari lage the fir bhi yeh kaarya ek dashak tak poora naheen ho paaya. bairi jiski apni shilpakala gothik kam aur paanraparik jyaada hai. isne yeh naya pailes banaaya santulan ke naye niyamon ke aadhaar par. vah andar ki saajasajja aur bhavya nirmaan ke liye agastas pugin par nirbhar raha. jismein ki deevaaron ki saaj, nakkaashi ka kaam, taail lagaane ka kaam, furniture aadi shaamil the.

haal ka itihaas

doosare vishv yuddh (the blitj dekhein) ke dauraan jab Germany ne London par bamabaari ki thi tab alag alag avsar par chaudah baar pailes of vestaminstar bhi is bamabaari ka shikaar hua tha. 26 September 1940 mein puraane pailes mein ek bam gira tha. is bamabaari mein seint stifn porch ki dakshini deevaar nasht ho gayi thi aur saath hi iska pashchimi mukhadvaar bhi nasht ho gaya tha.[9] the lauin richrd ki pratima bhi is jordaar visfot se apne sthaan se kuchh upar uth gaya thi aur usaki upar ki or uthi hui talavaar jhuk gayi. is pratima ko lokatantr ke prateek ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. kehte hain ki "aakraman ki sthiti mein ye thoda jhuk bhi jaaye par tootegi naheen".[10] ek doosra bam jo 8 December ko gira tha, usane kai mathon ko tabaah kar diya.[9]

10 /11 May 1941 ko sabse jyaada khatarnaak hamla hua tha, tab pailes ko kam se kam 12 jhatke lage the aur teen logon ki mrutyu ho gayi thi.[11] ek aag lagaane wala bam house of kaamans ke kaksh par aa gira aur vahaan par aag laga di. doosare bam ne vestaminstar hall ki chhat ko dahala diya. aag bachaav dal donon ko hi na bacha paaya aur yeh nirnaya liya gaya ki kam se kam andal hall ko surakshit rakhane ka kaam kiya jaaye.[12] is kaarya mein ye log safal hue the. lekin kaumans kaksh poori tarah se nasht ho chuka tha aur sadasya lobby bhi naheen bachi thi.[13] ek bam Lord ke kaksh mein bhi gira tha, lekin jameen par bina fate aage nikal gaya. ya to koi chhota bam upar klaak tower se takaraaya tha ya fir koi vimaan bhedi chhat ke chhajje par gira tha. jis kaaran se chhat ko kaafi kshati pahunchi thi. ghadi ka sheesha poori tarah se nasht ho chuka tha. lekin iske haath aur ghanti ab bhi kaam kar rahi theen aur ab bhi yeh badi ghadi bilkul sahi vakt bata rahi thi.[11]

kaamans chamber ke nasht hone ke baad, laard ne swayam ka vaad vivaad kaksh kaamans ke istemaal ke liye de diya . aur laard ke swayam ke istemaal ke liye kvins robing room ko kuchh samay apne prayog mein laane ke liye laard ne rakh liya. yuddh ke baad kaamans kaksh ko shilpkaar sar gils gilbart Scott ke nirdeshan par fir se banaaya gaya. is baar yeh bahut hi saadhaaran puraane kaksh ki shaili mein banaaya gaya. 1950 mein yeh kaam khatm hua. ab donon sadanon ko apna apna kaksh mil gaya.[14]

ab kaaryaalaya ke liye jagah ki aavashyakta badhne lagi aur parliament ne paas ke nauraman shau imaarat mein san 1975[15] mein kuchh jagah ka adhigrahan kar liya. aur haal hi mein san 2000 mein custom bilt portakyoolis house bankar taiyaar hua hai. is badhat se sabhi saansadon ke liye apna khud ka kaaryaalya banaane ki jagah ho gayi hai.[2]

baahari svaroop

nadi ke kinaare vestaminstar mahal

चित्र
subah ke samay tems nadi ke us paar ka najaara
चित्र
...aur shaam ko daain taraf portakulis house dikhta hua.

sar chaalars bairi ne pailes of vestaminstar ke liye jo sahayogi design taiyaar kiya tha. ismein 15 veen shataabdi mein mashahoor abhilmb gothik shaili ka prayog tha aur isi se 19 vi shataabdi mein gothik shaili ki vaapasi hui thi. bairi ek paanraparik shilpkaar the. lekin inki gothik shilpkaar agastas pugin ne sahaayata ki thi. gyaarahavi shataabdi mein bana vestaminstar hall jo 1834 ki aagajani ko jhel chuka hai. is hall ka design bairi ne hi taiyaar kiya tha. pugin is kaam ke nateeje se khush naheen the. mukhya roop se bairi dvaara taiyaar kiye gaye design ki yojana se ve asantusht the. unhonein iske liye ye tippani bhi ki thi ki sabhi gresiyn, sar, yeh paaramparik imaarat par tyoodar shaili ka vivran hai".[16]

patthar ka kaam

is imaarat pe jo patthar ka kaam kiya gaya tha vo vaastav mein ainsatan tha. yeh ek baaloo ke rang ka maiganajiyn laaimaston hai. jiski Khan dakshini yorkashaayar ke ainsatan gaanv mein hai.[17] yeh patthar haanlaaki pradooshan aur doosare istemaal ho rahe kam gunavatta vaale pattharon ke kaaran jaldi hi kharaab hone laga. yadyapi yeh sab kharaabiyaan jald se jald 1849 tak theek kar li gain theen aur iske baad 19 veen shataabdi mein kuchh naheen kiya gaya tha. 1900 ke dauraan ek cheej to bilkul saaf ho gayi thi ki pattharon ki nakkaashi ka kuchh kaam ab badalna padega. 1928 is baat ki aavashyakta mahasoos ki gayi ki ab rootalaind ke shahad se rang vaale laaimaston patthar kleepashaim ka prayog kar kharaab pade ennsatan ko badla jaaye. yeh pariyojana 1930 mein shuroo hui thi, lekin doosare vishv yuddh ke kaaran iska kaam rook gaya aur 1950 mein hi yeh kaam samaapt ho paaya. 1960 tak pradooshan ab fir se prabhaavi hone laga. 1981 mein taavars aur baahari unnayan ke pattharon ke sanrakshan ki ek yojana shuroo hui. is yojana ki samaapti 1994 mein hui.[18] tab se house ke adhikaariyon ne kai bheetari baraamadon ki baahari marammat ke liye yojanaayein shuroo ki hain. yeh kaarya san 2011 mein bhi jaari hai.

taavars (meenaarein)

Photograph
Victoria tower vestaminstar nai pailes ke liye Charles bairi design ka sabse aham ang hai. iske poora hone tak, yeh duniya ka sabse bada dharmanirpeksh imaarat thi.

vestaminstar pailes me teen mukhya stambh hain. inmein se sabse bada aur lamba 98.5 meter (323 fut)[17]Victoria tower hai. jismein ki pailes ka dakshini pashchimi kona aata hai. us samay ke shaasak William 4 ke shaasan ke sammaan mein is tower ko bairi ke hi vaastavik design mein rakha gaya tha. isko bairi ne sabse jyaada yaadagaar banaane ki koshish ki thi. yeh shilpakala jo vidhaayi kile ki dekharekh ke liye hai, ise great skvaaer tauvar kaha jaata hai (yojana ki pratispardha mein pehchaan chinh ke roop portikyolis ke chunaav mein ek svar hona) aur yeh pailes ki shaahi pravesh dwaar ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai aur parliament ke pustak sangrah ke liye bhi yeh ek agni niroghak ka kaam karta hai.[19] is Victoria tauvar ko kai baar pun: banaaya gaya aur iski oonchaai bahut teji se badhi[20]. 1858 mein poora banane tak yeh sansaar ki sabse badi dharmanirpeksh imaarat ban gaya tha.[21]

tower ke tal par shaasak pravesh dwaar hai. is pailes mein pravesh karne ke liye aur parliament ko kholne ke liye raaja dvaara istemaal kiya jaata hai. yeh 15.2 meter (50 fut)ooaincha meharaabadaar path kalaakrutiyon se sajaaya gaya hai, jinmein seint jorj, Andrew aur paitarik ke saath-saath raani Victoria ke putale bhi shaamil hain.[22] is Victoria tower ke mukhya hisse mein sansadeeya lekhaagaar ke tees lakh dastaavej hain. 8.8 kilometer (5.5 meal) inmein sansad ke 1497 se ab tak ke sansad adhiniyam ki sabhi mukhya paandulipiyaan maujood hain aur anya mukhya paandulipiyaan jaise ki bill of raaits ki mool pratiyaan evam King chaalars ke daith warrant se sambandhit pratiyaan bhi yahaan maujood hain.[23] sabse upar lauhe se bani piraamid numa chhat 22.3 meter (73 fut)[17]dhvaj faharaane ki jagah hai. yahaan par raaja ki upasthiti mein royal standard (raaja ka vyaktigat jhanda) faharaaya jaata hai. jhanda diwas ke avsar par tatha jis din sansad ke kisi bhi ek sadan ki sabha hoti thi, us din sabse upar jaakar sangheeya jhande ko faharaaya jaata hai.[24][25]

Photograph
klauk tauvar ki prasiddhi swayam pailes se shreshth hona tha. sanrachana kaafi had tak big ben, paanch yeh ghantiyaaain gharon ki bhaari ke saath paryaaya ban gaya hai.

