padmaavat

padmaavat hindi saahitya ke antargat soofi parampara ka prasiddh mahaakaavya hai. iske rachanaakaar malik mohammad jaayasi hain. doha aur chaupaai chhand mein likhe gaye is mahaakaavya ki bhaasha avadhi hai.

padmaavat yeh rachana malik muhammad jaayasi ki hai. yeh hindi ki avadhi boli mein hai aur chaupaai dohon mein likhi gayi hai. chaupaai ki pratyek saat ardhaaliyon ke baad doha aata hai aur is prakaar aae hue dohon ki sankhya 653 hai.

iski rachana san 947 hijri. (san. 1597) mein hui thi. iski kuchh pratiyon mein rachanaatithi 927 hi. milti hai, kintu vah asambhav hai. anya kaaranon ke atirikt is asanbhaavana ka sabse bada kaaran yeh hai ki malik saahab ka janm hi 900 ya 906 hijri mein hua tha. granth ke praarambh mein shaahevakt ke roop mein sherashaah ki prashansa hai, yeh tathya bhi 947 hi. ko hi rachanaatithi pramaanit karta hai. 927 hi. mein sherashaah ka itihaas mein koi sthaan naheen tha.

parichay

jaayasi soofi sant the aur is rachana mein unhonne naayak ratanasen aur naayika padmini ki premakatha ko vistaarapoorvak kehte hue prem ki saadhana ka sandesh diya hai. ratanasen aitihaasik vyakti hai, vah chittaud ka raaja hai, padamaavati usaki vah raani hai jiske saundarya ki prashansa sunakar tatkaaleen sultaan alaauddeen use praapt karne ke liye chittaud par aakraman karta hai aur yadyapi yuddh mein vijay praapt karta hai tathaapi padamaavati ke jal marne ke kaaran use naheen praapt kar paata hai. isi aitihaasik tha ardh aitihaasik katha ke poorv ratanasen dvaara padamaavati ke praapt kiye jaane ki vyavastha jodi gayi hai, jiska aadhaar avadhi kshetr mein prachalit heeraaman sugge ki ek lokakatha hai. katha sankshep mein is prakaar hai :

katha

sinhal dweep (Sri Lanka) ka raaja gandharvasen tha, jiski kanya padamaavati thi, jo padmini thi. usane ek sugga paal rakha tha, jiska naam heeraaman tha. ek din padamaavati ki anupasthiti mein billi ke aakraman se bachakar vah sugga bhaag nikla aur ek bahiliye ke dvaara fainsa liya gaya. us baheliye se use ek braahman ne mol le liya, jisne chittaud aakar use vahaaain ke raaja ratanasinh rajput ke haath bech diya. isi sugge se raaja ne padmini (padamaavati) ke adbhut saundarya ka varnan suna, to use praapt karan ke liye yogi bankar nikal pada.

anek vanon aur samudron ko paar karke vah sinhal pahuaincha. uske saath mein vah sugga bhi tha. sugge ke dvaara usane padamaavati ke paas apna premasandesh bheja. padamaavati jab usase milne ke liye ek devaalaya mein I, usako dekhkar vah moorhit ho gaya aur padamaavati usako achet chhodkar chali gayi. chet mein aane par ratanasen bahut du:khi hua. jaate samay padamaavati ne uske hrudaya par chandan se yeh likh diya tha ki use vah tab pa sakega jab vah saat aakaashon (jaise ooainche) sinhalagadh par chadhkar aaega. at: usane sugge ke bataae hue gupt maarg se sinhalagadh ke bheetar pravesh kiya. raaja ko jab yeh soochana mili to usane ratanasen ko shooli dene ka aadesh diya kintu jab heeraaman se ratanasinh rajput ke baare mein use yathaarth tathya gyaat hua, usane padamaavati ka vivaah uske saath kar diya.

ratanasinh rajput pehle se bhi vivaahit tha aur usaki us vivaahita raani ka naam naagamati tha. ratanasen ke virh mein usane baarah maheene kasht jhel kar kisi prakaar ek pakshi ke dvaara apni virhagaatha ratanasinh rajput ke paas bhijvaai aur is virhagaatha se dravit hokar ratanasinh padamaavati ko lekar chittaud laut aaya.

yahaaain, usaki sabha mein raaghav naam ka ek pandit tha, jo asatya bhaashan ke kaaran ratanasinh dvaara nishkaasit hokar tatkaaleen sultaan alaauddeen ki seva mein ja pahuaincha aur jisne usase padamaavati ke saundarya ki badi prashansa ki. alaauddeen padamaavati ke adbhut saundarya ka varnan sunakar usako praapt karne ke liye laalaayit ho utha aur usane isi uddeshya se chittaud par aakraman kar diya. deergh kaal tak usane chittaud par ghera daal rakha, kintu koi safalta hoti use na dikhaai padi, isaliye usane dhokhe se ratanasinh rajput ko bandi karne ka upaaya kiya. usane uske paas sandhi ka sandesh bheja, jise ratan Singh rajput ne sveekaar kar alaauddeen ko vida karne ke liye gadh ke baahar nikla, alaauddeen ne use bandi kar Delhi ki or prasthaan kar diya.

