padaarth vigyaan

padaarth vigyaan ek bahuvishyak kshetr hai jismein padaarth ke vibhinn gunon ka adhyayan, vigyaan evam takaneeki ke vibhinn kshetron mein iske prayog ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. ismein praayogik bhautik vigyaan aur rasaayanashaastr ke saath-saath raasaayanik, vaidyut, yaantrik aur dhaatukarm abhiyaantriki jaise vishyon ka samaavesh hota hai. nainotakaneeki aur nainosaains mein upayojata ke kaaran, vartamaan samay mein vibhinn vishvavidyaalayon, prayogashaalaaon aur sansthaanon mein ise kaafi mahatva mila hai.

itihaas

maanav sabhyata ke vikaas ke vibhinn charanon ke naam praaya:us yug vishesh mein pramukhata se prayukt hone vaale padaarth ke naam par rakhe jaate hain, udaaharanaarth :- paashaan yug,kaansya yug, lauh yug, silikaan yug ityaadi. padaarth vigyaan aabhiyaantriki aur prayukt vigyaan ki sabse praacheen vidhaaon mein se ek hai. aadhunik padaarth vigyaan ka vikaas dhaatu vigyaan se hua hai. 19veen shataabdi mein padaarth ke vyavahaar ko samajhne mein ek badi saflata tab haasil hui jab vilrd Gibbs ne yeh dikhaaya ki padaarthon ke gun unke vibhinn avasthaaon ki aanavik sanrachana se sambandhit ushmaagatik gunon par nirbhar karte hain. vartamaan yug mein padaarth vigyaan ke teevr vikaas ke peechhe antariksh spardha ka yogadaan hai. antariksh yaatraaon ko safal banaane mein vibhinn mishradhaatuon aur doosare padaarthon ki khoj ne pramukh bhumika nibhaayi. padaarth vigyaan ke vikaas ne plastic, ardhachaalak aur jaivaraasaayanik takaneekon ke vikaas mein aur in takaneekon ne padaarth vigyaan ke vikaas mein yogadaan diya. saath ke dashak ke pehle tak padaarth vigyaan vibhaagon ko dhaatukarm vibhaag kaha jaata tha, kyonki 19veen sadi aur 20veen sadi ke praarambhik dinon mein dhaatvik padaarthon ke vikaas par jyaada jor diya jaata tha. is kshetr ke viksit hone se iske antargat doosare padaartho yatha : ardhachaalak, chumbakeeya padaarth, siremik, jaiv-padaarth, chikitsakeeya padaarth ityaadi ka adhyayan hone laga.

mool avadhaaranaayein

padaarth vigyaan mein avyavasthit dhag se naye padaarthon ko khojane aur upayog karne ke bajaay padaarth ko maulik rup se samajhne ka prayaas kiya jaata hai. padaarth vigyaan ke sabhi prabhaagon ka moolasiddhaant kisi padaarth ke ichhit gunon ko usaki avasthaaon aur aanavik sanrachana mein charitragat antarsanbandh sthaapit karna hota hai. kisi bhi padaarth ki sanrachana (ataev uske gun) uske raasaayanik ghatakon par aur prasanskaran ki vidhi par nirbhar karti hai. raasaayanik saghatan, prasanskaran aur ushmaagatiki ke siddhaant padaarth ki sookshmasarachana nirdhaarit karte hain. padaarth ke gun aur unki sookshmasarachana mein seedha sabandh hota hai. padaarth vigyaan mein ek ukti prachalit hai,"padaarth logon ki tarah hote hain, unki kamiyaaain hi unhein majedaar banaati hain." kisi bhi padaarth ke dosharahit kristal ka nirmaan asambhav hai. lihaaja padaarthavijnyaaani kristal doshon (rikti, prakshep, visthaapak anu ityaadi) ko aavashyakataanusaar niyantrit kar ke manachaahe padaarth banaate hain.

baahari kadiyaaain