is pailes ke dakshini sire par ek bahut hi charchit tower hi jise klaak tower ke naam se jaana jaata hai, ise big ben bhi kehte hain. yeh 96.3 meter (316 fut) ke Victoria tower se thoda hi chhota hai lekin bahut hi patala hai.[17] ismein vestaminstar ki badi waali ghadi hai. jise ki Edward John deint ne banaaya tha aur iska design shaukiya horolojist edamand baiket denisn ne taiyaar kiya tha.[26] ek kshan mein hi iski ghanti poori tarah baj uthati hai, is badi ghadi ki khaasiyat yeh hai ki iska samay bilkul sateek hota hai, jise 19 veen shataabdi ke ghadi banaane vaale kathin samajhte the. aur 1859 se jab se yeh astitv mein I hai is par bharosa kaayam hai.[27] iska samay vyaas ke maapan ke anusaar chaar daayal 7 meter (23 fut) mein dikhaaya jaata hai, jo ki doodhiya rang ke sheeshe ke bane hote hain aur raat ke samay yeh peechhe se chamakata hai. iska ghante wala haath 2.7 meter (8 fut 10 inch) lamba hai aur minute wala haath 4.3 meter (14 fut) chhota hai.[28]

paanch ghantiyaan ghadi mein ghanta ghar ke upar ki or lataki hain. chaar chaturthaansh ghantiyaan vestaminstar ke ghantaanaad ko har ghante ke har chauthe bhaag mein bajaati rahati hain.[29] sabse badi ghanti jab ghanta bajaati hai to use aadhikaarik bhaasha mein great bail of vestaminstar kahatein hain. saamaanyata ise bigben bhi kehte hain. jo ki anishchit udgamon ko diya gaya naam hai, yeh naam samay ke saath saath tower ke liye isatemaal hone laga. vo pehli ghanti jise yeh naam diya gaya tha, vah parikshan ke dauraan hi toot gayi aur use fir naye rup mein dhaala gaya[30]. jo bail aaj hamaare saamane hai usamein to swayam hi ek daraar aa gayi. jiske kaaran iski dhvani bhi kuchh alag ho gayi hai.[31] agar iska bhaar dekha jaaye to yeh Britain ki teesari sabse badi ghadi hai 13.8 tan (13.6 laung tan).[32][33] klaak tower ke sabse upar jo laalaten rakhi hai vah aayaratan laait hai, yeh keval tabhi jalati hai jab andhera ho jaane ke baad bhi sansad ke kisi na kisi sadan ki sabha jaari rahati hai. yeh raani Victoria ke anurodh par 1885 mein lagaai gayi thi taaki ve bakingham pailes se bhi yeh dekh sakein ki sabhi sadasya kaam par hain ya naheen. iska naamakaran pehle kamishnar of vark ekatan smi aayaratan ke naam par kiya gaya tha.[34][35]

Photograph
kendreeya tauvar, jo ek shikhar ke roop mein design kiya gaya tha patala firm spasht pailes ke siron par adhik bhaari varg taavaron ke saath kantraast tha.

mahal ke teeno stambhon (91.4 meter (300 fut)[17]par) mein sabse chhota stambh oktaagonal central tower imaarat ke bilkul madhya mein hai. yeh madhya ki lobby ke theek upar hai. yeh Dr. David bosavel ke jor dene par joda gaya tha. ve parliament ke naye house ki veintileshan ke inchaarj the. inki yojana ke anusaari hi pailes ke madhya mein ek badi chimni banaai gayi thi. jiske liye inka kehna tha ki pailes ke chaaron taraf ki chaaron se jagah jal rahi aag se utpann pradushit aur garm hava is chimni ke maadhyam se baahar nikal jaaegi.[36] tower ki jagah banaane ke liye bairi par is baat ka jor diya gaya ki usane lobby ki oochi chhaton ki jo yojana banaai hui thi. un chhaton ko neecha hi rakha jaaye. aur iski khidkiyon ki oochaani ko bhi kam kiya jaaye[37]. haanlaaki yeh stambh bhi mahal ki baahari sanrachana [38] ke liye ek achha mauka saabit hua. bairi ne iske liye ek meenaar ka praaroop soch rakha tha taaki in bade bade paarshv stambhon ko santulit kiya ja sake.[39] aakhir mein central tower apne uddeshya mein poori tarah se vifal raha. lekin yeh kaarya dhyaan dene laayak tha kyon ki yeh pehla mauka tha, jab yaantrik sevaaon ka shilpakala par seedha prabhaav pad raha tha.[40]

shikhar chhoote kangure jo khidkiyon ke baade ke beech tatha mahal ke saamane se uthate hue oopar ki or ja rahe hain, yeh aakash ke kshitij se lagti imaarat ko sajeev banaate hain. central tower ki tarah hi yeh bhi kuchh vyaavahaarik kaarano se hi joda gaya hai, yeh bhi prakaash ke aavaagaman ke liye raasta banaata hai.[38]

saaaincha:Sectionvestaminstar ki kuchh aur visheshataaen bhi hain, ve bhi tower hi kahalaati hain. seint Stefan tower pailes ke pashchimi mukhya dwaar par laga hua hai. vestaminstar hall aur puraane pailes yaard ke beech parliament house ke liye pablik aintras hai, ise seint steefans aintras kehte hain.[41] nadi ke muhaane ke dakshini aur uttari sire par jo gummabajadaar imaarat hai use speekars tower aur chaansalars tower kehte hain[18]. pailes ke purnanirmaan ke samay dono sadanon ka sanchaalan karne vaale adhikaariyon ke baad house of the kaamans ke speaker aur Lord haai chaansalar hi aate the. speaker tower mein speaker house aur kaamans ke speaker ka aadhikaarik sadan aata hai.[42]

maidaan

Photograph
vestaminstar hall ke baahar kraumavel green, hemo throneekrauft olivr kraumavel ki kaansya pratima ki site hai, 1899 mein vivaadit raha.[43]

pailes of vestaminstar ke chaaron or kai chhote chhote bageeche hain. pailes ki dakshini nadi ke kinaare Victoria tower garden hai. yeh garden logon ke liye ek sarkaari park ke roop mein khula hai. black road garden (iska naam black road ke jeintalamain ashar ke office ke naam par rakha gaya hai) aam logon ke liye band hai aur yeh ek neeji pravesh dwaar ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai. mahal ke ek dam saamane old pailes yaard hai, iske maarg par majaboot suraksha block lage hue hain (suraksha neeche dekhein). krom vel green (yeh bhi agrabhaag par hi sthit hai aur new vijeetar center ke nirmaan ke liye hording ke dvaara ise san 2006 mein band kar diya gaya tha) new pailes yaard (dakshin ki or) aur speekars green (mahal ke dakshin ki taraf), ye sabhi niji hain aur aam logon ke liye band hain. kaulij green, house of the laard ke doosari taraf, yeh ek chhota trikoneeya park hai, saamaanyata ise raajaneetijnyaon ke saakshaatkaar ke liye prayog mein laaya jaata hai.

aantarik sanrachana

pailes of vestaminstar mein 1100 kaksh, 100 seedhiyaan aura4.8 kilometer (3 meal) 91 galiyaare[17] hain, jo ki chaar talon mein faile hue hain. iske graaund flor mein kaaryaalaya, daayaning rum aur baar hain, pehla tal (jo ki mukhya tal kahalaata hai) mein pailes ke mukhya kaksh, vaad vivaad kaksh, lobby aur pustakaalaya hain. sheersh do manjilon ko kaaryaalaya aur samiti kaksh ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai.

abhinyaas

principle flor ka leaaut (uttar se seedhe). donon sadanon aur unke poorv-kakshon ki bahas kakshon central lobby ke vipreet disha mein pailes, jo aupachaarik kakshon ki dakshin soot shaamil sentral spaain ka hissa hai. dakshin pashchim kone par Victoria tauvar hai aur poorvottar kone par speekars house maujood hai; klauk tauvar sudoor uttar mein hai aur vestaminstar hall pashchim mein hai.

ek mukhya pravesh dwaar ke sthaan par is pailes mein imaarat ko istemaal karne vaale alag alag dalon ke liye alag pravesh dwaar banaaya gaya hai. Victoria tower ke tal par tower ke dakshin pashchimi kone ki or shaasak pravesh dwaar hai aur yeh shaahi juloos ka shurooaati bindu hai sansad ke raajya uddhaatan ke samay yeh sthaan raajashaahi dvaara shaahi reetirivaajon ke liye anugaami kahalaata hai. ismein shaahi seedhiyaan, nauraman baraamada, robing room, shaahi gaileri, pins ka kaksh aur in sabse upar hai Lord ka kaksh jahaan par sabhi shaahi rasmein hoti hain. house of the Lord ke sadasya kuleen pravesh dwaar ka prayog karte hain, jo ki puraane pailes yaard ke saamane hai. yeh patthar vaale baraamade se hokar jaata hai aur pravesh hall mein jaakar khulata hai. yahaan se seedhiyaan niklati hain yeh seedhiyaan galiyaare se Rajkumar ke kaksh ki or le jaati hain.[44]

sansad ke sadasya, sadasya pravesh dwaar se imaarat mein pravesh karte hain. sadasya pravesh dwaar new pailes yaard ke dakshin ki taraf hai. iska raasta kloistar ke neeche vaale tal mein klaak room se hokar jaata hai aur ant mein kaamans chamber kaksh ke dakshin ki taraf mainbars lobby tak pahunchata hai. new pailes yaard se speaker court tak bhi pahuncha ja sakta hai aur yahaan se speaker house ki mukhya dwaar tak bhi jaaya ja sakta hai ye mukhya dwaar pailes ke uttar poorvi kone par sthit pavilion mein hai.

imaarat ke pashchimi mukhya dwaar ke madhya seint stifn pravesh dwaar hai, yeh pravesh dwaar logon dvaara chune gaye sadasyon ke liye hai. yahaan se log galiyaaron ki ek shrrunkhala tatha seedhiyon ki or jaate hain. yeh unako mukhya flor ke tal aur oktegonal seintaral lobby jo ki pailes ka kendra hai, iski or le jaati hain. is hall ke donon or ek se baraamade hain. inhein fresko peinting se sajaaya gaya hai. yeh baraamade agale kakshon aur donon sadanon ke vaadavivaad kaksh ki or le jaate hain. yaheen se sadasya lobby aur uttar ke kaumans kaksh, kuleen lobby aur dakshin ke Lord kaksh ki or jaaya ja sakta hai. doosari or bheetti chitr se saje galiyaare nichle veting hall ke poorv ki or le jaate hain aur yahaan ki seedhiyaan pehli manjil ki or le jaati hain, is sthaan par nadi ke muhaane par 16 saamudaayik kaksh bane hue hain. inke theek neeche donon sadanon ka pustakaalaya hain, mukhya tal par hone ki vajah se yahaan se thems nadi ko dekha ja sakta hai.

