paheli

kisi vyakti ki buddhi ya samajh ki pareeksha lene vaale ek prakaar ke prashn, vaakya athva varnan ko paheli (Puzzle) kehte hain jismein kisi vastu ka lakshan ya gun ghuma firaakar bhraamak roop mein prastut kiya gaya ho aur use boojhane athva us vishesh vastu ka na bataane ka prastaav kiya gaya ho. ise 'bujhauval' bhi kaha jaata hai. paheli vyakti ke chaturata ko chunauti dene vaale prashn hote hai. jis tarah se ganit ke mahatva ko nakaara naheen ja sakta, usi tarah se paheliyon ko bhi najraandaaj naheen kiya ja sakta. paheliyaan aadi kaal se vyaktitv ka hissa raheen hain aur raheingi. ve na keval manoranjan karti hain par dimaag ko chust evam taro-taaja bhi rakhati hain.

parichay evam itihaas

paheliyon ki rachana mein praaya: aisa paaya jaata hai ki jis vishay ki paheli banaani hoti hai uske roop, gun evam kaarya ka is prakaar varnan kiya jaata hai jo doosari vastu ya vishay ka varnan jaan pade aur bahut soch vichaar ke baad us vaastavik vastu par ghataaya ja sake. ise bahudha kavitvapoorn shaili mein likha jaata hai taaki sunane mein madhur lage. isi parampara hamaare desh mein praacheen kaal se prachalit hai. rigved ke katipya mantron ka is drushti se ullekh kiya ja sakta hai. yatha ek mantra

'chatvaari shranga trayo asya paada, dve sheershe sapt hastaasoऽsya.
tridha baddho vrushabho rauraveeti, mahaadevo martya ya vivesh:..'

arthaat jiske chaar seeng hain, teen pair hain, do sir hain, saat haath hain, jo teen jagahon se baindha hua hai, vah manushyon mein pravisht hua vrushabh yagya hai, shabd karta hua mahaadev hai. iska goodhaarth yeh hai ki yeh vrushabh jiske chaar seeng chaaron ved hai, praat:kaal, madhyaanh aur saanyakaal teen pair hain, udaya aur ast do shir hain, saat prakaar ke chhand saat haath hain. yeh mantra braahman aur kalparoopi teen bandhanon se baindha hua manushya mein pravisht hai. mahaabhaashyakaar patanjali ne ise shabd tatha anya ne soorya bhi bataaya hai. rigved mein prayukt 'balodayon' se yeh bataaya jaata hai ki paheliyaaain janta ki vikaasonmukh avastha ke saath hi viksit hui theen.

mahaabhaarat ke anvarat lekhan ke samay vedavyaas ji beech beech mein kuchh sochane ke liye koot vaakyon ka uchchaaran kiya karte hain. unhein bina bhali bhaaainti samajhe ganesh ji ko bhi lipibddh karne ki aajnyaa na thi. is tarah ek prakaar se kinvadanti ke anusaar paheliyon ki aad kein hi donon ko yathaasamaya yathaasaadhya vishraam va avakaash sochane samajhne ke nimitt milta jaata tha. ataev bruhad mahaabhaarat mein paheliyon ke prateek vaakyaansh anek sthalon par jijnyaaasuon ko dikhaai dete hain.