chittaud mein padamaavati atyant du:khi hui aur apne pati ko mukt karaane ke liye vah apne saamanton gora tatha baadal ke ghar gayi. gora baadal ne ratanasih rajput ko mukt karaane ka beeda liya. unhonne solah sau doliyaaain sajaain jinke bheetar rajput sainikon ko rakha aur Delhi ki or chal pade. vahaaain pahuainchakar unhonne yeh kahalaaya ki padmaavati apni cheriyon ke saath sultaan ki seva mein I hai aur antim baar apne pati ratanasen se milne ke liya aajnyaa chaahati hai. sultaan ne aajnyaa de di. doliyon mein baithe hue raajapooton ne ratanasinh rajput ko bediyon se mukt kiya aur ve use lekar nikal bhaage. sultaani sena ne unka peechha kiya, kintu ratan Singh rajput surakshit roop mein chittaud pahuainch hi gaya.

jis samay vah Delhi mein bandi tha, kunbhalaner ke raaja devapaal ne padamaavati ke paas ek doot bhejkar usase premaprastaav kiya tha. ratan Singh rajput se milne par jab padamaavati ne use yeh ghatna sunaai, vah chittaud se nikal pada aur kunbhalaner ja pahuaincha. vahaaain usane devapaal ko dvandv yuddh ke liye lalkaara. us yuddh mein vah devapaal ki sel se buri tarah aahat hua aur yadyapi vah usako maarkar chittaud lauta kintu devapaal ki sel ke ghaav se ghar pahuainchate hi mrutyu ko praapt hua. padamaavati aur naagamati ne uske shav ke saath chitaarohan kiya. alaauddeen bhi ratanasinh rajput ka peechha karta hua chittaud pahuaincha, kintu use padamaavati na milkar usaki chita ki raakh hi mili.

is katha mein jaayasi ne itihaas aur kalpana, laukik aur alaukik ka aisa sundar sammishran kiya hai ki hindi saahitya mein doosari katha in gunon mein "padamaavat" ki ooainchaai tak naheen pahuainch saki hai. praaya: yeh vivaad raha hai ki ismein kavi ne kisi roopak ko bhi nibhaane ka yatn kiya hai. rachana ke kuchh sanskaranon mein ek chhand bhi aata hai, jismein sampoorn katha ko ek aadhyaatmik roopak bataaya gaya hai aur kaha gaya hai ki chittaud maanav ka shareer hai, raaja usaka man hai, sinhal usaka hrudaya hai, padamini usaki buddhi hai, sugga usaka guru hai, naagamati usaka laukik jeevan hai, raaghav shaitaan hai aur alaauddeen maaya hai; is prakaar katha ka arth samajhna chaahiye. kintu yeh chhand rachana ki kuchh hi pratiyon mein milta hai aur ve pratiyaaain bhi aisi hi hain jo rachana ki paathaparanpara mein bahut neeche aati hai. iske atirikt yeh kunji rachana bhar mein har jagah kaam bhi naheen deti hai : udaaharanaarth guru-chela-sambandh sugge aur ratanasen mein hi naheen hai, vah rachana ke bhinn bhinn prasangon mein ratanasen-padamaavati, padamaavati-ratanasen aur ratanasen tatha uske saath ke un kumaaron ke beech bhi kaha gaya hai jo uske saath sinhal jaate hain. vastut: isi se naheen, is prakaar ki kisi kunji ke dvaara bhi kathinaai hal naheen hoti hai aur usaka kaaran yahi hai ki kisi roopak ke nirvaah ka poori rachana mein yatn kiya hi naheen gaya hai. jaayasi ka abheesht keval prem ka niroopan karna gyaat hota hai. ve sthool roop mein prem ke do chitr prastut-karte hain : ek to vah jo aadhyaatmik saadhan ke roop mein aata hai, jiske liye praanon ka utsarg bhi hainsate hainsate kiya ja sakta hai; ratanasen aur padamaavati ka prem isi prakaar ka hai : ratanasen padamaavati ko paane ke liye sinhalagadh mein pravesh karta hai aur shooli par chadhne ke liye hainsate hainsate aage badhta hai; padamaavati ratanasen ke shav ke saath hainsate hainsate chitaarohan karti hai aur alaauddeen jaise mahaan sultaan ki preyasi banane ka lobh bhi asveekaar kar deti hai. doosra prem vah hai jo alaauddeen padamaavati se karta hai. doosare ki vivaahitaapatni ko vah apne bhautik bal se praapt karna chaahata hai. kintu jaayasi pratham prakaar ke prem ki vijay aur doosare prakaar ke prem ki paraajaya dikhaate hain. doosra unki drushti mein heya aur keval vaasana hai; prem pehla hi hai. jaayasi is prem ko divya kehte hain.

sandarbh granth

  • aachaarya raamachandr shukl : jaayasi granthaavali; na.pr.s., Varanasi.
  • dau॰ vaasudevasharan Agrawal : padamaavat (sanjeevani vyaakhya).
  • lakshmeedhar : "padumaavati" ; lyoojaik aind company, li., London.