naurman porch

Victoria tauvar ke neeche shaasak praveshadvaar hi pailes of vensaminstar ke liye bhavya pravesh dwaar hai. yeh raaja ke istemaal ke liye hi banaaya gaya tha. raaja har saal apni gaadi mein bakingham pailes se yahaan par sansad ki raajakeeya shuruaat ke liye apna safr shuroo karta hai.[45] raajashaahi ka mukut shaasak dvaara shaahi reeti rivaajon ke liye pahana jaata hai, iske saath hi raaja ke paas shaahi talavaar aur kaip of meinteinneins hoti hai. yeh sab shaahi adhikaar ke soochak hain, juloos mein raaja ye sab apne saath lekar chalta hai, apni bagghi se hi mahal ki yaatra karta hai, raaja ke saath shaahi gharaane ke log bhi hote hain aur in sabke baad shaahi baraamade mein samast shaahi gharaana ek saath upasthit hota hai. yeh shaasak pravesh dwaar baahar se aane vaale shaahi mehamaanon[46][47] ke liye bhi aupachaarik pravesh dwaar hai aur saath hi mahal ke pablik tour ke liye bhi ek shurooaati bindu hai.[48]

yahaan se shaahi seedhiyaan mukhya tal ki or le jaati hain, jahaan par saleti grenaait se bani 26 seedhiyaan hain.[49] yeh maarg raajya samaaroh ke samay khola jaata hai, ismein talavaar pakade hue do ghareloo rejimeint ke ghud savaar apne apne dalon mein juloos ke saath aate hain, yeh rejimeint hain gharelu ghudsavaar fauj, jeevan rakshak, blue aur shaahi rejimeint inke aane par ek prakaar ka shaahi sangeet bajaaya jaata hai. yeh maatr dal hain jo hathiyaaron ke saath pailes vestaminstar mein pravesh kar sakte hain. jo ki aadhikaarik taur par shaahi nivaas sthaan hai.[50]

yeh seedhiyaan nauraman baraamade ke baad padti hain, yeh vargaakaar jameen ka tukada hai, yeh apni guchhedaar aakruti aur gahan bheetari chhat ke kaaran shesh khand se alag lagta hai. yeh jagah chaaragufa jaise kaksh hain aur iska nakkaasheedaar agrabhaag ke saath iski meharaab ki daat hi iski sabse badi visheshata hai. iske baraamade ka naamakaran iski sajaavat ke tareeke par kiya gaya hai. yeh tareeka nauraman itihaas ka hi hissa hai.[51] is ghatna mein na to nauraman ke raaja ka binb aur na hi kisi bhitti chitr ko kriyaavint kiya gaya hai aur is theem mein keval ek sheeshe ko dikhaaya gaya hai jismein vijeta William ki chhavi hi pratibinbit hoti hai. is kaksh mein raani Victoria ko do baar dikhaaya gaya hai, ek jagah kisi sheeshe mein raani ko ek javaan stri ke roop mein dikhaaya gaya hai[52] aur doosari jagah raani ko apni mrutyu ke nikat house of the Lord ke singhaasan par baithe dikhaaya gaya hai. yeh sab jeen Joseph beinjaamin kaansteint[53] ki 1900 peinting waali kaupi ka ek hissa hai, jo ki poorv ki deevaar par tangi hai. is kaksh mein aise solah stambh hain jahaan par house of laurds ke poorv pradhaanamantri ki moorti bani hui hai, yeh moortiyaan hain arl gre aur selis bari ki maarakyon. seedhiyon ke doosari taraf do daravaaje hain jinmein se ek seedha shaahi gailari ki taraf le jaata hai aur doosra robing room par jaakar khulata hai.[45]

raani ka robing kaksh

raani ka robing kaksh pailes ke samaaroh vaale hall ke dakshini sire par hai aur yeh is imaarat ke dakshini mukhya dwaar ke kendra ke bade hisse ko gherata hai. iske theek saamane Victoria garden hai.[54] jaisa ki iske naam se hi pata chalta hai, yeh us sthaan par padta hai jahaan par shaasak aadhikaarik poshaak pahane aur shaahi mukut ko sar par dhaaran kiye hue parliament ki state opening ki ghoshana karte hain.[55] is sundarata se sajaaye gaye kaksh ke aarkashan ka mukhya kendra bindu raaja ka singhaasan hota hai. raaja yahaan par teen seedhiyaan ke oopar sthit apne singhaasan par Scott land, ingalaind, Ireland ke sainikon ki suraksha mein in raashtron ke foolon ke prateek se saje mandap par baithata hai. is singhaasan ke peechhe baingani rang ka makhamali chakhauta hota hai, is chakhaute par royal school of enbrodari dvaara sundar kadhaai ka kaam kiya gaya hai. is jagah sitaaron aur vi aar monograam ki kadhaai ki gayi hai.[45] Edward bairi ne kursi, takiya aur uske peechhe ke hisse par bhi kadhaai ki hui hai. aur kaksh ke chaaron taraf alankrut patthar lagaakar aag ki jagah banaai gayi hai. is jagah par seint jorj aur seint Michael ke chamakati hui moorti banaai gayi hai.[54]

raaja orthar ki kahaani hi is kaksh ki sajaavat ki theem banaai gayi hai. kai viktoriyn ise apni raashtreeyata ka strot maanate hain.[56] William daayas dvaara 1864 aur 1848 ke beet chitrit ki gayi paanch moortiyaan is kaksh ki deevaaron ko sajaati hain. yeh moortiyaan raaja ki kahaani ka roopaatmak drushya chitrit karti hai. dono darvaajon ke beech laga bada chitr par bana har drushya raaja ki bahaaduri ko dikhaata hai aur ise edamishn of sar tristram too the round table ka naam diya gaya hai aur saath hi yahaan ke aatithya sansakaar ke drushyon ko bhi dikhaaya gaya hai.[45] yahaan par lage saat drushya maanyata praapt hain jab ki baaki ke do drushya chitrakaar ki mrutyu ho jaane ke kaaran adhure hi rah gaye the. iske alaava frainj jevar winter haulatar dvaara banaaye deevaaron par bane bhitti chitr raani Victoria aur prince elabart ko singhaasan par darshaate hain.[54][note 2] is kaksh mein ki gayi baaki saaj sajja bhi raaja se hi prerit hai. peting ke neeche athaarah shrankhalaaon waali jo base rileef hai ise henari hug aamarsated[45] dvaara ok par ukera gaya hai aur chhat ke neeche jo chitr vallari lagi hui hai, ye round table ki senaaon ke ghodon ko darshaati hai.[57] bheetari chhat ko bhi raajakeeya ghoshanaaon ke billon se sajaaya gaya hai aur bilkul isi tarah se iski lakdi ka aangan[44] bhi hai, jise theek isi prakaar se kaaleen dvaara sajaaya gaya hai.

shaahi galiyaara

robing kaksh ke theek dakshin mein shaahi galiyaara hai. isa33.5 × 13.7 meter (110 × 45 fut) pailes ke bade kakshon mein se ek hai.[17] iska mukhya uddeshaya parliament ke shaahi ki state opening ke shaahi juloos ke taur par manch upalabdh karavaana hai. is jooloos ko janta sadak ke donon kinaaron par lagi kursiyon par baith kar dekhti hai.[59] isko tab bhi istemaal kiya jaata hai jab raajya ke baahar se raajaneetijnya parliament ko sambodhit karne ke liye aate hain. aur saath hi baahar se aane vaale shaahi mehamaanon[60] ki aguaai ke liye bhi ise prayog mein laaya jaata hai. aur lrd chaansalar ke naashte[61] ke liye to ise kai baar istemaal kiya jaata hai. poorv mein yeh house of laurds ke kai kuleen jan dvaara kai kraayakramon ke liye ek manch ki tarah prayog mein laaya jaata tha.[60][62] shaahi gailari mein sansad ke lekhaagaar ko dastaavejon ko bhi prakaashit kiya gaya hai (chaalars 1 ke death warrant sahit) aur yahaan par lagi kursiyaan aur baithane ki alag vyavastha vaad vivaad kaksh ke paas laudas ke sadasyon ke liye suvidha janak hai.[45]

chitr:Royal Gallery, Palace of Westminster.jpg
pratham do fresko ke tej gati se kharaab hone ke kaaran, royal gailari ki shesh deevaaron ko peint-rahit chhod diya gaya tha.

shaahi galiyaare ki saaj sajja ki yojana british military ke itihaas mein aham kshanon ko darshaati hai aur iski deevaarein Daniel maiklis dvaara banaai gayi do badi peintig se saji hain jinka aakaar 13.7 × 3.7 meter (45 × 12 fut) hai. yeh dono death of nelasan ( jismein 1805 ke samay taraafalagadh ki yuddh bhoomi mein Lord nelasan ke antim sanskaar ko darshaaya gaya hai) aur the meeting of velingatan end broochar (ismein 1815 mein velingatan ke raaja ki yuddh bhoomi mein gibhaard librechet ki bloochar par vaatar loo mein hui vijay ko darshaaya gaya hai).[45] anya kai karanon se par mukhya roop se vaataavaran pradooshit hone ke kaaran yeh sabhi bhitti chitr bahut teji se poori tarah se bigad gaye aur aaj isi pradooshan ki vajah se yeh sab rang mein ek hi jaise lagte hain.[56] iske baad baaki ke bhitti chitron ko hata diya gaya. aur yahaan ki deevaarein jorj 1 ke baad se raaja aur raaniyon ki tasveeron se bhari hui hain.[63] yahaan ki deevaaron par sena ke rangon ke alaava aath chamakate hue keyan ke patthar hain. jon barni Phillip nakkaashi kiye gaye yeh patthar gailari ke raaste mein hi darvaajon evam khidkiyon par lagein hue hain. yahaan har jagah ek raaja ko darshaaya gaya hai jiske shaasanakaal ke dauraan ek mahatvapoorn ladaai ya yuddh lada gaya tha.[45] 13.7 meter (45 fut) baraamade ke oopar[17] ki taraf jo patti daar bheetari chhat hai yeh tyoodar roj aur laain ko darshaati hai. aur upar lageen sheeshe ki khidkiyaan par ingalaind aur skaatalaind ke sainiko ka sudanr chitran hai.[60]

Rajkumar ka kaksh

Rajkumar ka kamara shaahi gailari aur laard kaksh ke beech mein ek chhota sa upakaksh hai. iska naamakaran vensaminstar ke puraane pailes mein parliament se sate kaksh ke naam par kiya gaya hai. apni sthiti ke kaaran yeh vo jagah hai jahaan par laard ke sadasya house ke vyaapaar par baatcheet karne ke liye aate hain. yahaan par kuchh aise darvaaje bhi hain jo kaksh se baahar house of laard ki diveejan lobby tak le jaate hain aur iske saath saath kai anya mahattavapoorn kaaryaalyon ka bhi raasta yaheen se padta hai.[45]