sanskrut mein paheli ko 'prahelika' ya 'praheli' kehte hain- 'prahilti abhipraayan soochayateeti prahil abhipraaya soochane kvundaapi at-itvan.' iske paryaaya pravalhika, pravahli, praheli, prahleeka, prashnadooti, tatha pravahli hai. yeh chitr jaati ka shabdaalankaar hai jo chyutaakshar, dattaakshar tatha chyut dattaakshar bhedavaali anekaarth dhaatuon se yukt yamakaranjit ukti hain. prahelika ka svaroop 'naanaadhaatv ganbheera yamak vyapadeshini' hai. bhaamah ne iska khandan kiya hai aur kaha hai ki yeh shaastr ke samaan vyaakhyaagamya hai (kaavyaalankaar 2/20). inke anusaar iske aadi vyakhyaata raamasharmaachyut hain (kaavyaalankaar 2.19). 'saahiydarpan' ke praneta vishvanaath ne ise uktivaichitrya maana hai, alankaar naheen, kyonki isse alankaar ke mukhya kaarya ras ki paripushti naheen hoti pratyut ismein vighn padta hai (saahityadarpan 10.17). kintu vishvanaath ne prahelika ke vaichitrya ko sveekaar karte hue uske chyataakshara, dattaakshara tatha chyutaadattaakshara teen bhedon ki charcha ki hai. aachaarya dandi ne saahityadarpanakaar ke is mat ko sveekaar karte hue prahelika ko kreedaagoshthi tatha anya purushon ne vyaamohan ke liye upayogi bataaya hai. dandi va prahelika ke 16 bhedon ka ullekh kiya hai yatha- samaayata, vanchita, vyutkraanta, pramudita, purusha, sankhyaata, prakalpita, naamaantirita, nibhruta, sanmoodha, parihaarika, ekachhanna, ubhayachhanna, samaan shabdaasanmrudha, samaanaroopa tatha sankeernaasarasvateekanthaabharan (kaavya. 3.106). jain saahitya mein bhi paheliyon ki yeh parampara kaayam rahi. ismein heeyaali jaisi rachanaaeain paheliyon ki anuroopata ki soochak hain. inke 12veen tatha 13veen shataabdi mein maujood hon ke pramaan mile hain. 14veen se lekar 19veen shataabdi tak jain kaviyon dvaara likhi gayi paryaapt heeyaaliyaaain upalabdh hain. Rajasthan ki heeyaaliyaaain aadiyaaain kahalaati hain. sanskrut ki ek paheli ka namoona is prakaar hai-

'shyaamaamukhi na maarjaari dvijihva na sarpini.
panchabharta na paanchaali yo jaanaati s pandit:..'

arthaat kaale mukhavaali hote hue billi naheen, do jeebhavaali hote hue sarpini naheen tatha paaainch pativaali hote hue draupadi naheen hai. us vastu ko jo jaanta hai vahi pandit hai. (uttar-kalam). kalam kaale mukh ki hi bahudha hoti hai, jeebh beech mein vibhaajit rahati hai aur paaainch uaingaliyon se pakadkar usase likhte hain.

angreji tatha anya Europeeya bhaashaaon mein bhi paheliyon ki parampara praacheen kaal se chali aa rahi hai. 'baaibil' ki paheliyaaain bahudha srushti ke rahasyon ke udghaatan ki or sanket karne ke hetu prasiddh hain. angreji mein paheli ko 'ridil' athva 'enigma' kehte hain jiski rachana vishesh roop se chhandon mein ki gayi hai. inmein alankaaron ke maadhyam se vaastavik ka arth chhipaaya gaya rahata hai. 'sfiniks' ki paheliyon ka is sabandh mein ullekh kiya ja sakta hai. usaki ek paheli ka udaaharan is prakaar hai- 'vah kaun si vastu hai jo praat: chaar pairon se, do pahar do pairon se tatha sandhya samay teen pairon se tahalati hain?' is paheli mein sfiniks ne 'din' ko aalankaarik bhaasha mein 'manushya jeevan' se sambodhit kiya hai. paheliyaaain banaana yoonaaniyon ka priya vishay tha aur iski pratiyogita mein puraskaar bhi diye jaate the. 11veen shataabdi ke selas, vaasils megaalaamitis tatha aunikaalaamas naamak prasiddh yoonaani kaviyon ne keval paheliyaaain hi likhi theen. Bhaarat ke samaan yoonaan mein bhi pauraanik kathaaeain prachalit hain jinmein paheliyaaain boojhane par hi ladkiyon ka safal vyaktiyon ke varan ke liye prastut kiya jaata tha. theeban sfeeniks pauraanik katha ke anusaar raani jokaasta se vivaah karne ke liye paheli pratiyogita aayojit ki gayi thi. yoonaani bhaasha mein aisi kathaaeain bhi milti hain jinmein paheli na bujhanevaale ko maut ke ghaat utaara jaata tha. madhyakaal ke aam laitin kaviyon ne chhandabaddh paheliyaaain banaai theen. paheli taiyaar karna praacheen hibroo kavita ki bhi ek visheshata thi. madhyakaal ke anek yahoodi kaviyon ne bhi chhandabaddh paheliyaaain likhi theen. 13veen shataabdi ke yahoodi kavi al hareeji ne anak paheliyaaain likhi hain. isne cheeni ko samajhaane ke liye 46 panktiyon ki ek paheli taiyaar ki hai. inglaid mein svift ne syaahi, kalam, pankhe jaise vishyon par kai paheliyaaain rachi hain. baad ko shiler tatha angreji ke paravarti kaviyon ne paheliyon ke nirmaan mein kalaatmak evam saahityik saundarya laakar inhein manohar roop pradaan kiya. France mein 17veen shataabdi mein paheli banaana saahityikon ka priya vishay ban gaya tha.

