pahlav

pahlav ek praacheen jaati. praay: praacheen paarasi ya Irani. manusmruti, raamaayan, mahaabhaarat aadi praacheen pustakon mein jahaaain-jahaaain khas, yavan, shak, kaanboj, vaahleek, paarad aadi Bhaarat ke pashchim mein basanevaali jaatiyon ka ullekh hai vahaaain-vahaaain pahlavon ka bhi naam aaya hai.

uparyukt tatha anya sanskrut granthon mein pahlav shabd saamaanya reeti se paaras nivaasiyon ya iraaniyon ke liye vyavahrut hua hai musalmaan aitihaasikon ne bhi isko praacheen paaraseekon ka naam maana hai. praacheen kaal mein faaras ke saradaaron ka 'pahru- lavaan' kahalaana bhi is baat ka samarthak hai ki pahlav paaraseekon ka hi naam hai. shaashaneeya samraaton ke samay mein paaras ki pradhaan bhaasha aur lipi ka naam pahlavi pad chuka tha. tathaapi kuchh yuropeeya itihaasavid 'pahlav' saare paaras nivaasiyon ki naheen keval paarthiya nivaasiyon paaradon— ki apabhrash sanjnyaa maanate hain.

paaras ke kuchh pahaadi sthaano mein praapt shilaalekhon mein 'paarthav' naam ki ek jaati ka ullekh hai. dau॰ haag aadi ka kehna hai ki yeh 'paarthav' paarthiyans (paaradon) ka hi naam ho sakta hai aur 'pahlav' isi paarthav ka vaisa hi faalaki apabhransh hai jaisa avesta ke midhr (vai0 mitr) ka mihir. apne mat ki pushti mein ye log do pramaan aur bhi dete hain. ek yeh ki aramani bhaasha ke granthon mein likha hai ki arasak (paarad) raajaaon ki raaj-upaadhi 'pahlav' thi. doosra yeh ki paarthiyaavaasiyon ko apni shoor veerata aur yuddhapriyta ka badaa ghamand tha aur faarasi ke 'pahalavaan' aur aramani ke 'pahalaveeya' shabdon ka arth bhi shooraveer aur yuddhapriya hai. rahi yeh baat ki paarasavaalon ne apne aapke liye yeh sanjnyaa kyon sveekaar ki aur aaspaas vaalon ne unka isi naam se kyon ullekh kiya. iska uttar uparyukt aitihaasik yeh dete hain ki paarthiyaavaalon ne paaainch sau varsh tak paaras mein raajya kiya aur romanon aadi se yuddh karke unhein haraaya. aisi dasha mein 'pahlav' shabd ka paaras se itna ghanishth sambandh ho jaana koi aashcharya ki baat naheen hai.

sanskrut pustakon mein sabhi sthalon par 'paarad' auk 'pahlav' ko alag alag do jaatiyaaain maankar unka ullekh kiya gaya hai. harivansh puraan mein mahaaraaj sagar ke dvaara donon ki veshabhoosha alag alag nishchit kiye jaane ka varnan hai. pahlav unki aajnyaa se 'shmashrudhaari' hue aur paarad 'muktakesh' rahane lage. manusmruti ke anusaar 'pahlav' bhi paarad, shak aadi ke samaan aadim kshatriya the aur braahmanon ke adarshan ke kaaran unheen ki tarah sanskaarabhrasht ho shoodr ho gaye. harivansh puraan ke anusaar mahaaraaj sagar na inhein balaat kshatriydharm se patit kar mlechh banaaya. iski katha yon hai ki haihayavanshi kshatriyon ne sagar ke pita baahu ka raajya chheen liya tha. paarad, pahlav, yavan, kaanboj aadi kshatriyon ne haihayavanshiyon ki is kaam mein sahaayata ki thi. sagar ne samarth hone parah haihayavanshiyon ko haraakar pita ka raajya vaapas liya. unke sahaayak hone ke kaaran 'pahlav' aadi bhi unke kopabhaajan hue. ye log raaja sagar ke bhaya se bhaagakar unke guru vashishth ki sharan gaye. vashishth ne inhein abhayadaan diya. guru ka bachan rakhane ke liye sagar ne inke praan to chhod diye par dharm le liya, inhein kshaatradharm se bahishkrut karke mlechhatv ko praapt kara diya. vaalmeekeeya raamaayan ke anusaar 'pahlavon' ki utpatti vashishth ki gau shabala ke hunbhaarav (rainbhaane) se hui hai. vishvaamitr ke dvaara hari jaane par usane vashishth ki aajnyaa se ladne ke liye jin anek kshatriya jaatiyon ko apne shabd se utpann kiya 'pahlav' unamein pehle the.

inhein bhi dekhein