Rajkumar ke kaksh ki theem tyoodar ka itihaas hai aur kaksh par lageen 28 tel ke rangon se bani tasveerein tyoodar ke raajya ke vibhinn pahaluon ko darshaati hain. yeh richrd burachat aur uske logon ka kaam hai aur ise taiyaar karne ke liye poori kahaani par achhi mehnat ki gayi hai. aur is umda kaam ki vajah se hi san 1856 mein yahaan par national portaret gailari ki sthaapana ki gayi thi. deevaar par tasveer ke neeche san 1855–57 mein William theed dvaara banaaye gaye taanbe ke baas reeleef lage hue hain.[45] ismein lage hue drushyon mein se hain, the field of the klaath of gold, the eskep of mairi, kveens of skaats aur reli spreding hij klok ej A kaarapet for the queen .[64] tasveeron ke upar khidkiyon ke star par kuchh pratiyaan lagi hui hain jo 1834 mein house of laard mein hui tabaahi ko darshaati hain aur 1588 mein hui spainish aramaada ki haar ko bhi darshaati hai. is projaikt ko 1861 mein kuchh der ke liye sthagit kar diya gaya tha (us samay tak keval ek hi peinting poori ho paayi thi) aur 2007 August 2010 tak tak, fir is kaam ko shuroo naheen kiya gaya. yeh sabhi chhah ki chhah tasveerein poori ho chuki hain aur shaahi gailari mein pradarshan ke liye lagaai gayi hain. yeh sabhi peinting isi samay ke dauraan hi Rajkumar ke kaksh mein lagaai jaani theen.[65][66][67]

is kaksh mein raani Victoria ki bhi moorti lagaai gayi hai. yahaan par raani raaj dand aur laural ke saath singhaasan par baithi hui hain. yeh darshaata hai ki raani hi sarkaar aur shaasan chalaati hai.[45] yeh drushya dayaaluta aur nyaaya ka roopak hai. yeh drushya jahaan talavaar liye taakat ko darshaata hain vaheen yeh drushya sadbhaavana aur dayaaluta ko bhi darshaata hai.[68] 1855 mein safed patthar se bani yeh moorti John gibsan ne banaai hai. yeh moorti Rajkumar ke kaksh mein apni uchaani2.44 meter (8 fut) aur aakaar mein Rajkumar ke kaksh ke liye bilkul upayukt hai aur 1955 evam 1976 ke beech yahaan par in moortiyon ka bhandaaran khatm ho jaata hai. haalaanki shaahi gailari (jahaan par parliament ki state opening ke liye shaahi juloos ki taiyaariyaan hoti hain) ke maharaabadaar patthar vaale raaste ke doosari taraf jo daravaaje hain unka aakaar aur apne dal mein sthiti yeh darshaati hai ki yeh sab door se dekhne ke liye hi banaaye gaye hain. yeh sab pratikaatmak roop se raaja ki kartavyon aur shaahi gailari mein bhaashan dene ke liye unke aane jaane ke tareeke ko darshaati hain.[45][69]

laurds chamber

chitr:Lords Chamber (landscape).jpg
raaja ka sinhaasan aur uske sone ka paani chadha chandava, laurds chamber ke pramukh aakarshan hain.

house of laurds ka prakoshth pailes of vestaminstar ke dakshini bhaag mein sthit hai. iske kakshon ko bahut hi bhavya dhang se sajaaya gaya hai.13.7 × 24.4 meter (45 × 80 fut)[17] chamber ki seaton, ke saath saath mahal mein laards ki taraf vaale bhaag ke anya furniture laal rang ke hain. chamber ke oopari bhaag ko alankrut kaanch ke khidki lagaakar aur chhah vyanjanaapoorn bhittichitron ke dvaara, jo dharm, shaurya aur kaanoon ka pratinidhitv karte hain, se sajaaya gaya hai.

chamber ke dakshin chhor par alankrut sone ka mandap aur sinhaasan hain, haalaanki saiddhaantik roop se saarvabhaum kisi bhi baithak ke dauraan sinhaasan par baith sakte hain. keval sansad ki raajakeeya udghaatan mein bhaag leta/leti hai. shaahi parivaar ke anya sadasyon, jo raajakeeya udghaatan mein bhaag lete hain, ve sinhaasan ke bagal vaale raajya kursiyon ka upayog kar sakte hain aur unke 'mitron ke putr ko hamesha ke liye sinhaasan ke charanon mein baithane ka adhikaar hain. sinhaasan ke saamane oon ki thailiyaaain, ek peethaviheen aur haathaviheen laal rang ka gadda, jismein oon bhara hua hain, rakhi gain hain, jo oon vyaapaar ke aitihaasik mahatva ka pratinidhitv karti hain aur sabha ki adhyakshata karne vaale adhikaari ke (san 2006 ke baad se laard ke adhyaksh dvaara, lekin aitihaasik roop se laard ke chaansalar ya ek upaadhyaksh) dvaara istemaal kiya jaata hain. house gada, jo shaahi satta ka pratinidhitv karta hai, use oon ki thailiyon ki peeth par rakha gaya hai. oon ki thailiyon ke saamane nyaayaadheesh ka oonni gadda hain, laal rang ka ek vishaal ooni gadda jo praarambh mein raajakeeya udghaatan ke dauraan kaanoon ke laards dvaara adhikrut kar liya jaata tha (jo house of laards ke sadasya the). aur uske baad kramash: Supreme court ke nyaayaadheesh aur anya (chaahe ek sadasya ho ya naheen) nyaayaadheeshon ke dvaara adhikrut kiya jaata tha, sarkaar ki nyaayik shaakha pratinidhitv karne ke liye. sadan ki mej, jis par lipik baithate hain, vah sadan ke saamane hain.

sabha ke sadasya kaksh ke teen or laal bench par baithate hain. laurds adhyaksh ke daain taraf aadhyaatmik paksh aur baaeain taraf asthaayi paksh vaale baithate hain. laurds ke aadhyaatmik sadasya (England ke sthaapit church ke aark vishp aur bishp) sabhi aadhyaatmik chhor ki or baithate hain. laurds ke asthaayi sadasya (rais) party sanbaddhata ke anusaar baithate hain,: sarkaar ki party ke sadasya aadhyaatmik paksh ki or baithate hain, jabki vipaksh ke sadasya asthaayi sadasyon ki or baithate hain. kuchh saathi, jo koi party se sanbaddhata naheen rakhate hai ve oon ki thailiyon vipreet sadan ke beech mein bench par baithate hain, jinhein cross beinchar ke roop mein jaana jaata hain.

Drawing
sansad ke paarit adhiniyam 1911. sansad ke donon sadanon mein vote vibhaajan ke roop mein aayojit kiye jaate hain.

laards ka chaimbar raashtreeya star par prasaarit hone vaale aayojanon ka sthal hain, jismein sabse mahatvapoorn sansad ka raajakeeya udghaatan hain, jo ki pratyek vaarshik sansadeeya satr ke aarambh mein aayojit kiya jaata hain, yeh ya to pratyek aam chunaav ke baad ya sharad ritu ke aayojit kiya jaata hai. is avsar par sarkaar ke pratyek samvaidhaanik ang ka pratinidhitv kiya jaata hain: mukut (shaasak ki upasthiti mein saahityik aur alankaarik donon dhang se), adhyaatmik aur asthaayi laards aur kaumans (jo ek saath milkar vidhaayika ka nirmaan karte hain), nyaayapaalika (yadyapi adhikaansh nyaayaadheesh sansad ke kisi sadan ke sadasya naheen hote hain) aur kaaryakaari (jismein sarkaari mantri aur shaasak ki upasthiti ke liye upasthit aupachaarik sainya ikaai ke saath badi sankhya mein athitiyon ko shaahi gailari mein aamantrit kiya jaata hain, jo ki chamber se sate hue hi hain. shaasak sinhaasan par baithe hue hi bhaashan deta hai, jismein aagaami sansadeeya satr ke liye vidhaayi agenda varsh ke liye sarkaar ke kaaryakram ki rooparekha prastut karta hai. kaamans laards ke paricharcha star par pravesh naheen kar sakte hain, iske sthaan par unke sadan ke bahaar galiyaare se sadan ki kaaryavaahi dekhne ki anumati praapt hoti hai, jiske darvaaje ke andar hota hai. ek chhota sa vishuddh aupachaarik samaaroh pratyek sansadeeya satr ke ant mein aayojit kiya jaata hain, jismein shaasak ka pratinidhitv aayukton ke ek samooh dvaara kiya jaata hai.

peeyars lobby

laurds chamber ke seedhe uttar mein 'peeyars ki lobby hai, ek devadhi jahaan sadan ki baithakon ke dauraan laurds anaupachaarik charcha ya maamale par baatcheet kar sakte hain, saath hi saath dvaarapaal se sandesh praapt kar sakte hain, jo chamber mein pahuainch ko niyantrit karta hai. lobby ek vargaakaar kaksh hain, jiska pratyek paksh samaan lambaai ka hain, 11.9 meter (39 fut)aur oonchaai mein 10 meter (33 fut), bhi samaan hain.[17] jiski mukhya visheshata farsh ka kendreeya tukada hain, jismein ek ujjval tyoodar darbeeshaayar patthar se bana gulaab hain jo ki utkeern peetal ki ek ashtakona ke bheetar nirdhaarit kiya jada hua hai.[70] baaki bachi hui manjil matachiniya heraladeek design aur laitin aadarsh vaakya ke taails ke se susajjit hai. deevaaron ko safed pattharon se sajaaya gaya hai aur pratyek mein dwaar ke liye chhidr kiya gaya hain. unke oopar meharaab par hathiyaar pradarshit kiye gaye hain jo vibhinn chhah shaahi raajavanshon ne raani Victoria ke shaasanakaal tak shaasan kiya tha (sakson, naurman, plaantaagenet, tyoodar, stuart aur hanoveriyn) ka pratinidhitv karte hain aur beech mein, khidkiyaaain hain jismein England ke praarambhik kuleen parivaaron ko pradarshit kiya gaya hain.[71]

darvaaje mein se ek dakshin ki or khulata hain jo laards chamber mein le jaata hai-vah sabse shaanadaar hai aur sabse adhik sone ka paani aur sajaavat bhara hain, jismein shaahi hathiyaar bhi shaamil hai. yeh peetal ke dwaar se sanyukt hain aur alankrut chhidrit aur jadi darvaaje ki ek jodi ke saath vajan se juda hua hai1.5 tan (1.7 short tan).[72] bagal ke darvaaje, jisme taale lage huye hain, galiyaare mein khulate hain, iske poorv mein vidhi ke laards ka galiyaara hain, jo pustakaalaya tak jaata hain aur pashchim ke paas moosa kaksh, vishaal samitiyon ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai.