Africa tatha Asia ke anya deshon mein bhi paheliyaaain ka taiyaar karne ka prayatn praacheen kaal se chala aa raha hai. ek yoonaani pauraanik katha ke anusaar mistr ke raaja aimesis tatha ithopiya ke raaja mein paheli pratiyogita ka ullekh hai. paheli ko faarasi mein 'cheestaan' kehte hain aur puraatan samay mein Iran mein iska prachalan tha. cheeni bhaasha mein paheli ke do roop hain, yatha- 'mein-you' (vastuon ki paheli) aur 'joo-me' (shabdon ki paheli).

hindi mein bhi paheliyon ka vyaapak prachalan raha hai. is sambandh mein ameer khusaro ki paheliyon ka vishesh roop se ullekh kiya ja sata hai. khusaron ki paheliyaaain do prakaar ki hain. kuchh paheliyaaain aisi hain jinmein unki varnit vastu ko chhipaakar rakha gaya hai jo tatkaal spasht naheen haata. kuchh aisi hain jinki boojh-vastu unamein naheen di gayi hoti. boojh tatha bin boojh paheli ka udaaharan kramash: is prakaar hai-

baala tha jab sabko bhaaya, badha hua kuchh kaam na aaya.
khusaro kah veeya usaka naaainv arth karo nahin chhodo gaaainv..

(uttar- veeya)

ek thaal moti se bhara, sabke sir par aundha dhara.
chaaron or vah thaali fire, moti usase ek na gire..

(uttar- aakaash, moti se sanket taaron ki or hai)

mukari bhi ek pakaar ki paheli (apanhuti) hai par usamein usaka boojh prashnottar ke roop mein diya gaya rahata hai yatha- 'ai sakhi saajan na sakhi....' is prakaar ka ek baar ka uttar dene ke kaaran is tarah ki apanhuti ka naam kah-mukari pad gaya.

hindi paheliyon ke sambandh mein ab tak jo bhi khoj kaarya hue hain unamein paheliyon ka kai prakaar se vargeekaran kiya gaya hai. in vargeekaranon se spasht hai ki hindi mein itne prakaar ki paheliyon ka prachalan hai. vishyon ke anusaar paheliyon ko saat pramukh vargon mein baaainta ja sakta hai, yatha: kheti-sambandhi (kuaaain, makke ka bhutta), bhojan sambandhi (tarabooj, laal mirch), ghareloo vastu sambandhi (deeya, hukka, sui, khaat), praani sambandhi (kharagosh, ooaint,) ang, pratyang sabandhi (ustara, bandook). hindi ki anya kshetreeya boliyon yatha Bhojpuri, avadhi, bundelakhandi, maithili aadi mein bhi paryaapt maatra mein paheliyaaain pai jaati hain.

naveen yug mein ganit ko lokapriya banaane mein jitna kaam Martin gaardanarane kiya shaayad utana kisi aur ne nahi kiya. inhone saaintifik American mein bahut saare lekh paheliyon ke baare mein likhe. yeh bahut jnyaaanavardhak aur manoranjak the. Martin gaardanar ne aage chal kar kai pustakein bhi likheen jismein kai paheliyon ke baare mein theen. Martin gaardanar ki pustakon ke alaava paheliyon ki anya achhi pustakein nimn hain,

  1. Vicious circle and infinity: an anthology of paradoxes by Patrick Hughes & George Brecht;
  2. The lady orthe tiger? and other logical puzzles by Raymond Smullyan;
  3. What is the name of the book? The riddle of Dracula and other logical puzzles by Raymond Smullyan;
  4. The Moscow Puzzles by Boris A. Kordemsky;
  5. Which way did the bicycle go? ... and other intriguing mathmatical mystries by Joseph De Konhauser, Dan Velleman, Stan Wagon; aur hindi mein
  6. ganit ki paheliyaan lekhak gunaakar mule.

yeh sab bahut achhi hain. isame se pehli chaar penguin ne tatha paanchaveen Mathematical Association of America Dolciani Mathematical Exposition no. 18 ne chhaapi hai. isame se paanchaveen pustak ka star ooncha hai, thodi ganit jyaada hai.

srotr