padavijnyaaan

bhaashaavijnyaaan mein roopim ki sanrachanaatmak ikaai ke aadhaar par shabd-roop (arthaat pad) ke adhyayan ko padavijnyaaan ya roopavijnyaaan (maurfoloji) kehte hain. doosare shabdon mein, 'shabd' ko 'pad' mein badalne ki prakriya ke adhyayan ko roopavijnyaaan kaha jaata hai.

roopavijnyaaan, bhaashaavijnyaaan ka ek pramukh ang hai. iske antargat pad ke vibhinn anshon - mool prakruti (baseform) tatha upasarg, pratyaya, vibhkti (affixation) - ka samyak vishleshan kiya jaata hai isaliye katipya bhaarateeya bhaashaashaastriyon ne padavijnyaaan ko "prakruti-pratyaya-vichaar" ka naam bhi diya hai.

bhaasha ke vyaakaran mein padavijnyaaan ka vishesh mahattv hai. vyaakaran/bhaashaavijnyaaani vaakyon ka varnan karta hai aur yeh varnan yathaasambhav poorn aur laghu ho, iske liye vah padon ki kalpana karta hai. at: use padakaar kaha gaya hai. padon se chalakar hi ham vaakyaarth aur vaakyochchaaran tak pahunchate hain. "kisi bhaasha ke padavibhaag ko theek-theek hrudayangam karne ka arth hai us bhaasha ke vyaakaran ka poora gyaan".

anukram

prakaar

roop ke adhyayan ki drushti ke aadhaar par roopavijnyaaan ke vibhinn prakaar ginaae gaye hain-

  • varnanaatmak roopavijnyaaan- ismein kisi bhaasha ya boli ke kisi ek samay ke roop ya pad ka adhyayan hota hai,
  • aitihaasik roopavijnyaaan - ismein bhaasha ya boli ke vibhinn kaalon ke roopon ka adhyayan kar usamein roop-rachana ka itihaas ya vikaas prastut kiya jaata hai.
  • tulanaatmak roopavijnyaaan - ismein do ya adhik bhaashaaon ke roopon ka tulanaatmak adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

[1]

parichay

bhaarateeya aachaaryon ne shabdon ki do sthitiyaaain - siddh evam asiddh di hain. inmein "asiddh" shabd ko keval "shabd" tatha "siddh" shabd ko "pad" ke roop mein parint kiya jaata hai. "siddhi" ke sunbat (naam) evam tiङaant (kriya) tatha "asiddh" ke kai bhed prabhed kiye gaye hain. yahaaain tak ki sanskrut ka pratyek shabd "dhaatuj" thaharaaya gaya hai. vyaakaran shaastr ka naamakaran evam unki paribhaasha isi prakriya ko dhyaan mein rakh kar ki gayi hai yatha, shabdaanushasan (maharshi patanjali evam aachaarya hemachandr) tatha "vyaakriyante vivichyante shabda: anen iti vyaakaranam." paashchaatya vidvaan dhaatvansh ko aavashyak naheen maanate, ve aadhaar roopaanshon (base-elements) ko naam evam aakhyaat donon ke liye alag alag sveekaar karte hain. vastut: bahut si bhaashaaon ke liye dhaatvansh aavashyak naheen. is prakaar roopaanshon ki paribhaasha paashchaatya vidvaan bloomafeeld aur naaida ke anusaar shabd "bhaasha ki arthapoorn laghutam ikaai" hai. vah aadhaar roopaanshon tatha sambandh roopaanshon mein vibhkt ho sakti hai. unhein kram se bhaasha ke arthatatv evam sanbandhatatv kah sakte hain.

arthatatv tatha sanbandhatatv ke paarasparik sambandhon ke mukhyat: teen roop upalabdh hote hain. ek sanyukt jahaaain donon abhinn roop ho jaate hain, doosra ishat sanyukt ya ardhasanyukt; ismein donon ko pruthak pruthak pahachaana ja sakta hai. teesare viyukt jahaaain donon alag alag rahakar arth ki abhivyakti karte hain. sanyukt roop ke antargat praacheen aarya, saami haami aadi bhaashaaon ki ganana ki gayi hai. ismein mool prakruti badal jaati hai. greek prathama ek. baaus, san. go:, greek pun.dvi. jugon, san., yugm sanskrut punrlig pan.ek. agne:, arabi kitl (vairi), katl (maara), kaatil (maaranevaala), kutil (vah maara gaya) aadi.

viyukt roop mein sanbandhatatv pruthak astitv rakhata hai. aadhunik aarya, cheeni aadi bhaashaaeain isi koti ki hain. sanskrut ke avvaya, aadhunik aaryabhaashaaon ke parasang iske udaaharan hai. yatha san. iti evam, ch aadi, hindi ko, se, ka, ki, ke, mein par aur, jab, aadi. cheeni mein aise vyaakaranik shabdon ko rikt ya arthaheen kaha jaata hai. yatha- tsi (ka), mu (ko), sung (ki). sambandh roop ka bodh sur ya balaaghaat se bhi hota hai. cheeni, afreeki bhaashaaon mein is udaaharan ki bahulata hai. angreji kandakt, kandekt, huo (prem) cheeni. iske antargat shabdakram bhi sanbandharoop ko prakat karta hai. udaaharanaarth, jin (bada aadmi), jint (aadmi bada hai.) ngotani (main tumhein maarta hooain) nitnmo-tum mujhe maarate ho.

is sabandhatatvon ke dvaara bhaasha ki vibhinn vyaakaranaatmak dhaaraaon ka nirdhaaran hota hai. inse hi bhaasha mein ling, vachan, kaarak, purush, kaal, prashn, nishedh aadi ki abhivyakti sambhav hoti hai. bhaashaashaastriyon ke mataanusaar in sabhi vyaakaranaatmak dhaaraaon ka prayog bhaasha ke uttarottar vikaas ke saath saath hua.

vibhktiyon ke dvaara vaakya mein prayukt shabdon mein paraspar sambandh ka nirdhaaran hota hai. praacheen aaryabhaashaaon mein aath vibhktiyaaain theen jinke ab keval avikaari aur vikaari, do hi roop shesh milte hain. vikaari mein svat: prayog ki kshamata naheen hoti. uske saath parasarg ke yog se sabandh prakat hota hai. (yatha hindi, ghodon ne, putron ko aadi). vibhinn kaarakasabandhon ke spashteekaran ke liye bhaasha mein parasarg va pripojishn ka vikaas hua. is prakaar bhaasha mein puraani vyaakaranaatmak dhaaraaon ka hraas hota rahata hai aur nai dhaaraaeain is abhaav ki poorti karti chalti hain. hindi ki kriyaaon mein bhi lingabhed milta hai. anya aadhunik aaryabhaashaaon mein yeh pravrutti naheen pai jaati. hindi mein lingaprayog sambandhi yeh vishesh vyaakaranik dhaara hai. bhaasha ki ye sookshm dhaaraaeain ek doosare se bhinn hoti hain. iseeliye ek bhaasha ka doosari bhaasha mein anuvaad karna saral kaarya naheen hota. uparyukt vivechan se spasht hai ki vyaakaranik dhaaraaeain svabhaavasiddh evam tarkasangat naheen hain. inka vikaas sthoolata se sookshmata ki or hua hai. is aadhaar par yeh nishkarsh bhi nikaala gaya hai ki aviksit bhaashaaeain sthool aur viksit sookshm roop ki parichaayak hain.

sandarbh

  1. bhola naath tivaari, bhaasha vigyaan, pru-240

baahari kadiyaaain