uttar mein saathiyon ka gunbadadaar galiyaara hain, jo Charles vest kop ke dvaara nirmit aath bhitti chitron se yukt hain, jise angreji gruhayuddh ke kaal ke aaspaas ki avadhi ke aitihaasik drushya chitran se sajaaya gaya hai.[73] 1856 aur 1866[74][75] ke madhya in bhittichitron ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha aur pratyek chitr aur pratyek drushya, "vishesh roop se sangharsh ko darshaati hai jiske maadhyam se raashtreeya svatantrata senaaniyon ne jeet praapt ki thi."[73] in udaaharanon mein shaamil hain, adhyaksh leinthaall ke dvaara Charles pratham ke ke khilaaf kaumans ke visheshaadhikaar par jor diya jaana, jab paanch sadasyon ko jabt kiya gaya tha, jo nirankush shaasan ke virooddh pratirodh kar rahe the. aur new England ke teerth pita ke aarohan jo pooja ki svatantrata ke siddhaant ki misaal pesh karti hain.

keindreeya lobby

chitr:Central Lobby, Palace of Westminster.jpg
Robert ening bail dvaara seint paitrik for Ireland (1924) aur sar Edward poyantar dvaara seint David for vels (1898) inhonein chaar mein se do mojaaik central lobby ki sajaavat ki hain.

kendreeya lobby, ka mool naam "ashtakona hall" iske aakar ke kaaran hain, keindreeya lobby vestaminstar pailes ka dil hai. yeh kendreeya tauvar ke seedhe neeche sthit hain aur dakshin mein laards ki sabha aur uttar mein seint Stefan hall aur pashchim mein saarvajanik pravesh karne ke liye house of kaamans ke beech ek vyast chauraahe roopon, uttar, house of kaumans aur nimn prateeksha hall aur poorv mein pustakaalayon ke chauraahon par sthit hain. iske do bahas kakshon ke beech aadhe raaste par sthiti hone ke kaaran samvaidhaanik vichaarak eraskeen me ne laabi ko "british saamraajya ke raajaneetik kendra, "[76] ke roop mein varnit kiya hai.[77] aur mahaan jhaad faanoos ke neeche ek vyakti ko khada kar diya jaaye jo shaahi sinhaasan aur adhyakshapeeth donon ko dekha sake, basharte ki beech ke sabhi darvaaje khule ho. yahaan sanghatak bina kisi poorv soochana ke sansad ke apne sadasyon se mil sakte hain,[78] aur yeh pratha lobbying ke utpati se sambandhit mool kaaranon mein se ek hain.[79] is hall mein adhyaksh ke juloos ke liye ek rangamanch bhi hain, jisse sadan ke pratyek baithak se poorv yahaaain se hokar kaumans cheinbar tak jaata hain.

kendreeya lobby ki maapa18.3 meter (60 fut) satah se22.9 meter (75 fut) lekar kendreeya gunbadadaar chhat tak jaati hain.[17] gumbad ki pasaliyon ke beech ka panel nakkaasheedaar veneshiyn sheeshe se dhaka hua hain jo pushp prateek aur heraladeek baij ko pradarshit karte hain. aur pasaliyon ke chauraahon mein bhi aakaaon ke heraladeek prateek khudi hui hain.[80] lobby ki har deevaar ek se alankrut meharaab se yukt hain jispar angreji aur Scotland ke raajaaon ki pratimaaon utkeern ki gayi hain, vahaaain chaar pakshon par darvaaje hain aur unke oopar teempn hain jo sanyukt raajya ghatak deshon ke sanrakshak sant ka pratinidhitv karte mojaaik ke saath saji hain: England ke seint George, Scotland ke seint Andrew, vels ke seint David aur ke liye Ireland ke seint paitrik [note 3]. anya chaar meharaab uchch khidkiyon se yukt hain, jiske neeche patthar ke screen lage hai, hall ke do daakaghar mein se ek pailes mein screen ke peechhe sthit hai. uske saamane 19 veen shataabdi ke chaar raajanetaaon ke jeevan se bhi bade pratimaaye lage hue hain jismein chaar baar pradhaanamantri rah chuke William evart glaidaston bhi shaamil hain.[73] jis tal par unhein sthaapit kiya gaya hain vah jatil paitarn mein minton matachiniya taail se banaaya gaya hain, aur us par laitin bhaasha mein 127 panktiyon ki ek paalsam utkeern hain, jiska anuvaad hain," Bhagwan ne is hall ko banaaya, parantu iske baad ve ise bhool gaye."[81].

poorvi corridor central lobby se hote hue nichli prateeksha hall ki or jaata hai aur uske chhahapainal 1910 tak rikt rahe, jab unhein tyoodar ke itihaas se drushyon se bhara gaya.[82] un sabhi ko libral saathiyon ke dvaara bhugataan kiya gaya aur har kaam ek alag kalaakaar ka tha, lekin ekaroopata praapt kar li gayi thi bhittichitron mein, dhanyavaad tha beech ke laal, kaale aur sone ki ek saamaan rang pailet ka aur chitrit paatron ke liye ek samaan oonchaai haasil ki gayi thi. ek drushya shaayad aitihaasik naheen hai: puraane mandir bageeche mein se laal aur safed gulaab todna, in foolon ke mool, lankaastar sadan aur yaurk sadan ke prateekon ke roop mein kramash chitrit tha, sheksapiyr ki henari VI, bhaag 1 se liye gaye hain.[83]

sadasyon ki lobby

kendreeya lobby ke aage uttar mein 'kaumans ka galiyaara hai. yeh apne dakshini samakaksh se lagbhag samaan hai aur 17 veen shataabdi ke naagrik yuddh aur shaanadaar kraanti ke madhya ke raajaneetik itihaas ke drushyon ke saath sajaaya gaya hai. ye Edward Matthew ward dvaara chitrit kiye gaye the aur inmein jo vishay shaamil the ve hain sant dvaara svatantr sansad ki ghoshana aur Lord evam kaumans dvaara[73]William aur mairi ko daavat hl mein ko mukut dena .[73] uske baad mahal ke laurds vaale bhaag ke samaan hi ek anya enteechainbar bhi hai, jissaka naam hai membars lobby. is kaksh mein, sansad ke sadasya charchaaeain ya vaarta karte the aur aksar maanyata praapt patrakaaron se baatcheet karte the, ise saamoohik roop se "lobby" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[84]

yeh kaksh saathiyon ke lobby ke samaan hi hai lekin design mein saadhaaran aur thoda bada hai, yeh har disha mein ghana13.7 meter (45 fut) ki aakruti mein hai[17] 1941 mein bam visfot ke bhaari nuksaan ke baad, [186] ise ek saral shaili mein fir se banaaya gaya tha, kuchh sabse spasht frsh par, jo lagbhag poori tarah se saada hai. kaumans chamber ki taraf jaate hue darvaaje ke toran ko yuddh ki buraaiyon ka ek chetaavani ke roop mein bina marammat ke chhod diya gaya hai aur yeh ab malabe aark ya charchil aark ke roop mein jaana jaata hain. yeh vinstan charchil aur David lauyad George ke kaansya moortiyon, ve pradhaanamantri jinhonne dviteeya aur pratham vishv yuddh ke dauraan kramash: Britain ka netrutv kiya tha se sajaaya gaya hai. inmein se pratyek ka ek pair vishishtaroop se chamakadaar hai jo ki saansadon ki ek lambi parampara ka parinaam hai jo ki unke raaste mein apne pratham bhaashan se pehle achhe bhaagya ke liye ghiste the. lobby mein 20 veen sadi ke adhiktam pradhaanamantriyon ki moortiyaan aur bast hain, saath hi saath do bade board shaamil hain jahaan saansad patra aur telephone sandeshon praapt kar sakte hain, yeh sadan ke istemaal ke liye design kiye gaye hain aur inhein 1960 ke sharuaat mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha |[85].

kaumans chamber

house of kaumans ke chamber vestaminstar pailes ke uttari chhor par hai, yeh 1950 mein khola gaya tha viktoriyn kaksh ke 1941 mein nasht hone ke baad aur fir se vaastukaar gils gilbart Scott ke dvaara banaaya gaya. chamber ke saadhan 14 × 20.7 meter (46 × 68 fut)[17] laard ke chaimbar ki apeksha aur kaafi saadhaaran hain ; jaise ki bench, saath hi pailes ke kaumans ki taraf ka anya saamaan, hare rang ka hai. janta ke sadasyon ko laal bench par baithane ki manaahi hain. jo ki sabha ke sadasyon ke liye aarakshit hain. raashtramandal deshon jaise ki Bhaarat, Canada aur Australia ke sansadon ne vahi rang yojana apnaai hai jiske tahat nichla sadan hare rang ka hai aur oopari laal rang ka.

The Commons Chamber
apne poorvavarti, house of kaumans ke yuddh ke baad kaksh ki tarah kar sakte hain apne hare keval satta paksh ke baare mein do sansad ke sabhi sadasyon ke tihaai seat par.

chamber ke uttari chhor par adhyaksh peeth hai, jo ki Australia ke raashtramandal ki taraf se sansad ke liye upahaar hai. vartamaan british adhyakshapeeth, haaoos of kaumans dvaara Australia ko di gayi adhyakshapeeth ke bilkul samaan hai. yeh upahaar yeh Australia ke sansad udghaatan samaaroh mein bheint ki gayi thi. adhyakshapeeth ke saamane sadan ki mej hai, jis par klark baithate hain aur jis par 'kaumans aupachaarik gada rakha gaya hai. preshan bakse, jis par ki saansad bhaashan ke dauraan jhukate hai ya not rakhate hain, New Zealand se mila ek upahaar hai. sadan ke donon taraf hare bench hain, sarkaar ke party ke sadasya adhyaksh ke daai taraf ki bench par baithate hai, jabki vipaksh baayeen taraf baithata hai. haaoos of laurds mein kraus bench naheen hai. yeh sadan apekshaakrut chhota hai, 650 mein se 427 sadasya hi ismein baithate hain[14]- badi bahason aur pradhaanamantri ke prashnakaal ke samay saansad sadan ke ant mein khade hote hain.

parampara ke anusaar, british samraat house of kaumans ke chamber mein pravesh naheen karta. aisa karne wala antim samraat jisne 1642 mein yeh kaam kiya, vah King Charles pratham tha. raaja ne uchch raajadroh ke aarop mein sansad ke paanch sadasyon ko giraftaar karne ki maang ki, lekin jab usane adhyaksh, William leinthal se yeh poochha ki kya vah in vyaktiyon ke thikaane ke baar mein jaante hain, to leinthal ne jo iska javaab diya vah kaafi prasiddh hai, unhonne kaha: "mahaamahim ye baat aapke khush kar sakti hai, is sthaan par mere paas[86] na aaainkhein hai dekhne ke liye aur na hi jeebh hai bolne ke liye, lekin sadan jaisa mujhe nirdesh dega main vaisa kar sakta hooain, main yahaaain ka naukar hooain."[87]

house of kaumans ke farsh par do laal rekhaaye alag alag hai, 2.5 meter (8 fut 2 inch)[17] jo, managadhnt parampara ke anusaar, do talavaar ki lanbaai ke baraabar hain. kaha jaata hai iska ka mool uddeshya sabha mein vivaadon mein dvand yuddh hone se rokana tha. haalaanki, ab tak aisa koi record naheen mila hai jisme sansad ke sadasyon ko chamber mein talavaar laane ki anumati di gayi ho, aitihaasik drushti se, keval shastron ke saarjeint ko talavaar laane ki anumati di gayi thi. aisa sansad mein unki bhoomika ka ek prateek ke roop mein darshaane ke liye kiya gaya tha aur saansadon ke klokaroom mein gulaabi ribn ke loop bane hain jahaaain ki saansad chamber mein pravesh karne se pehle apni talavaarein lataka sakein. jin dinon sajjanalog talavaar saath rakhate the, chamber mein koi laainein naheen hoti theen.[88][89] protokaul ke anusaar saansadon ko bolte samay in laainon ke paar jaane ki ijaajat naheen thi; yadi koi saansad is niyam ka ullanghan karta hai to use vipaksh ke sadasyon dvaara fatkaar lagaai jaati hai. isi ko "too to di line" abhivyakti ke sambhav mool ke roop mein maana jaata hai, jo ki galat hai kyonki ye laainein to haal hi mein jodi gayi hain.

vestaminstar hall

Engraving
19 veen sadi mein shurooaati vestaminstar hall

1097 mein banavaaya gaya[90] vestaminstar hall, vestaminstar mahal ka sabse puraana maujooda hissa hai, jo us samay Europe mein sabse bada hall tha. shaayad chhat ko khanbhon ke sahaare teka gaya tha jismein teen raaste the, lekin raaja richrd ‖ ke samay is chhat ke sthaan par shaahi badhi huge haralaind dvaara hamarabeem ki chhat laga di gayi, jise "madhyayugeen lakdi vaastukala ka sabse bada nirmaan" maana jaata hai. is chhat ke kaaran ab teen galiyaaron ko milaakar ek vishaal khaali sthaan bana diya gaya, jiske ant mein mandap bane the. nai chhat ko 1393 mein shuroo kiya gaya tha.[91] richrd ke vaastukaar henari yevele ne mool aayaamon ko chhod diya, unhonne deevaaron ko badalate hue pandrah raajaaon ke bade aakaar ke pratimaaon ko unke sthaanon par lagaaya.[92] raaja henari III ke dvaara punarnirmaan 1245 mein shuroo kiya gaya tha lekin richrd ek sadi se bhi adhik samay tak nishkriya tha.

vestaminstar hall England mein sabse bada madhyayugeen khuli chhat wala hall tha. 20.7 × 73.2 meter (68 × 240 fut)[17] chhat ke liye ok ki lakdi shaahi haimpashaayar aur hartfordshaayar aur sarre ke jangalo se aur kuchh anya jagahon se I thi, unhein sarre 56 kilometer (35 meal) ke farnham mein joda gaya tha.[93] lekha record hai mein wagon aur barjej ka jikr hai jinhein sanyojan ke liye badi maatra mein judi lakadiya vestaminstar pahunchaai thi.[94]

vestaminstar hall mein bahut se aayojan hue hain. yeh mukhyat: nyaayik prayojanon ke liye istemaal hota tha, ise pramukhat: teen sabse mahatvapoorn court ke liye istemaal kiya gaya tha ; raaja ki bench ka nyaayaalaya, aam daleelon ka nyaayaalaya aur dootaavaas ka nyaayaalaya. 1875 mein in adaalaton ko uchch nyaayaalaya mein sammilit kiya gaya, jo tab tak vestaminstar hall mein hi hoti thi jabatak 1882 mein ise shaahi nyaayaalayon mein sthaanaantarit naheen kiya gaya.[95] niyamit mukadamon ke alaava.[213], vestaminstar hall mein anya mahatvapoorn mukadamon ka bhi saakshi raha hai, jinmein mahaabhiyog jaaainch aur angreji gruhayuddh ki samaapti par raaja Charles pratham ki jaanch, sar William vaales, sar Thomas mor, kaardinl John fishr, gaai favkes, staiford ke arl, 1715 ke baagi skautish ki bagaavat aur 1745 ke vidroh aur vauren hestings ki jaanch shaamil hai.

Painting
1821 ko vestaminstar hall mein George chaturth raajyaabhishek ka aayojan kiya gaya tha, yeh antim bhoj ka aayojan tha.

vestaminstar hall mein samaarohik kaarya bhi hue hain. baarahaveen sadi se lekar unneesaveen sadi tak yahaaain naye samraaton ke raajyaabhishek ke sammaan mein bhoj aayojit kiye gaye. antim raajyaabhishek bhoj san 1821 mein King George chaturth ka tha,[96] unke uttaraadhikaari, William chaturth, ne is vichaar ko tyaag diya, kyonki unki samajh se yeh bahut mahanga tha. hall ko raajakeeya aur samarohik antim sanskaar ke dauraan raajya ke liye istemaal kiya jaata tha. is tarah ka sammaan aamtaur par raaja aur unki patni ke liye aarakshit tha, beesaveen shataabdi mein gair raajaparivaar ka keval fredarik sleigh raubarts is sammaan ko praapt karne wala vyakti tha, pratham arl raubarts (1914) aur sar vinstan charchil (1965). haal hi mein 2002 mein raajamaata mahaaraani Elizabeth ka paarthiv shareer ismein rakha gaya tha.

vestaminstar hall mein donon sadanon ne mahatvapoorn saarvajanik avsaron par mukut ke liye samaarohik vyaakhyaan prastut kiya hai. udaaharan ke liye, Elizabeth dviteeya ki rajat jayanti samaaroh (1977) aur svarn jayanti (2002) ke avsar par, shaanadaar kraanti ki 300 veen varshagaanth (1988) par aur doosare vishv yuddh ki samaapti ki pachaasaveen saalagirh (1995) par sambodhan kiya gaya.

1999 mein kiye gaye sudhaaron ke tahat, house of kaumans grand samiti kaksh ka upayog ek atirikt bahas kaksh ke roop karta hain jo vestaminstar hall ke bagal mein hai. (haalaanki yeh mukhya hall ka hissa naheen hai, aamtaur par jaisa ki ise kaksh ke roop mein sveekaar kiya jaata hai.) baithak ko U-aakaar mein banaaya gaya hain, jo mukhya cheinbar ke saamane hai, jisme beinchon ko ek-dusare ke vipreet rakha gaya hain. yeh paddhati vestaminstar hall mein aayojit vaad vivaad ke dalagat raajaneeti se pare hone ka prateek hai. vestaminstar hall mein har hafte mein teen baar baithakein hoti hain, parantu vivaadaaspad maamalon pe aamtaur par charcha naheen hoti hain.

anya kaksh

pramukh tal par do aaleeshaan pustakaalaya hain, jahaaain se nadi dikhaai deti hain, - laurds ki sabha ka pustakaalaya aur kaumans ki sabha ka pustakaalaya.

vestaminstar mahal mein donon sadanon ke peethaaseen adhikaariyon ke liye raajakeeya aavaas bane hain. adhyaksh ka sarkaari nivaas mahal ke uttari chhor par hai; Lord chaansalar ka aavaas dakshini chhor par hain. pratyek din, speaker aur Lord speaker apne aavaas se apne kaaryaalayon mein jaane ke liye aupachaarik juloos mein bhaag lete hain[97][98]

vestaminstar ke pailes mein kai madhushaalaaye, kaifeteriya aur restaurant hain, jiske sambandh mein apne niyam hain ki kaun un suvidhaaon ka upayog kar sakta hai; unamein se kai sadan ki baithak ke dauraan kabhi band naheen hote hai.[99] vahaaain ek vyaayaamashaala bhi hai aur yahaaain tak ki ek baal sailoon bhi hai; rifle range ko san 1990 ke dashak mein band kar diya gaya tha[100]. sansad mein smruti chinh ki bikri ki dukaan hai jahaaain par house of kaumans ke chaabi ke chhalle aur cheen item se lekar hauus of kaumans ke shaimpen tak sabhi kuchh milta hai.

suraksha

Photograph
thos baadhaaen old pailes yaard ke maarg ko pratibandhit karti hain.

black road ka jeintalamain praveshak house of laards ke liye suraksha ki dekharekh karta hai aur shastradhaari saarjeint yaheen kaarya house of kaumans ke liye karta hai. haalaanki, ye adhikaari apne sambandhit sadanon ke vaastavik kakshon ke baahar mukhyat: aupachaarik bhoomika nibhaate hai. suraksha metropolitan police ke vestaminstar pailes ke prabhaag ki jimmedaari hai, yeh greater London kshetr ka police bal hai. abhi bhi parampara ke anusaar keval saarjeint hi shaastr lekar kaamans chembar mein pravesh kar sakta hain.

kisi visfotak bhare vaahan ke bhavan se takaraane ki badhti hui chinta aur sambhaavana ke kaaran sadak maarg par kankreet avarodh ki ek shrankhala san 2003 mein bichhaai gayi.[101] nadi ke kinaaron par ek apavarjan jon door tak faila hua hai 70 meter (77 gaj) jismein se kisi jahaaj ko pravesh karne ki anumati naheen hai.[102]

haal hi mein suraksha ullanghanon ki ghatnaaon ke baavajood janta ke sadasyon dvaara house of kaumans mein 'streinjars gailari' ka upayog kiya jaana jaari hai. aagantukon aur unke saamaan ko metal ditektaron ke maadhyam se scan kiya jaata hai.[103] metropolitan police ki vestaminstar pailes diveejan, jise raajanayik suraksha samooh se kuchh sashastr police ka bhi samarthan rahata hai, [231] hamesha mahal mein aur iske chaaron or tainaat rahati hain.

gambhir sangathit aparaadh aur police adhiniyam 2005 ke ek praavadhaan ke tahat, 1 August 2005 ke baad se, naamit kshetr ke bheetar metropolitan police ke poorv anumati ke bina pailes ke aaspaas (1 kilometer (0.6 meal)) ke daayare mein virodh pradarshan ka aayojan karna gairkaanooni hai.[104]

ghatnaaen

vestaminstar ke pailes ki suraksha bhang karne ka ek prasiddh asafal prayaas 1605 mein kiya gaya tha jise ganapaaoodar plaut kehte hain. yeh saajish roman Catholic bhadr janon ke ek samooh ke beech ka shadyantr thi, jisse ki protesteint raaja James ki hatya kar usaki jagah ek Catholic ko samraat niyukt kar fir se England mein roman Catholic isaai dharm ko sthaapit kiya jaaye. is kaam ko karne ke liye, un logon ne hauus of laards ke neeche bahut badi maatr mein baarood chhipa diya jise un shadayantrakaariyon mein se ek ladke, fauks ke dvaara sansad ke 5 November 1605 ko raajakeeya udghaatan ke dauraan visfot karna tha. yadi visfot safal hota to usamein, mahal nasht ho jaata aur raaja aur uske parivaar aur abhijaat varg ke adhikaansh sadasya maare jaate. haalaanki, saajish ka bhandaafod ho gaya aur saajish ke adhikaansh shadayantrakaariyon ko ya to giraftaar kar liya gaya tha ya fir maar daala gaya. bache logon par vestaminstar hall mein bhayankar raajadroh karne ki koshish ke liye mukadama chalaaya gaya aur unhein doshi karaar kar bheeshan roop se faansi par lataka diya gaya. tab se, mahal ke tahakhaane ki jaaainch sansad ke raajakeeya udghaatan se poorv guard ke yomain dvaara ki jaati hain, yeh raaja ke virooddh isi tarah ke kisi ghatna se bachane ke liye paaramparik poorv saavadhaani baratne jaisa hai.[105]

house of kaumans ki lobby mein 1812 ko pradhaanamantri speinsar persaval ki hatya

pehle wala pailes of vestaminstar bhi 1812 mein ek pradhaanamantri ki hatya ka sthaan raha tha. jab ek sansadeeya jaanch ke dauraan hauus of kaamans ke laabi mein ek livrapool vyaapaari, John bellingham ne spensar persaval ki goli marakar hatya kar di. british pradhaanamantriyon mein persaval hi ekamaatr aise pradhaanamantri the jinki hatya kar di gayi.[106]

new pailes ke saath-saath tower of landan 24 January 1885 ko fineeyaai bamon ka nishaana bane. pratham bam jo ki daayanaamaait ka bana tha aur ek kaale rang ke bag mein rakha hua tha. is bam ko ek darshak ne dekh liya tha jo sant meri under kraaft ki seedhiyon ke paas rakha hua tha. police ke sipaahi William kole use nae pailes tak le jaane ka prayaas kiya parantu bag itan garm ho gaya tha ki kole ne use vahi patak diya, parinaamat: bam fat gaya.[107] visfot ke kaaran frs mein bada sa gadda ho gayaa1 meter (3 fut) aur bade paridhi mein chaipal ka chhat bhi kshatigrast ho gayi, iske saath mahal ke khidkiyon ke kaanch bhi toot gaye jismein sant stefan ke porch mein lage chitrit sheeshe bhi shaamil hain.[108] kol aur usaka saathi pi si kaaks jisne usaki madad ki thi, us visfot mein buri tarah se ghaayal ho gaye.[107] iske saath hi kaamans cheinbar mein ek doosra visfot bhi hua,-parinaamat: iske dakshini bhaag ko kaafi nuksaan pahuncha, parantu is visfot mein koi ghaayal naheen hua, kyonki us samay vah sthaan khaali tha.[109] is ghatna ke parinaamasvaroop vestaminstar hall ko darshakon ke liye kai saalon tak band kar diya gaya aur san 1889 mein kuchh pratibandhon ke saath khola gaya, ki donon sadanon ke baithak ke dauraan koi bhi darshak andar pravesh naheen kar sakta hai.[110]

17 June 1974, ek proveejanal aaiaarae dvaara lagaaya gaya 9 kilogram (20 paaund) ka bam vestaminstar hall mein fat gaya.[111] ek anya hamle mein 30 March 1979, ek pramukh kanjaravetiv neta ere neev, ek car bam visfot mein maare gaye jab ve pailes ke nai car park ke baahar nikal rahe the.[112] aayarish national liberation army aur proveejanal I aarae ne donon ne hatya ki jimmedaari li, suraksha balon ka pehle hi maanana tha ki ve iske liye jimmedaar the.

pailes bhi kai baar raajaneeti se prerit 'hinsak gatividhiyon' ke krutyon ka sthaan raha hai. July 1970 mein, uttari Ireland mein sharton ke virodh mein aansoo gas ka ek kanastar house of kaumans ke chamber mein feink diya gaya tha. 1978 mein, kaaryakarta yaana mintof aur doosare asantushto ne ghode ke khaad ka bag feink diya,[113] aur June 1996 mein pradarshanakaariyon ne parche feinke.[114] is tarah ke hamlon ke baare mein [256] chinta vyakt ki gayi aur ek sanbhavit raasaayanik ya jaivik hamle se bachane ke liye 'streinjars gailari' mein ek glaas screen ka nirmaan karne ka prastaav san 2004 mein paas kiya gaya.

naya avarodh 'streinjars gailari ke saamane vaale gailari ko naheen kavar karta hai jo ki raajadooton, laard ke sadasyon, saansadon ke mehamaanon aur anya ganamaanya vyakti ke liye aarakshit hai[115] aur May 2004 mein father 4 Justice ke pradarshanakaariyon ne isi bhaag se[116] pradhaanamantri mantri toni bleyar par choone ke bam se hamla kiya. iske liye unhonne aagantukon ki gailari mein pravesh paane ke liye lagne waali ek chairiti boli mein hissa liya tha.[117] iske baad se aagantukon ke liye deerghaaon mein pravesh ke niyam badal diye gaye aur ab jo log deerghaaon baithane ke ichhuk hote hain, unhein pehle ek sadasya se likhit paas likhit pramaan lena hota hai jismein yeh pramaanit karna hota hai ki vah us vyakti ko vyaktigat roop se jaante hain. usi varsh September mein, lomadi ke shikaar par pratibandh ke prastaav karne ka virodh kar rahe paanch pradarshanakaariyon ne chamber mein daud kar hauus of kaumans sabha ki kaaryavaahi ko baadhit kiya.[118]

yadyapi house of laurds aisi ghatnaaon se jyaadaatar bacha raha hai, lokin yeh 1988 mein iska nishaana ban gaya. vivaadaaspad khand 28, jo jo ki schoolon mein samalaingikta ko badhaava dene par pratibandh lagaane ke liye ek prastaav tha, par bahas ke dauraan teen samalaingik pradarshanakaariyon ne saarvajanik gailari se rassi dvaara chamber mein koodakar kaaryavaahi ko baadhit kiya.[114]

vestaminstar ke pailes ki chhat par kaaryakarta

virodh mahal ke andar tak hi seemit naheen raha. 20 March 2004 ki subah do greenapees sadasyon ne klauk tauvar par chadh kar Iraq yuddh ke khilaaf pradarshan kiya, isse haai profaail lakshya ke aaspaas suraksha ke baare mein savaal uthaaye gaye.[119] March 2007 mein, greenapees ke chaar anya sadasyon ne ek kren ke maadhyam se pailes ke chhat ke liye apne raasta banaaya, jise vestaminstar brij ki marammat ke liye istemaal kiya gaya tha. ek baar fir unhonne ek 15 meter (50 fut) british sarkaar ke 15 meter (50 fut)trideint parmaanu hathiyaar kaaryakram ko adyatan ki yojana ke virodh ka jhanda faharaaya.[120] February 2008 mein, plane stoopid samooh se paanch prachaarak heethro havaai adde ke vistaar ke khilaaf pradarshan ke liye imaarat ki chhat par chadh gaye. saansadon aur suraksha visheshagyon yeh chinta thi ki pradarshanakaari kade suraksha upaayon ke baavajood chhat par kaise chadh gaye aur police ka maanana tha unhein andar se madad mili thi.[121] October 2009 mein, 45 greenapees kaaryakarta paryaavaran ke upaayon ke liye vestaminstar hall ki chhat par chadh gaye. lagbhag paanch ghante ke baad, unamein se bees neeche aaye, jabki baaki ne chhat par raat bitaai.[122][123] [note 4]

niyam aur paramparaaen

khaana, peena aur dhoomrapaan

pailes ne sadiyon se kai niyam aur paranparaaon chali aa raheen hain. house of kaumans ke kaksh mein 17 veen sadi ke baad se dhoomrapaan ki anumati naheen hai.[126] iske parinaamasvaroop [277], sadasya iske badle sunghani le sakte hain aur dvaarapaal is uddeshya se apne paas ek sunghani baksa rakhate hain. media ki lagaataar afavaaho ke baavajood, 2005 ke baad se mahal ke andar kaheen bhi dhoomrapaan sambhav naheen hua hai[127] sadasya kaksh mein kha ya pi naheen sakte hain; is niyam ke apavaad hai raajakosh ke chaansalar, jo sharaab ka ek peya le sakte hain jab ve[128] bajat ka bayaan de rahe hon.[129]

veshabhoosha

ek nae sansad sadasya ka parichay, 1858.house of kaumans mein viyring haits ka hamesha ek hi tareeke se ilaaj naheen kiya gaya.

topi naheen pahani jaana chaahiye (haalaanki aisa pehle tha, jab aadesh ka ek mudda uthaaya ja raha tha),[130] aur sadasya sainya sajaavat ya prateek chinh naheen pahan sakta hai. sadasyon ko apni jeb mein apne apne haath rakhane ki anumati naheen hain. Andrew robathaan ko 19 December 1994 ko aisa karne ke liye saansadon ke virodh ka saamana karna pada tha.[131] mahal mein talavaar naheen pahan sakte hain aur pratyek saansad ke klaukaroom mein hathiyaar rakhane ke liye ribn ka loop hota hai

anya paramparaaen

andhon ke liye guide kutton;[126] snifr kutton, police ghodon[132] aur shaahi astabal se ghodon ko chhodkar koi jaanavar vestaminstar pailes mein naheen ja sakta hain.

house of kaumans mein bahas ke dauraan bhaashan naheen padha ja sakta hai, haalaanki nots bheje ja sakte hain. isi prakaar, samaachaar patra padhne ki anumati bhi naheen hai. drushya eds ko kaksh mein hatotsaahit kiya jaata hai.[133] kaumans mein vaahavaahi karne ki anumati bhi saamaanya roop se naheen hai. is ke liye kuchh ullekhaneeya apavaad hain, jab raubin cook ne 2003 mein apne isteefe bhaashan diya tha,[134] jab pradhaanamantri toni bleyar, pradhaanamantri ke prashn par aakhiri baar dikhaai diye the[135] aur jab adhyaksh Michael Martin ne apna pad chhodte hue 17 June 2009 ko bhaashan diya tha.[136]

sanskruti aur paryatan

klaaude monet ka haausej of parliament series

the house of parliament, sanaset (1903), raashtreeya kala deergha, Washington di.si.
London mein sansad bhavan. sooraj kohare ke beech mein se chamak raha hai (1904), mussi di-orse, peris
1899 se 1901 ke dauraan apni 3 London yaatraaon ke dauraan prabhaavavaadi chitrakaar, klaaude monet ne kainvaas par chitron ki ek shrankhala par kaam kiya jismein unhonne sansad ke sadanon ko vibhinn tarah ke prakaash jaise sooryodaya, sooryaast aur mausam ki paristhitiyon mein chitrit kiya. ismein aksar hi shahar mein faila dhundhala kohara dikhta tha jo ki Victoria kaal ke pradooshan ki baanagi tha. ye chitr bhi vahi najriya darshaate hain—seint Thomas aspataal ki baalakanee—aakaalaantar mein monet ke France sthit kaaryaalaya mein aage ke bahut se kaam poore hue.[137]

vestaminstar pailes ka baahari hissa, khaaskar klauk tauvar, duniya bhar mein jaana jaata hai aur London mein sabse jyaada dekha jaanevaala paryatakon ke aakarshan ka kendra hai. sanyukt raashtra shaikshik, vaigyaanik aur saanskrutik sangathan (yoonesko) ne pailes of vestaminstar ke saath saath, vestaminstar ebbe aur seint maargaret ko vishv viraasat sthal ke roop mein maanyata di hai. yeh gred 1 mein soocheebaddh imaarat bhi hai.

yadyapi mahal ke andar jaane ke liye koi anaupachaarik pahunch naheen hai, lekin vahaaain pravesh karne ke kai tareeke hain. Britain ke nivaasi house of kaumans ke gailari dekhne ke liye sthaaneeya saansad se ticket praapt kar sakte hain ya house of Lord ki gailari dekhne ke liye Lord se ticket le sakte hain. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki Britain ke nivaasi aur videshi darshakon donon pravesh ke liye kataar laga sakte hain, lekin kshamata seemit hai aur vahaaain pravesh ki koi guaranty naheen hai. koi bhi sadan "ajanabiyon" ko baahar kar sakta hain agar ve akele mein baithane ki ichha karta hai.[138] aam janta bhi kataar bana sakti hai agar ve kamaiti satr mein baithaana chaahate hain, jahaaain paravesh ni:shulk hai aur jagah aarakshit naheen ki ja sakti hai[139] ya ve anusandhaan prayojanon ke liye sansadeeya abhilekhaagaar dekh sakte hain. pehchaan ka saboot uttaraarddh maamale mein aavashyak hai lekin iske liye kisi saansad ko pehle se milaane ki jarurat naheen hai.[140]

pailes ke ni: shulk nirdeshit paryatan Britain ke nivaasiyon ke liye sansadeeya satr ke dauraan aayojit kiye jaate hain, jo apne saansad ya hauus of laard ke sadasyon ke maadhyam se aavedan kar sakte hai. yeh yaatra 75 minute ki hoti hai aur ismein raajakeeya kaksh, donon sadanon ke chembar aur vestaminstar hall ke kaksh shaamil hain. pradatt paryatan (London blue billa paryatak gaaidon ke netrutv mein[krupaya uddharan jodein]) garmi ke avakaash ke dauraan Britain aur videshi paryatakon donon ke liye upalabdh hain.[141] Britain ke nivaasi klauk tauvar dekhne ke liye bhi apne sansad ke sthaaneeya sadasya ke maadhyam se aavedan kar sakte hain; videshi paryatakon aur chhote bachche ki anumati naheen hai.[142]

vaastu itihaasakaar dain krukasheink ne apne 2006 ke BBC ke TV vruttachitr shrrunkhala, Britain ki sarvashreshth bilding ke liye apne paanch vikalpon mein se ek mahal ke bhi chuna.[143] jila, circle aur jubali laains mein niktatam London bhoomigat station vestaminstar hai.

tippaniyaan

  1. apne pravaah ke is bindu par, thems nadi dakshin se uttar ki or bahti hai na ki pashchim se poorv ki or, isliye yeh mahal nadi ke pashchimi ghaat par sthit hai.
  2. Depicted (clockwise) are the virtues of Courtesy, Religion, Generosity, Hospitality and Mercy. The two missing frescoes were meant to depict Fidelity and Courage.[57] Queen Victoria's portrait can be seen in the Parliamentary website.[58]
  3. Ireland was part of the United Kingdom in its entirety from 1801 until the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. Decorative references to Ireland exist throughout the Palace of Westminster and include symbols like the harp and the shamrock.
  4. BBC ke anusaar chhat par raat bitaane vaale pradarshanakaariyon ki sankhya 30 thi.[124] baad mein 55 logon ko surakshit imaarat mein bina adhikaar pravesh karne ke jurm mein giraftaar kiya gaya.[125]

sandarbh

paadalekh
  1. 1884 mein the bildar mein the bards-I vyoo prakaashit hua, www.parliament.uk
  2. a aa "A Brief Chronology of the House of Commons" (PDF). House of Commons Information Office. April 2009. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-information-office/g03.pdf. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
  3. Fraser, Antonia (1992). The Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Alfred A Knopf. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0394585380.
  4. jons (1983), pi. 77; raaiding end raaiding (2000), pi. 100; port (1976), pi. 20.
  5. raaiding end raaiding (2000), peepi. 108, 111.
  6. jons (1983), peepi. 77-78; port (1976), pi. 20.
  7. Watkin, David (Summer 1998). "An Eloquent Sermon in Stone". City Journal 8 (3). ISSN 1060-8540. http://www.city-journal.org/html/8_3_urbanities-an_eloquent.html. abhigman tithi: 25 October 2010.
  8. Riding, Christine (7 fravari 2005). "Westminster: A New Palace for a New Age". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/church_state/westminster_later/westminster_new_palace_02.shtml. abhigman tithi: 27 December 2009.
  9. a aa "Architecture of the Palace: Bomb damage". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/architecture/palacestructure/bomb-damage/. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
  10. "Richard I statue: Second World War damage". UK Parliament. http://www.flickr.com/photos/uk_parliament/3768088819/in/set-72157621747072869/. abhigman tithi: 27 December 2009.
  11. a aa fail aur maikeinji (1994), pi. 27.
  12. field (2002), pi. 259.
  13. UK Parliament. "Bombed House of Commons 1941". Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/uk_parliament/2713947202/. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
  14. a aa "Architecture of the Palace: Churchill and the Commons Chamber". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/architecture/palacestructure/churchill/. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2010.
  15. "The Norman Shaw Buildings" (PDF). House of Commons Information Office. April 2007. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-information-office/g13.pdf. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
  16. Devey, Peter (February 2001). "Commons Sense". The Architectural Review. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. http://archive.is/2j0k. abhigman tithi: 3 December 2009.
  17. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh "The Palace of Westminster" (PDF). House of Commons Information Office. May 2009. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-information-office/g11.pdf. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
  18. a aa "Restoration of the Palace of Westminster: 1981–94" (PDF). House of Commons Information Office. August 2003. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-information-office/g12.pdf. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
  19. kvinault (1991), pi. 81; jons (1983), pi. 113.
  20. port (1976), peepi. 76, 109; raaiding end raaiding (2000), pi. 116.
  21. kvinault (1991), pi. 81.
  22. fail aur maikeinji (1994), pi. 30.
  23. fail aur maikeinji (1994), pi. 44.
  24. saaaincha:Cite Hansard
  25. Williams, Kevin; Walpole, Jennifer (3 June 2008). "The Union Flag and Flags of the United Kingdom" (PDF). House of Commons Library. Archived from the original on 10 fravari 2009. http://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20090210085359/http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/briefings/snpc-04474.pdf. abhigman tithi: 26 April 2010.
  26. "Building the Great Clock". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/big-ben/building-clock-tower/building-great-clock/. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2010.
  27. maikadaunald (2004), peepi. xiii-xiv.
  28. "Great Clock facts". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/big-ben/facts-figures/great-clock-facts/. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2010.
  29. fail aur maikeinji (1994), peepi. 24, 26.
  30. "The Great Bell – Big Ben". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/big-ben/building-clock-tower/great-bell/. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2010.
  31. maikadaunald (2004), peepi. xvi-XVII, 50.
  32. "The Great Bell and the quarter bells". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/big-ben/facts-figures/great-bell/. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2010.
  33. maikadaunald (2004), pi. 174.
  34. jons (1983), peepi. 112-113.
  35. "Clock Tower virtual tour". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/visiting/online-tours/virtualtours/bigben-tour/. abhigman tithi: 15 May 2010.
  36. port (1976), pi. 22; jons (1983), pi. 119.
  37. jons (1983), peepi. 108-109, field (2002), pi. 189.
  38. a aa raaiding end raaiding (2000), pi. 120.
  39. port (1976), pi. 103.
  40. Collins, Peter (1965). Changing Ideals in Modern Architecture 1750–1950. pa॰ 238. port mein uddhrut (1976), pi. 206.
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  42. Wilson (2005), pi. 32.
  43. raaiding end raaiding (2000), pi. 268.
  44. a aa guide too di pailes of vestaminstar, pi. 28.
  45. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh "Lords Route virtual tour". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/visiting/online-tours/virtualtours/lords-route/. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
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  47. UK Parliament (2 April 2009). "President of Mexico and the Mexican First Lady arrive at Parliament". Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/uk_parliament/3406096131/. abhigman tithi: 29 January 2010.
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  52. fail aur maikeinji (1994), pi. 31.
  53. raaiding end raaiding (2000), pi. 190.
  54. a aa i Wilson (2005), peepi. 8-9.
  55. "Architecture of the Palace: The Robing Room". UK Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/architecture/palace-s-interiors/robing-room/. abhigman tithi: 5 August 2010.
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